Note for MICRBIOL 509 at OSU
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
Reviews for Note for MICRBIOL 509 at OSU
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 02/06/15
EXAM 1 Chapter I The Microbial World and You What is a Microorganism o Microbe or microorganismmicroscopic living cells o Microorganism any living cell that is too small to seen by naked eye Ex Need a microscope to view organism some need electron or different types o Group of Microorganisms Are both prokaryotic and eukaryotic at l A U Tlly r 1 l 1 1 E 0 Only two groups Bacteria and Archae o Archae are separated from bacterial cells they were called archaebacteria 1 x mm Ful ll a H o Eukaryotic have true nucleus 0 Prokaryotic don t even have true nucleous they have a nucleoid o Virus microscopic or microorganism They are neither eukaryotic or prokaryotic Not even considered to be cells sometimes They are classified as parasites or macromolecules 0 Mad Cow Disease caused by like a virus like molecule 0 Border of living and non living o Unicellular or Multi cellular Microorganisms can be both 0 Llwi39 quot unicellular microbes Microbes and diseases o Bacteria cause infections and food spoilage 0 Difference between infectious and disease 0 Infectious pathogenic fungi Influenza Humans Animals Plants Not Infectious Alzheimer Genetic or Immunology disorder Food Spoilage Cookie doughsalmonella Meat products e coli 0 Microbes can cause food spoilage Many bacteria and fungi O O o Microbe some are harmless non pathogens 0 Ex Flu Virus some will suffer some will not get sick because it is the same virus that is pathogenic to human beings because some get infected and some don t Depends m i l Mir M ii m 39 i u i i l lifestyle etc o Immune Innatewhat were born with and Adaptiveenvironment 39 Pathogen that causes infection 0 Ex Salmonella food poisioning 0 Ex Ecoli diarrhea Microbes and Human diseases 0 1 Fill Ell s quot w 39 causes anthrax Produces endospores that cannot be killed by boiling uv etc causes food poisioning Produces very potent toxin that causes botuism Tip of a needle amount of toxin can make thousands of people sick Bioterrorism Botox toxin from botuinum acts on the nervous system getting rid of wrinkles Amount of toxin is very small so it is controlable 11 l l is C Ziii39iilc7 ziii v 0 They were microbes that were resistant in the past a lot of competition among microbes such as fungus secreting penicillum by killing the bacteria so it can use all the enviroments nutrients for itself 0 Antibiotics were produced by other microbes to survive in nature but some bacteria survived Natural selection 0 Different bacteria were becoming slowly resistant 0 But because we are overusing them now there is a resistant bacteria now 0 When immune system cannot control that s when you need the antibiotics But if immune system down it s a lost cause w 1 l l 3 new diseases and diseases increasing in incidence o Swine Flu Avian Influenza A caused by Influenza A virus MRSA Meticillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus West Nile Encephalitis caused by West Nile Virus Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy caused by a prion Escherichia coli 0157H7 bad e coli unlike digestive e coli Ebola Bird Flu Some diseases remain restricted to areas but because of travel diseases spread very easily 0 Humans encroaching some of the areas that are for animals like forests we are in contact with some of their diseases Microbes and Human Life o 1 Recycling of chemical elements m o Bacteria recycle Nitrogen Nitrogen present in air cannot be used by plants it needs to be converted to other products such as ammonia or nitrite quot 39 I quot 39 39 in it O O O O O O O Fin 139 all l39l Ev giii39iiriva i it Q Recycle Carbon Sulfur etc o quot 3quot 411W 1 it ll u T f 1ij 35 i Iquot jllLlE quot 3 L M Sli L quot1 31 i 0 Lots of different type of bacteria are used water and sewage are separated and bacteria treat water to free toxins clean up remove pollution by using biological microbe sprayed on oil spill Uses as its own food This strain does not cause disease in aquatic life or humans But sometimes it v quotiw and it can disturb the ecosystem We have to control it when it is degrading oil 0 m 0 Ex Bp oil spill If oil spills on water then chemicals are used but chemicals are toxic to aquatic life And you cannot remove them from water So microorganisms are used to remove oil But spill was too big so bioremediation was not used 4 ij m l o m pesticide to kill insects to save crops Could also have caused cancer in humans 0 Bacteria can be used instead 0 39 7 good bacterium does not cause diseases in human and animals but kills insects Insects cannot digest these bacterial proteins 5 1 wt vinegar wine beer cheese yogurt bread pickles o ability of bacteria and fungi can ferment some food products 0 Alcoholic beverages o 1 are 3 to or 3 397 i beer fermenting to yeast cells Wine 0 Bacteria also used in some breweries Tequila 0 Product dependent on microbe o Distinct flavor and taste 6 397 growth hormones etc eg Insulin 0 Blood sugar diabetes need insulin which used to come from animals get insulin from their pancreas But we had to sacrifice so many c m quot m a toinsulin 0 Proteins enzymes hormones 0 Human growth hormone gene is extracted and put into bacteria 0 Mutation in gene can lead to certain disorders 0 Take healthy form of gene and give to virus Then virus goes there Ti iiquot lclrci Ll wt kfia i i l s i vquoti l u o39 it i ll w ll i 1151 l T l Lot of challenges but some are used iquot 39quotl39l39ll39 H 3 miygrcr o Genome of human cell has been mapped o Miamin mm la my in database 0 Compare the genes from pathogenic bacteria to non pathogenic bacteria 0 Good e coli and bad e coli ll t f How to properly write the scientific name of a microorganism o Bacillus genus o anthracisspecies c Any given genus there can me multiple species o Always capitalize first letter of genus o Either underline the text or italics or use o Bacillus anthracis wrongone continuous underline its wrong it should be separated and underlined like Bacillus anthracis o You need to completely write the name before you start abbreviation o Some bacterial names may be descriptive or honor a scientist A Brief History of Microbiology A Brief History of Microbiology EXAM 1 Ch 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic cells Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells o Prokaryote comes from greek word for prenucleus o Eukaryote comes from greek word for true nucleus Proka ryote and Eukaryote Circular chromosome not in membrane No histone No organelles Peptidoglycan cell wall Binary fission O O O O O Paired chromosomes in nuclear membrane Histones present Organelles Polysaccharide cells walls 0 Mitosis Basic ShapesMorphology o Rod shaped SingleBacillus o pluralBacilli o Single bacteria a bacterium o Spherical Coccus o Singlecocci o Twodiplococci O Q o Spiral 0 Spirillum more like wave structure 0 Vibrio sausage shaped structure like a curved rod 0 O O O o P o Spirochete cork screwed shaped structure 0 Unusual Shapes of Bacteria o Starshaped o Rectangle o Hyphal Filamentous bacteria shaped like fungus Bacteria Arrangement o Pairs Diplococci diplobacilli 0 Two bacteria together right next to each other 0 74 o Chains Streptococci streptobacilli o Cocci and bacilli in a chain 0 Ex Strep throat caused by a streptococci M g Slrepiobacll O Slrepiococcl o Clusters Staphylococci o Remain in clusters 0 Only for cocci 0 0 Coccus can be divided into any parts has many different axis But rod shaped only have two axis 0 Tetrads packet of four 0 Sarchinae packet of 8 o More than 8 bacteria in a cluster staphylo Monomorphic vs Pleomorphic o Monomorphic V l 2 throughout lifetime 0 Rhizobiumrod curved comma shape like letter Y o Corynebacterium o Bacteria change shaped based on environmental conditions Significance of Size o Typical size of prokaryote vs typical eukaryote o 12 um vs 10100 um o 1 um 10e6 m o Largest bacterium known o Need microscope to observe snngle mcroscope but can see a colony of bacteria with the naked eye o Advantage of small size Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic Cells A Glycocalyx Slimy o Outside cell wall o Usually sticky o Composition o Lots of sugars 1 m n m y W rl n V H u H ul539 aa am 3 r 5 g o rigid structure very organized capsuleoutside like time capsule outside is hard and organized o slimy structure very loosely cover slime layer inside time capsule everything will be mushy o Functions of Glycocalyx o Slime layer allows cells to attach everything is stuck togethere insideyucky o Biofilm formation slime from one bacteria attaches other bacteria withwithout slime layer attaches all microbes than attach causing problems x 4 g 2 u 2 3 m quoti l39 pl 291 3920 I If bacterium or virus enters yours body your body will deploy white blood cells so they can eat the virus called phagocytosis Capture these microbes and eat them V 39 g f 39 sticky sugars when bacteria start starving they use capsules or slime layer as source of energy mo 1quotquot m gquot B Cell wall o 1 Function prevents osmotic lysis rigidity shape o Not involved in transport of nutrientswal against letting shit go through a 2 Composition and Structure G Peptidoglycan P 1 i g 0 Put in a row in a alternate fashion 0 From each NAM there is a hanging chain and that is called tetrapeptide side chains 2 Tetrapeptide side chains o 3 Peptide cross bridges blue color connect hanging chains put rows 1 and 2 together Form between 2 different rows not on same row Hanging chains NAM l39ulv IpIpIHII elm lulu Fami Cl39Gll hrldgl Clrbohydlatl quotblribuns 39 Nlnorqulucosm WAG HIcntyimumml ICld MAIN j Emutruln umlna IL C Cramtunic mum acid I 51mlth of poplidaglyan HI gumpth baam o Penicillin destroys cell wall by breaking down cross bridges Two Types of Cell Walls in Prokaryotes o I Q l i uti 1341 5139 J39 5 Cs39l g g39h 39i 2 Gram is the scientist who introduced a staining procedure for bacteria called gram staining o Some become purple Some become pink Color depends on amount of peptidoglycan present 1 o A Thick layers of PG multiple 1012 layers 0 B J 39 m39 give negative to charge to bacterial cell wall to attract cations like Na etc alcohol glycerol plus phosphate 0 May regulate movement of cations 0 Provide antigenic variation II 39t x A 5 ii 0 0 1 x T 2 Gramnegative Gm cell walls 0 a ll L lt o l w Jlquot H o c Outer membrane still part of cell wall 0 Made up of lipopolysaccharides LPS layer 0 LPS O polysaccharide Lipid A o Lipid A endotoxin it is crucial it is considered to be toxic Infections caused in humans are by gram negative bacteria because of lipid A When these bacteria are killed Lipid A is released How our body responds to Lipid A it makes it toxic Body produces lots of inflammation v 23 layers Cant kill gram negative because of outer membrane Atypical Cell Walls o Three types Gram positive gram negative acid fast 39 4 quot lll o No outer membrane 0 Has peptidoglycan 0 Has waxy lipid mycolic acid which is not present in the other grams and they bind to peptidoglycan in acidfast cell walls quotI r39w l ll39fz39 1 iisz 5 l 1 3th l 395 7 i v 3271 lir ll 7 o More resistanat Acid FastgtGram negativegtGram positive j usually a problem 0 Filter sterilization remove all virus etc from liquid part 0 Mycoplasmas can twist and squeeze themselves through that filter 0 And now product is contaminated and cannot use gram staining because they have no cell wall 0 Sterols in plasma membrane c m o Are not bacteria but they are type Prokaryote cell 0 In their cells walls r w i u n i a m lack NAM and Damino acids C The Plasma Membrane or Cytoplasmic Membrane Membrane is viscous structure like olive oil Polar head Neupolar any acid halls Pulalr hemr quot h Lipid bilnyer a plasma membrane rd lam L l ll iiL i39T is selective permeability allows passage of some molecules Membrane decides if molecule decides to go in or not by size shape and electrical charge Bacteria do not have mitochondria Maximum ATP production is by enzymes in plasma membrane Enzymesmitochondria Some bacteria are photosynthetic their chlorophyll are located in plasma membrane Damage to the membrane by alcohols quaternatry ammoniumdetergents and polymyxin antibiotics causes leakage of cell contents Some bacteria attack cell membrane 4 Movement Across Plasma Membrane 39 v takes place along concentration gradient from high to low Don t really use extra energy to bring molecules inside 0 a Simple diffusion C02 02 o b Facilitaed diffusion Glycerol o c Osmosis water Plasma membrane 4 Inside 2 i u w move from low to high requires energy Takes place against gradient 0 A Active Transport 0 B Grooup Translocation Passive Transport o A m movement of a solute from an are of high concentration to an area of low concentration Through lipid bilayer 02 and C02 B 7 1 39 1 39 solute combines with a transporte protein in membrane cannot just enter through lipid bilayer need a protein to go through membrane For ex Glycerol uses facilitated diffusion Nonspecific llanaporlm Outside 0 Plasma mombmno I 0 lucid 390 m Facllllnledldlrl luslon Ihmugh n nonspeci c lungsonar n movement of water across a selectively o permeable membrane from an area of high water to an area of lower water concentration 0 Always moves where it tries to dilute the highly concentrated Glass tube 7 3 Rubber stopper 39 Rubber 7743 39 39 band 524 O 039 39 Sucrosee 7 39 q u molecqu I I F 3904 Cello bane r T 39 sack dg ff39 l w n h Wamr 39 L x I molecule m 7 7 In A beglmlng 91 camequot pressure axperlmnl O Osmolarity of the solution outside bacterial cells and its significance o Bacteria always have to face different conditions of solute concentrations o Isotonic conditions2 o Hypertonic conditions39 o 85 is the osmolarity inside cell c osmotic lysis under hypotonic conditions plasmolysis under hypertonic conditions Active Transport W Hum Fquot rwiw 139 3 35 H r o b Group translocation occurs only in bacteria only belongs to prokaryotic world o Bacteria cannot perform exocytosis and endocytosis o C Endocytosis eukaryotic cells take substance inside o D Exocytosis Molecule goes through this and enters cell c Phosphate group attaches to molecule O Dm39lm l m 51 439 046 D Flagella o 1 Movement or locomotion is function o 2 Made up of 3 parts Flagellum 9393quotquot Filament Hook 3 Basal body quot Paptldoglyct In Pam and attachment at a agellum oi gmmpoo lve hac lorlum i uii Juli mile Z i v o Flagella protein are H antigens e coli 0157H7 o 3 Flagellar arrangement on a bacterial cell surface 0 P r C W39Wl o rotate flagella run 0 unrotate flagella tumble o 5 M move toward nutrients or away from chemical 0 W was 15 move where light is o 6 Helicobacter pylori responsible for causing ulcers E Fimbriae and Pili o 1 Who has them 0 When flagella are absent some of them will o bacteria use this to attach intestinal tract Pathogenicfucker wont leave o gliding motility o twitching motility F Cytoplasm o No cytoskeleton o No membrane bound organelles o Do no exist in bacteria G Nucleoid o 1 Bacterial chromosome characteristics va39l Lg vi m o nucleus freely suspended in cytoplasm o no histones o circular DNA o haploid only one copy of gene o 2 Size and packaging supercoiling H Plasmids o 1 What are they 0 Only few bacteria will have plasmid DNA 0 Not associated with nucleoid chromosomal DNA mil i39llj llti i ii Iii l 5 fr iii 1 i39iivi wi L1 2 0 Do not depend on chromosomal DNA 0 Plasmid outside nucleoid 2 Advantages to bacteria 3 Transfer 1 Function 2 Compositonstructure 0 small subunit 305 large subunit 505 complete 705 ribosome humans have 805 55 at Small subuniii in Large subunit 2 Complete 0 705 ribosome o 3 Antibiotic effect on ribosomes J inclusionsstorage granules 1 Hg ug i ij ilip if l g r H5 if 4L i 5 o diagnostic use Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria causing diphtheria 0 used in diagnostic purpose scu 3mg u af storage site when they are present in 1913 locum most common found granules o PHB polyBhydroxybutyric acid 0 Granules are for energy Humans take these lipids from bacteria and synthesize 0 only bacteria that use sulfur use these granules O K Endospores o 1 Who produces 0 Made by a 39m 7 l 0 Needs some 200 plus genes to make endospores o 37 39139 Jim i pm quot2 i wattquot 7quot o 2 NOT reproductive Resting structures a 3 When are they produced a 4 How long can they survive 0 Can survive form a week to millions of years Formation of Endospores by Sporulation 0 Spam quotplum mum Ia Iuolala Cwnpl m newly mpllcmd DNA and l o F m um I u Small portion 04 c in lum umn Inn Ann I n n iurraun mu 393 a y P cylnplnm and mumbnnn inolamd in mp 1 Plasma mailman l Bacierinl chromomw COMM I Summation line process or andowam Mamallan 0 Snow plum Maloonas locum pomM Iormmg Imusme Two rimmhmnol Figun 411 o 5 Structure of a free endospore DPA o spore coat dipicolinic acid o 6 Germination o 7 Importance of endospores medically and in food processing 0 When you are performing surgery make sure everything is aseptic o If endospores survive when canning procedure occurs they can germinate and give rise to bacteria o 8 Destroying endospores o a John Tyndall and tyndallization boiling and incubating to kill endospores o b autoclave and pressure cooker cook something under pressure to create sterilization EXAM 1 9242mu2 27 Du PM ch 5 Micruhial Metah 39 m Enzymes Metahulism sum nf all chemical rea Metabnhsm 1 Anabuhsm make 2 cecabchsm break gcwn Metahulrc Reactinns A metebchc pathway rs a seguence gr enzymetrceuy cita vzed mamma reecucns m a ceu Whmh are getermrneg by enzymes a 1 Exergumcs cetebchc a 2 Enderuumcs anabnh Enzymes arcwggrcew cata vsts prgtem m ngtur2 gr RNA campgsmgn Reactan runs gm brurcn trmesrester Enzymes he u reactmns gc raster Energy Requirements nf a chemical Reactinn Enzymes runctmn by Dvyermu Antwaan energy AHDWmQ ma ecu es wrm Dvyer energy tg Wteract Antwannn energy rstne emcuntcr energy neegegrcr mamma reectmn m take mace Rununn Aulyalbou iwhhwunzvm ummy wuhuut enzyme emu new wlm my nunquot mm Remm new mu an gv leyu 0 Fwdms y Enzyme structure Hoioenzymecompiete structure of enzyme Suhl m coonzyine gt 1 Apuenzyme Culiclnr Hoioenzyine amiein nonprmeln whale ponmn panlcn enzyme Inactive acllvzlur anrlve 1 Apoenzvmer protein part major part inactive 2 Cofactorr non protein part activator a 1 Coenzvmes NAD FAD GOAquot a 2 Metai Ionsr rinorgamc Fe2 Mg2 Mn2 a Why do We eat vitamins frorn vegetabies7 Many of these coenzyrnes are made from Vitamins if you have vitamin deficiencv then oofactors not function properiy enzvme doesn39t Work properw rnetabohsrn doesn t Work Mechanism of Enzymatic Ac Active Sit ofenzyrne Enzvmer sustrate cornpiex Speci citv of active Site quotOrganic sunim rv Emw mum Relationship between Enzyme structure And Function Primarvsecondarv tertiarv quaternarv structure of an enzvme change of enzvme shape change of active siterdenaturation Active site is a 3 dimensicnai structure nct bassibie ta term in primary structure and secnndary because it is a cbain Bf aminc acids in primary structure Denaturecaicss nfshape ctactive site As tertiary structure untcics Enzymatic active site is nut in brcber sbabe Tertiary structurea hydrngen bands are naming gicbuiar farm Factors affecting enxyniatic ac Ivlty Temperature pH Substrate ccncentraticn inbibitcrs Effect of temperature on Enzyme Actimty mmne quotin iaismunumts KMIHL numeric inem ImymuInciwulwhh mwn ni Inwvmwlml llhww Inhibitors Cambetitiveinbibiticn Nan Dumpetitive inbibiticn Enzyme lrll39l tnr Campet e lnhib Campetitive inbibitcr biccks active site sc substrate cannct bind Targetctsuitur ceiis cc nc Exist in buman Enzymes Oniy targets n bacteria and kiHs tnem Campe ve manna Enzyme xhhmms Nun campemme xhhmmeh AHDStEHc a xhhmm bmds m eeemeh DH enzvme bmdstu aHDstEH sth eheheme me shape ufthe actva 5th M2ta Che atnr a Manv Enzvmes reqmre ccfactur Che atnr bmd m mete mhs andtake them awav fmm Enzvmes mhmmne the mhmeh Bf Enzvmes a Mercury stuwc because m can mhmmme amwtv m dwerem Enzvmes Allend 23quot Nun cumwbllve mummy mu m EXAM 1 9242mu2 27 Du PM OwdmunsReducu an Reactmns 1 Owdatmnsmsee 2 Redumunruam e 3 Reddxcuumed reactmnss dyrdaudrr and reductan 4 Dehvdmgenatmns Dss dr H and Drnmn Reduced EDmDDundS as sduree dr enerdy Metabdhsm Suurce er Energy Phntntrnuhsn22d sunhuht ys Chemmrnuhs use ehemreays as energy a Sunhuht carbdhydrates trprds Pmtems Inuruam EDWDDundS Metabdhsm Mechamsms Three Mechamsmstu extant eredmrrs and Energy frdm the substrate a Aerubm Resprratrdrr a Anaembm Resmraunn a Fermentatmns ndtthe same as anaembm resurratrdrr x cluense Metahnlism by nernhie Resniralinn tn study Q UEDSE metabdhsm uses dxyderrtd Extract enerdy rrnm the bands cuntamed m Q uEDSE ma ew es c Hyzo 602 acoz 6H20 asATP 1r Dmkarvdtes aH errerdy rrdm a Q uEDSE ma ecu e rs used 9 3E ATP 1r eukarymes SEATP 3 stages a G ycn yswsEMPs EDmmDntD resmratmn and fermentaan a Kreb s cydera a Hectan transpdrt chem mun G l n In immmon inc pymvlc acid and in eiecirons canlea by mum Plum giycalysis are illuminated l lo lemunmlan co endowsma Key Concept 10 groom nuns imm glucose mlmlm in two general pmsses Eleclum msphullun and Wnnuuam hum1 GB Bolh unn y lh wllh chain Ind giyeoiyais but allow chemlolmniii m ll lnnl sumac a n Aerobic Respira on m study glucose metabolism Uses oxygen m extract energy from the bonds oomained in glucose molecules If all energy from a glucose molecule is used gt 38 ATP 3 stages 0 GlycolysisEMP o Kreb s Cycle 0 Electron transport chain 1 Glycolysis splitting glucosequot Break down glucose into pyruvams pyruvic acids 7 2 molecules Embden Meyerhof Parnas Padiway a EMP r named afmr diem 0 Does not require oxygen but can occur in the presence or the absence of oxygen 0 This is used to begin the breakdown of glucose it is a stepwise breakdown but is called incomplete o Incomplete because there is further oxidation required in order to release all the energy in the molecule 0 Produces o 2 Pyruvic Acid 0 2 ATP by substrate level phosphorylation o 2 NADH the reducing agent to be used later 0 Substrate level phosphorylation NOTE Basic principle of metabolism whenever a substance is oxidized as a result of the lost of electrons the chemical bonds in glucose become unstable they then break down and the energy in the hchemical bonds is released oxidation of glucose degradation of glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 1 A l v 2 NADH o The Role of ATP 0 Currency of energy energy is held within the phosphate bonds 0 Structure of ATP 0 Adenine o Ribose o Phosphate groups inorganic 0 Synthesis of ATP o Substrate level energy from an exergonic reaction 0 ex glycolysis o Oxidative level energy from proton motive force 0 ex Electron transport chain c Photophosphorylation when sunlight is involved 0 ex Photosynthesis 0 Electron Carriers NAD NADP FAD o In their oxidized forms NADH NADPH FADH2 o In their reduced form they carry electrons to the ETC 0 Alternate Pathways Why 9 Based on the enzymes that the bacteria contain o EntnerDoudoroff Pathway ED 0 Converts glucose to 2 pyruvic acid molecules producing 1 ATP The ATP yield is less Bacteria using this beginning step as the initial step for glucose breakdown will grow a little slowly there is a relation between ATP release and bacterial growth will take long to appear as colonies on the Petri dish o Why 9 Based on the enzymes that the bacteria contain o Ex Pseudomonas Pentose Phosphate Pathway PPP o Break down glucose pentose sugars Yield is 1 ATP o Why do bacteria that have enzymes to do EMP do this 0 Amphibolic pathway it can contribute to both catabolism and anabolism Ribose5phosphate 9 Nucleic acids anabolic Erythrose phosphate catabolic 2 Kreb s CycleTricarboxylic Acid Cycle TCA o Further oxidizing the pyruvate pyruvic acid 0 A Transition stepBridge Step Carboxylation 2 Pyruvate 9 2 Acetyl CoA 2NADH 2C02 o B Krebs CycleTCA 2Pyruvate gt2AcetylCoA2NAD H2602 000 Pyruvvc acid NAD CaA NADH ca cocoa Acexyl CaA 60A 0 o Produces 5 C02 4 C02 2 C02 from carboxylation 2 ATP converted from 2 GI39P substrate level phosphorylation I 6 NADH I 2 FADHZ 0 Complete breakdown of glucose occurs here If glucose is completely broken down why does aerobic respiration need to continue to electron transport chain a To generate ATP and to recycle NAD and FAD NADH FADHZ Pathway ATPProduced Produced Produced G lvcolys is 2 2 0 Transition step 0 2 Krebs cycle 2 6 2 Total 4 10 2 3 Electron Transport Chain Molecules donate their electrons to the ETC NADH NADPH FADH2 9 NAD NADP FAD o 1 Located in prokaryotic plasma membrane same also takes place in eukaryotic mitochondria intermembrane space 0 Prokaryotes don t have mitochodria 9 occurs in plasma membrane RECALL Second function of plasma membrane 9 participate in the production of ATP in the ETC o 2 3 Classes of electron carriers 0 Ubiquinone ex Coenzyme Q o Flavoproteins ex flavin mononucleotide o Cytochromes ex b c1 a1 a3 etc 3 Diverse nature of ETC 0 Even though you see these protein complexes in a certain sequence here but they can differ depending on the organism that you are observing o BUT they all serve the same purpose 4 In EUKARYOTES 9 Oxygen is ALWAYS the final electron acceptor In BACTERIA 9 Oxygen is only the final electron acceptor in AEROBIC conditions 0 Peter Mitchell o Introduced the concept of chemiosmosis o Chemiosmotic model explains link between electron transport and ATP generation Chemiosmotic model of ATP generation Chemiosmotic Generation of ATP Prawns are pumped Uutswde mp2 02H by pmmn pumps wnh successva exactan transfers Dreatmg an 2 2drudwemma grament p gramem hke Ms stares a hut nfenergy p gtPmtun 2 2ctrnchemma gramem er Prawn rmth fur2 a wwm luhm Requrre the enzvme ATP Svnthase br ATP ese Pmmns Wm aw dawn tnerr cancentratmn erementwmn the new er uretern channe s caHed ATPsvnunese DrATP ese ans Exeruumc Drucessfu2sth2 DHDSDHDW BHDH brADptb syntnesrze ATP wnen ATP rs svntnesrzed bv usmg me energv er me ETC 9 bxrdatwe unbsbnbrvratrbn TDta ATP generatan 33 ATP per u ucuse Haw manv rr g ucuse rs turned mm c02 and W te aa Haw manv rr g ucuse rs turned rntb c027 4 NO WATER omv ub m Krebs Cvde Eukervotre eeus 9 ma ew es mustcmss me mrtbenbndner membrane Whmh bses enerev rn the Drucess tnrs duesn39t need be happen m Dmkarvmc eeHs Anaembm Resurreu an 1 GWEDWsws 2 Krebs cyere a 3 E Ectmntransuurt cnem FINAL ELECTRON ACCEPTOR 15 NOT OXVGEN o BUT RATHER IT IS AN INORGANIC COMPOUND ex Nitrate sulfate carbonate ATP production is less than 38 0 Range is 237 0 Why Because the final electron acceptor is different and there is a difference in the redox potential Bacterial Respiration 0 Sequence of reactions that involved Glycolysis Krebs and Electron Transport Chain 0 This definition is NOT correct there is another type of respiration that can occur 0 0 Bacterial Anaerobic Respiration is not the same as o Fermentation Two stages o 1 Glycolysis o 2 Pyruvic Acid Metabolism 0 NOTE DOES NOT INVOLVE KREBS CYCLE OR ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 0 o End products 0 Not fixed Different bacteria produce different end products Completely dependant on the organism Lactic Acid 9 Streptococcus Lactobacilus Bacillus Yogurt products 0 Ethanol and C02 9 Sacchromyces Though ethanol is not the only alcohol produced by fermentation Many different alcoholic compounds can be produced by fermentation o Propionic acid acetic acid COZ H2 9 Propionibacterium Gives swiss cheese its unique taste smell and size of the holes 0 O O NOTE Products produced by second half of fermentation are not useful for bacteria o They only need what is produced by the first step ATP is only produced in the first step Glycolysis o In fact they can harm the bacteria if lactic acid builds up they can die while sitting in it 0 So why is pyruvic acid metabolism necessary for bacteria o In AEROBIC Respiration the NADH that was produced in glycolysis would be taken to the ETC we need to turn it back into NAD o This step is achieved by the fermentation of pyruvic acid 0 Fermentation is not a metabolically efficient process slower growth compared to aerobic respiration and anerobic respiration o You can judge the growth of bacteria by the turgidity of the tube they are growing in o In a petri dish there will be more colonies in the aerobic respiration plate o If you continue the colony size will be larger in Aerobic plate 0 When Humans are exercising rigorously and the muscles do not have enough oxygen it leads to fermentation 9 lactic acid 9 achy sore muscles o ACTUALLY the protons that come from Lactic acid 0 o Only glycolysis is common between aerobic respiration and fermentation 0 Metabolism using other sources of energy Lipids o Become glycerol or fatty acids via lipase 0 Then enter the cell and then are modified 0 o Glycerol to Glyceraldehyde3phosphate 9 Glyc 9 Pyruvic acid o Fatty acids become acetyl CoA via betaoxidation Giyeumi nutam l n quotaquot cam WWW l mgrgmm mm a u u v 1 mm quotin anl cu Proteins proteins becorne arnino acids Via extraceiiuiar oroteases Amino acids becorne organic acids Vai dearnination decarbowiation dehvdi ogenation desuifurviation Then thev enter the iltrebs Cvcie Protein EXtracenmar Amino acids profeases Organicacid Krebs cycle Deamination decamuxylation de hyd rogenatiun desulfurylatian When bacteria resoire using inorganic acids thev do not use Givcoivsis or the iltrebs Cvcie gt thev use the Eiectron transport chain Bacteriai Respiration does not aiwavs consist ofGWcoivsiS iltrebs Cvcie and ETC Chemolithotrophs o No other living cell in the world that can use inorganic compounds for energy o They can use aerobic respiration as well as anerobic respiration processes are a little different though o They grow very slowly because they do not obtain a lot of energy from the electron transport chain 0 NH4 e gt NAD 9 NADH 9 ETC o Fermentation is NOT respiration because it does not use the ETC o Hydrogen bacteria o Sulfur bacteria 0 Live in sulfur springs 0 Live in sewage polluted waters 0 Ex Beggiatoa Thiobacilus o Bioleaching 9 leaching the bacteria away o Iron bacteria o Nitrifying bacteria 0 Ammonia oxidizers convert ammonia to nitrite Nitrosomonas o Nitrite oxidizers convert nitrite to nitrate ex Nitrobacter III Glucose Metabolism by Fermentation o 1 Glycolysis 0 same as before 0 ATP produced by substrate level phosphorylation only in glycolysis o 2 Pyruvic Acid Metabolism 0 begins with pyruvic acid 0 pyruvic acid will be converted to different compounds 0 some bacteria will convert pyruvic acid to ethanol lactic acid propionic acid etc 0 Know the examples of different products 0 As bacteria are converting different end products are they useful for these Absolutely no value for these end products 0 Second Half no ATP produced o 3 No Krebs Cycle or Electron Transport Chain What is the need for pyruvic acid metabolism for bacteria o Regeneration of NAD o NADH need to be reoxidized to NAD c When respiration is happening bacteria usually regenerate ATP with ETC but fermentation does not have ETC so pyruvic acid metabolism is used for NAD regeneration Anaerobic involves ETC Fermentation no TCA or ETC o 3 ATP produced only during Glycolysis by substrate level phosphorylation o 4 Regeneration of NAD o 5 Final Electron acceptor organic molecules such as pyruvate or its derivative Total ATP 2 ATP Fermentation generates yields least amount of ATP Why do some bacteria choose Fermentation over Anaerobic Respiration o Final electron acceptor such as nitrate is not present they cannot perform anaerobic respiration so they opt for fermentation o Some bacteria also do not have ETC which is the most important part 0 Lactic acid buildup in Eukaryotes o Prelect quiz All the bacteria in the prokaryotic world have ability to either respire or ferment but no bacteria will have the ability to perform both these metabolic processes 0 False EXAM 1 9242mu2 27 Du PM ch 5 Miernhial Grnwlh Prlnclnles nf Bacterial Grnwlh 1 De mtmn Bactena Qmwthwsdz ned as anmerease m eeH number Eadmu m an merease m 5sz gr a DDDu aDDn a It s ngtgrgwmg m 5sz m bactena QrDWtH a It s merease m the number Er bactena a aaecena Wm startusmg nutnentsfrum BEEN dwsh a Mu t DW mtgmmmns 2 Prunes Bantams generaHv mu t DW bv the Braces Er bmarv sser a Banana REDdeumDnn bmarv sser Binary Fissinn couwau mmmanam o cmuananuum 39 uunlnnv cnlad 1 D l DNALnudmld a mum Plum mmaran mm u unstricl crammu arm commmn y aepurauny me lwo we can 0 magma um av mu av cull amelan Generalinn Time 1 Tne me makes far a bactena eeu m duub e m number s Generaan ume Daubhngmme 2 Tne enwrgnmentaw ang numtmna facmrs affecttHE generaugn me a Ex E nah urnwmg m testtube meubate at37 degrees 32 squ wmn numents a Ex In O Entangv rwer E nah Wm taken bngerm grgw Enwrnnm enta Factnrs 1 Temperature a gwen bactenum aTwavs nas range ertemp wnere t w grgw Certam paetena grgw weH m rt 37 gegrees CeTsTus 2 OWQETT 3 pH 4 water avamabhtv Temperature 1 Temperature range 2x Bactenum TEEMTES 2g75g gegrees CeTsTus thnm tms range tnere Tstemp Tmmmum Ts Tgwest temp mawmum mgnest 1r vnu ergss emner thhese hmns bactena wm ngt grgw a Temp Tmmmum a Temp Dm mumr mustTgeaT urnwthfnr bactena gwes mawmum amgunt 2T grgwtn UsuaHv 1g gegrees CeTsTus Tess tnan temp mawmum a Temp mawmum 2 It gepengs gn tne avanapmtv gr Enzvmes fur 2x Same Enzvmes Wgrk at mgn gr Tgw temp TvaeaT grgwtn Rates ang Temperature Nmnhmmwmlu MB th Plvcnmvuunu mam Ile T gmwlh in u so so rn In an Inn Im Name a Mmmbm DQV39 refertn temperature m gegrees CeTsTus Temperature paseg grgups eT Pmkarvdtes gsvenrgpnnesmg 12 1E eapapTe Ufgmwthmfreezmu egnthTgn o Psychorotrops and Psychrophiles can grow in 4 degrees Celsius but psychrophiles grow best in refrigerator 0 Psychrophiles are not responsible for food spoilage they are not found in your food because they are usually found in extremely cold such as glaciers arctic region o Psychrotrophs 0 23 30 o Psychorotrops and Psychrophiles can grow in 4 degrees 0 Psychorotrophs are responsible for food spoilage in your fridge o Mesophiles 10 37 50 45 degrees Celsius enzymes dentaure o Thermophiles 4072 o Hyperthermophiles Know the temp numbers for each group maximum minimum optimum Temperature based groups of prokaryotes o 3 Thermophiles o optimal above 45 o 4 Extreme thermophiles o optimal 70 or higher Prokaryotic groups based on oxygen requirement o 1 Obligate aerobes 0 must have oxygen to grow 2 Obligate anaerobes 0 they cannot stand oxygen and they don t use them they will die with oxygen 3 Facultative Anaerobes 0 can grow in 02 or can grow without 02 Ex Given a choice e coli will always grow the best in oxygen 4 Microaerophiles 0 do require 02 to grow micro suffix means require only small amounts of 02 if too much 02 they will not grow as well 5 Aerotolerant anaerobles 0 when exposed to 02 they don t die like obligate anaerobes they can tolerate 02 Tum Derwauves Bf oxygen 1 Suparuxidefveevauina swz j SOD Suparuxide dismutasa 2H 2 02quot H202 02 2 Hydrogen peruxwdquDZ Catalase 2H20p21120 02 tum bvpmddets ean destrnv bastena eeu need Enzvmestu det nd en mm bv pruddets enzyme suuemwde dwsmutase acts and desh39nvs H2EI2 500 and cata asetake care ettdm denvatwes cf nxvuen Pernwdase E SD dets nd ettdm derwavatwes en nxvuen mu enzvmestnat are needed td m erate amen Obhuate aembe Obhuate anaernbe dd nuthave dnese enzvmes Facmtatwe W have bddn enzvmes 4 and 5 bdth have 500 bdtmev ddn39t have men en eatawase Anaembm Jar and Anaernbm Chamber DH 1 NeutrDDhHEs a DDDma DH sea 2 AmdDDhHes a Tnmbaduds m add nnne dramaue a Grnw m amdm edndmdns a PdeuEES sdwdneadd 3 A ka nuh es a same aaduds spedes a prefer a kahne DH wnv dDES DH enande wnen bactena grDW because tne bacte a DdeuEE add SD pedme add butters SD bactena are QrDWmQ m dnat DH rande Water Availability o Osmotic pressure o 1 Hypertonic plasmolysis bacteria will not grow 0 Food preservation o Bacteria will not grow because there is not enough water 0 Have to have isotonic conditions to grow happy o 2 Osmotolerant Facultative Halophiles o able to grow in high salt conc o Tolerate the present o 3 Halophiles 0 must have large quantities of salt in order to grow 0 Salt Lake Utah Format Of Exam o 40 multiple choice questions o 2 points each 9242010 227 00 PM 9242010 227 00 PM 9242010 227 00 PM 9242010 227 00 PM