Note for BIOLOGY 113 with Professor Ding at OSU
Note for BIOLOGY 113 with Professor Ding at OSU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Biology 113 AU2011 Lecture 1 Introduction Chemical Context of Life Some fundamental properties of life Levels of biological organization Energy conversion is key to life Biological structure fits function Cells are an organism s base units of structure and function The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA Emergent properties Systems biology The evolutionary view of life Biologists use two forms of inquiry to study life Chemical context of life matter elements and compounds The building materials of life FFEIPTWPPQP A few tips What I am Your coach My goal To coach you develop skills to see the big picture forest of some fundamental biological concepts so that you can study and appreciate the details individual trees Why This will help your learning of biology and hopefully also other subjects in and beyond your college life Exam Basic content knowledge Application of basic knowledge to solve specific problems Unifying principles of topics Covers lectures Questions from nonlecture contents in the textbook for extra credits Office hours 11301230 Monday Special appointments Email ding35osuedu Phone 2476077 Use Review Sheets to be posted on Carmen A Some Fundamental Properties of Life Response to the environment Evolutionary adaptation Reproduction qGrowth and rocessin p g u development A4 Cuyyld39ll mu pammmem 1m wbmg as Pemun emzmm Cnmmmgs B Levels of Biological Organization Fromthe biosphere to molecules The biosphere 0 Cells oorgans and 1 13quotquot organ systems Cell arganelles ocummunities 1 o Tissues so um oPopulations oMolecules grganisms C Energy Conversion Is Key to Life Figure 15 0 Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air and release E oxygen D Biological Structure Fits Function Figure 17 so 1 a Wings b Bones lnfoldings of membrane Mitochondria c Neurons d Mitochondria E Cells Are an Organism s Basic Units of Structure and Function The cell Is die lowest level of olganization am can pelfon39n all activities iequiied fm life Figure 19 Division ofa newt lung cell 25 Pm l l F The Continuity of Life Is Based on Heritable Information in the Form of DNA Sperm cell Figure 110 Nuclei quot containing DNA quot 7777 yV39 Fertilized egg Embryo s cells With With DNA from copies of inherited DNA Egg b th Parents offspring with traits inherited from both parents Nucleotide 39 Cell Figure 111 a DNA double helix b Single strand of DNA G Emergent Properties 0 A System Is a combination of components that form a more complex organization 0 The Emergent Properties of Systems Due to increasing complexity new properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order H Systems Biology Automatic DNA sequencing machines and vast computing power made sequencing of genomes from human and other organisms possible Figure 112 Human Genome Sequencing 513 my 7 4 44 5 at 5quotquotquotquot39quot w 39lilj Tj 1 WWMM 9mm Rand Drum mum m EM munmu Tm Signnu of 0 Human Gumm ProteinProtein Interaction Map A system map of nteractwons among 2346 protems m a mt y Dlosopma meanogaslel Outer membrane and cell Surface The Evolutionary View of Life The evolutionaryview of life mme into focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin published On the Origin ofSpecies by NaturuISelection The Origin of Species Articulated Two Main Points Descent with modification Natural selection Figure The Tree of Life I All of life is connected through its long evolutionary history 533ng Ge 5 Famll Grier r Jive UISLIS amencanus 39 Amerlcan black bear Biologists Use Two Main Forms of Inquiry to Study Life Discovery science Describing nature Hypothesisbased science Explaining nature Theories in Science A scientific theory 7 Is broad in scope 7 Generates new hypotheses 7 Is supported by a large body of evidence s3 Limitations of Science Jane Goodall Studies chimpanzee behavior Science cannot address supernatural phenomena Because hypotheses must be testable and falsi able and experimental results must be repeatable K Chemistry Context of Life Matter Elements and Compounds The Building Materials of Life Biology is a multidisciplinary science Organisms are composed of matter which is anything that takes up space and has mass Matter is made up of elements An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions A compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements in a xed ratio A compound has characteristics different 39om those of its elements r 1 Living organisms are 1 subject to the basic laws 4 39 of physics and chemistry Sudium Chluride Sudium Chluride Table 1 Elements in the Human Body Percentage of Body Mass Element Symbol including water Oxygen o 650 Carbon C 185 963 Hydrogen H 95 Nilrogen N 33 Calcium Ca 15 Phosphorus P 10 Potassium llt D 4 Sulfur S 03 37 Sodium Na 02 Chlorine Cl 02 Magnesium Mg 01 Trace elements less than 001 of mass Boron a chromium Cr cobalt Co copper Cu fluorine F iodine i iron Fe manganese Mn molybdenum Mo selenium Se silicon Si in Sn vanadium V Zinc Zn Structure of Atoms The Simple Truth of Life Each element 7 Consists ofa unique atom An atom 7 Is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Atoms are composed of subatomic particles Relevant subatomic particles include 7 Neutrons no electrical charge 7 Protons positive charge 7 Electrons negative charge 10 A simple View of Atomic Structure 0 Neutrons and protons form the atomic nucleus 0 Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus 0 Neutron mass and proton mass are almost identical and are measured in daltons Cloud of negative charge 2 electrons Electrons Nucleus a The Energy Levels of Electrons 0 Energy is the capacity to cause change 0 Potential energy is the energy that matter has because of its location or structure 0 The electrons of an atom differ in their amounts of potential energy 0 An electron s state of potential energy is called its energy level7 or electron shell 11 Fig 28 q aA ball bouncing down a flight q of stairs provides an analogy 1 for energy levels of electrons O Third shell highest energy level Second shell higher energy level Energy absorbed First shell lowest energy level Atomic nucleus b The chemical behavior of an atom is mostly determined by the valence electrons Valence electrons are those in the outermost shell7 or valence shell 0 Elements with a full valence shell ie in which all electrons are p 12 Electron Configuration and Chemical Properties The eiiemieai behavior of an atomis de nedby its electron con guration and distribution The periodic table ofthe elements showsthe electron distribution for all the elements Atomic mass shell Incomplete valence shell at least one electron is impaired chemically active Atom ic num ber Elem ent symbol Electron distribution diagram Complete or mll valence shell all electrons are paired are chemically inert 13
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