Note for HDFS 361 with Professor Wolfe at OSU 02
Note for HDFS 361 with Professor Wolfe at OSU 02
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Chapter 2 Biological Beginnings I What is the Evolutionary perspective a Natural selection and Adaptive behavior 1 Natural selection is the evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the ones that survive and reproduce i Charles Darwin On the Origin ofSpecies 1859 Adaptive Behavior is behavior that promotes an organisms survival in the natural habitat i EX Attachment between a caregiver and a baby ensures the infant s closeness to a caregiver for feeding and protection from danger thus increasing the infant s chances for survival b Evolutionary Psychology 1 3 11 What Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of adaptation reproduction and survival of the ttest in shaping behavior i Fit refers to the ability to produce offspring that survive long enough to produce offspring of their own David Buss argues that just as evolution shapes our physical features such as body shape and height it also pervasiver in uences our decision making our degree of aggression our fears and our mating patterns Bidirectional view environmental and biological conditions in uence each other are the genetic foundations of development a The Collaborative Gene 1 3 The nucleus of each human cell contains chromosomes which are threadlike structures made up of DNA which is a complex molecule that has a doublehelix shape like a spiral staircase and contains genetic information Genes are the units of hereditary information that are short segments of DNA They direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins which are the building blocks of cells as well as the regulators that direct the body s processes The human genome is the complete set of developmental instructions for creating proteins that initiate the making of a human organism b Genes and Chromosomes 1 All cells in the body except the sperm and egg have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs These cells reproduce by a process called mitosis During mitosis the cell s nucleus including the chromosomes duplicates itself and the other cell divides Two new cells are formed each containing the same DNA as the original cell arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes Meiosis is different type of cell division in which forms eggs and sperm or gametes During this process a cell of the testes or ovaries duplicates its chromosomes but then divides twice thus forming four cells each of which has only half of the genetic material of the parent cell By the end of meiosis each egg or sperm has 23 unpaired chromosomes During fertilization an egg and sperm fuse to create a single cell called a zygote In the zygote the 23 unpaired chromosomes from the egg combine with the 23 unpaired chromosomes from the sperm to form one set of 23 paired chromosomes one chromosome of each pair from the mother the other from the father Each parent contributes half i Females 23rd chromosome consists of two X chromosomes ii Males have an X and Y chromosome The Y signi es male c Sources of Variability l The combination of genes on each chromosome from the mother and father produce a truly unique combination of genes 2 Identical monozygotic twins develop from a single zygote that splits into two genetically identical replicas each becoming a person 3 Fraternal dizygotic twins develop from separate eggs and separate sperm making them genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings 4 A mistake by cellular machinery or damage form an environmental agent such as radiation may produce a mutated gene which is a permanently altered segment of DNA 5 All of a person s genetic material makes up his or her genotype Not all aspects of a person s genotype is observable 6 A phenotype consists of observable characteristics physical height weight hair color and psychological personality characteristics i The two can affect each other called heredityenvironment interaction or gene environment interaction d Genetic Principles 1 Dominant recessive gene principle one gene of a pair always exerts its effects it is dominant overriding the potential in uence of the other gene called the recessive gene A recessive gene exerts its in uence only if both genes are recessive 2 Sexlinked genes i When a mutated gene is carried on the X chromosome the result is called X linked inheritance This is a larger problem in males because they only have one X chromosome therefore may carry an Xlinked disease Females with one changed copy of the X gene are known as carriers Ex Hemophilia and fragile X syndrome 3 Genetic imprinting occurs when genes have differing effects depending on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father A chemical process silences one member of the gene pair 4 Polygenic Inheritance i Few characteristics re ect the in uence of only a single gene or pair of genes Most are determined by the interaction of many different genes they are said to be polygenically determined ii Gene gene interaction is used to describe studies that focus on the interdependence of two or more genes in in uencing characteristics behavior diseases and development e Chromosomal and Genelinked abnormalities 1 Chromosomal abnormalities sperm and ovum do not have their normal set of 23 chromosomes i Down syndrome characterized by a round face a attened skull an extra fold of skin over the eyelids a protruding tongue short limbs and retardation of motor 2 and mental abilities Caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 l in 700 births More likely in older women it Sex linked chromosomal abnormalities presence of an extra chromosome either X or Y or the absence of one X in females a Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome making them XXY instead of XY Have undeveloped testes enlarged breasts and taller Impairment in language academic attentional and motor abilities I in 800 male births b Fragile X syndromeis a genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome which becomes constricted and often breaks Children with this disorder often appear normal although they typically have a long face a higharched palate and soft skin Mental retardation a learning disability or a short attention span More frequent in males 0 Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing making the person XO instead of XX or part of one X chromosome is deleted Short in stature and have a webbed neck Might be infertile or have difficulty in mathematics 1 in every 2500 females births al XXY syndrome chromosomal disorder in which the male has an extra Y chromosome No more aggressive than other males Genelinked abnormalities harmful genes 7000 identified most rare 139 Phenylketonuria PKU an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine an amino acid It results from a recessive gene 1 in every 10000 to 20000 births Easily detected Treated by a diet If left untreated mental retardation and hyperactivity NonLatino whites accounts for 1 of mental retardation in institutionalized individuals Nature v nurture issue it Sickle cell anemia occurs most often in African Americans Genetic disorder that impairs the body s red blood cells Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body s cells and are usually shaped like a disk In this a recessive gene causes the red blood cell to become hook shaped that cannot carry oxygen properly and dies quickly As a result the body s cells do not receive adequate oxygen causing anemia and early death iii Cystic fibrosis diabetes hemophilia spina bifida Taysachs Chart on page 70 HI What are some reproductive challenges and choices a Prenatal diagnostic tests 1 2 Ultrasound technology is a prenatal medical procedure in which highfrequency waves are directed into the pregnant women s abdomen Creates a visual representation of the fetus s inner structures Can detect fetal abnormalities number of fetuses and sex No harm Taken 7 weeks and at other points during the pregnancy Fetal MRI brain imaging used to diagnose fetal malformations Uses powerful magnets and radio images to generate detailed images of the body s organs and structure More detailed than ultrasounds Second step Chorionic Villus Sampling CVS is aprenatal medical procedure in which a sample of the placenta is removed Detects genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities Small risk of limb deformity 95125 weeks Amniocentesis prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic uid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal and metabolic disorders More accurate the later performed 1420 weeks Small risk of miscarriage Maternal Blood Screening identi es pregnancies that have an elevated risk for birth defects such as spina bifida and Down syndrome The current test is called the triple screen because it measures three substances in the mother s blood 1618 weeks Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis WIPD focuses on the isolation and examination of fetal cells circulating in the mother s blood and analysis of cellfree fetal DNA in maternal plasma Detect sex as early as 5 weeks Controversial adds to mothers motivation to terminate a pregnancy b Infertility and Reproductive technology 1 1015 of couples in the US experience infertility which is the inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without contraception Problems can rest within the male or female 2 In vitro fertilization I VF 39 eggs and a sperm are combined in a laboratory dish then transferred into the woman s uterus Success depends on mother s age 0 Adoption 1 Adoption is the social and legal process by which a parentchild relationship is established between persons unrelated at birth i Children adopted earlier in life are more likely to have positive outcomes than those adopted later in life ii Adopted children are more likely to have psychological and schoolrelated problems More behavior problems more likely to have learning disabilities use drugs and engage in illicit behavior iii No differences in antisocial behavior between adopted and not IV How do heredity and environment interact The naturenurture debate a Behavior Genetics 1 The field that seeks to discover the in uence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development i Does not determine the extent to which genetics or the environment affects an individual s traits ii What is responsible for the differences among people Twin study studies the behavioral similarity of identical twins and compares it with the behavior similarities of fraternal twins Adoption study investigators seek to discover whether the behavior and psychological characteristics of adopted children are more like those of their adoptive parents who have provided a home environment or more like those of their biological parents who have contributed to their heredity b HeredityEnvironment Correlations individuals genes may in uence the types of environments to which they are exposed 1 Passive genotype environment correlation correlations that exist when the biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child i Ex They are skilled readers so they provide the child with books to read therefore the child will most likely become a skilled reader ii More common in the lives of infants and young children 2 Evocative genotype environmental correlations correlations that exist when a child s characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments 139 Ex Smiling children receive more social stimulation than quiet children Active niche picking genotype environment correlations correlations that exist when children seek out environments they nd compatible and stimulating i Niche picking refers to nding a setting that is suited to one s abilities ii Ex Outgoing children seek out social contexts in which to interact with others 0 Shared and nonshared environmental experiences 1 Shared environmental experiences are siblings common experiences such as their parents personalities or intellectual orientation the family s socioeconomic status and the neighborhood in which they live Nonshared environmental experiences are a child s unique experiences both within the family and outside the family that are not shared with a sibling i Heredity in uences the nonshared environments of siblings d The Epigenetic View and Gene x Environment G x E Interaction 1 Epigenetic view emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment 139 Heredity and environment operate together to collaborate or produce a person s intelligence temperament height weight ability to read etc Genetic x environment G x E interaction the interaction of a speci c measured variation in the DNA and a speci c measured aspect of the environment 139 Pharmogenetics study of geneenvironment interaction involving the individuals genotype and drug treatment a Are certain drugs more dangerous is the genotype is known 6 Conclusions about Heredityenvironment interaction 1 Heredity and environment make up an individuals behavior
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