Note for PSYCH 100H with Professor Brunner at OSU
Note for PSYCH 100H with Professor Brunner at OSU
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Psychology Midterm 1 Chapter 1 1 Definition of Psychology Science of behavior and the mind William Wundt opened first psychology laboratory 2 Descartes amp Hobbes Dualisma material body and an immaterial soul Descartes Different type of dualism less responsibility given to the soul Regarded the body as a complex machine capable ofthings without influence of soul Soul was responsible only forthought and acts on the body through the pineal body Buried between the two halves of the brain Hobbes Materialismsoul is a meaningless concept nothing exists but matter and energy Even voluntary choices we make can in theory be understood by physical processes especially the brain 3 Empiricism llBlank Slate vs Nativism Empiricism The idea that human knowledge and thought derive ultimately from sensory experience We acquire knowledge of the world around us and can behave adaptively within it Thoughts are not products of free will but rather reflections of a person39s experiences Law of Association by Contiguityevents become associated with one another baby Albert Nativism The most basic forms of human knowledge are native to the human mind The mind must come with some initial furnishings in orderfor it to be furnished through experience a priori knowledgebuilt into the human brain a posteriori knowledgegains from experience in the environment 4 Darwin amp Freud Darwin Basic forms of human emotional expressions are inherited and have evolved for survival Human emotions learning and reasoning came about gradually because they promoted survival Natural selection also offered a scientific foundation for nativist views of the mind Freud Became interested in the psychological roots of his patients problems Believed symptoms were unconscious conflicts relied on psychoanalysis 5 Structuralism vs Functionalism Structuralism Titchner tried to define the structure of consciousness by studying its parts Functionalism William James interested in how consciousness and behaviorfunction to help individuals adapt and survive Influenced by Darwin39s theory of evolution 6 Current Approaches to Psychology Shift from philosophy to scientific experimentation Cognitive Revolution Chapter 2 1 Hindsight Bias quotI knew it all along After learningthe outcome of an event people believe they could have predicted that outcome 2 Clever Hans Owner Oscar Pfungst Perfect example of Confirmation Bias We seek out info that confirms our existing beliefs and ignore disconfirming info 3 Theory amp Hypothesis Theory An organized set of principles offered to explain a phenomenon Can39t be tested directly only tested by testing different hypotheses Hypothesis A specific testable prediction about the conditions under which an outcome will occur 4 Conceptual Definitions vs Operational Definitions Conceptual Broad Speci c Operational Conceptual Make clear what you are studying and convey exactly what you understand a concept to mean Operational The concept you are studying specifically defined in concrete terms Operationalizing a concept allows you to manipulate it and measure it 5 Three Research Methods What is Method Basic Purpose How Conducted Manipulaled Descriptive To observe and Case studies surveys Nothing record behavior and naturalistic observations Correlational To detect naturally Computing statistical Nothing occurring relationships association sometimes to assess how well among survey one variable predicts responses Experimental To explore cause Manipulating one or Independent and effect more factors and using variableis random assignment to eliminate preexisting differences among subjects Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation Strengths not dependent on subjects39 selfreported behavior Weaknesses observer effects confirmation bias rarity of behaviors of interest Case Studies Strengths allows analysis of rare behaviors Weaknesses generalizing findings beyond a single case can be difficult Surveys Strengths gather large amounts of data quickly Weaknesses nonrepresentative samples Correlational Research Correlation Coefficient r signifiesthe size and direction of relationship between variables 1 perfectly positivenegative correlation 0 no correlation Strengths Researchers can study naturally occurring variables that might be difficultunethical to manipulate Weaknesses Provides no information about causality does X cause Y Lurking Variables Experimental Research Independent Variableswhat a researcher changes to see if it has an effect IV39s are manipulated Dependent Variableswhat a researcher measures to determine influence of IV DV39s are measured Strengths Permits conclusions about causality can rule out other variables Weaknesses DifficultUnethical to manipulate some variables results may not generalize to population 6 Types of Validity Statistical Validity Statistical Significance testing95 confidence Large number of subjects large experimental effects low variability Construct Validity Are your results dependent on the particular way you manipulated and measured your variables Internal Validity How well have you controlled alternative explanations for the effect you have shown Making sure that only the manipulated IV causes differences in the DV Internally valid studies do not have confounding variables An outside variable that changes along with the IV leading to a mistaken conclusion Chapter 4 1 Sensitization vs Habituation Sensitization The progressive amplification of responses following repeated administrations of a stimulus Habituation Reduction in response to an unchanging stimulus brought by repeated exposure to stimulus Dishabituation Reappearance of the original response when the stimulus changes 2 Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Jim conditioning Dwight in The Office Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus quotDo you want an Altoidquot Computer quotbingquot sound Unconditioned Response Conditioned Response Outstretched hand by Dwight Outstretched hand even with no Altoid Operant Conditioning Learned associations between stimuli can occur before during or after conditioned response Responses that will be repeated are onesthat produce positive consequences Reinforcement Positiveadding desirable stimulus more likely to be repeated Negativeremoving an undesirable stimulus more likely to be repeated Punishment Positiveadding undesirable stimulus less likely to be repeated Negativeremoving desirable stimulus less likely to be repeated 3 Intrinsic vs Extrinsic rewards Intrinsicinternal from within a person Curiosity interest enjoyment Extrinsicexternal from the environment Good grades money praise 4 BF Skinner Argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughtsfeelings Skinner Box Shaping reinforcing responses that come successively closer to desired response Ex pen clicks forthe girl who walked around class until she was right 5 Learned Helplessness Learning that responses do not affect consequences stops attempts to exert control over situation Associated with symptoms characteristic of depression Chapter 5 1 Neurons The billions of connected cells that make up the body s information system Uses electrical impulses and chemical messengers to send information Sensory neuronscarry information from sensory organs Ex eyes ears tongue Motor neuronscarry messages to operate muscles Interneuronscarry messages from one set of neurons to the other Dendritesreceive Axonsone per cetransmit Ifa neuron is stimulated beyond a certain point it will quotfirequot Repolarization Neuron quotresetsquot before it can fire again 2 Neurotransmitters Signals sent from one neuron to another are sent in the form of molecules These molecules are neurotransmitters Travel across the gap between two neurons This gap is called a Synapse Excitatory neurotransmittersincreases likelihood of firing Ex Acetylcholine Glutamte Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Ex Dopamine Serotonin Endorphins 3 Nervous Svsiem Dmsmns v v Mm Mphml quotmuym quotmausqu ms cm mm b and Inn has v v V min SpInnI turd Somali Ammit rumbaquot mung quotmumm and w plmnl Cunth Mummy mpdu Emmi involyMnry mm my and Ironsninetier body hmquot Murma m h H NS 1 V Sympa mk Fansympa mi quotmum quotmumquot mm body a Calm body n mm ma many and ma nmin guy A Mam Dmsmns m he Bram mm mm mum mum m mmmmmm nunm mun Hm in nun mu mum n um f marimbu m smxm 7 mm mm mm mam mommaquotrm my mammer mm m mm mum mm umlkmm mm 5 Brain Imaging Techniques Electroencephalograph EEG Measures general electrical activity of brain Position Emission Tomography PET Tracks neural activity in brain as radioactive substance flows through Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Exposes brain to magnetic field and measures radio frequency waves Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS Temporarily disrupts function of particular part of brain to show what part does what Chapter 6 1 Drives and Incentives Drivesa state of arousal that prompts action to reduce the drive to restore balance Regulatory Driveshunger thirst oxygen sleep warmth Motivation arises from an imbalance in homeostasis Nonregulatory Drivessafety reproduction education social Not motivated by homeostasis Incentivesa sought after object or end that exists in the external environment Drives and Incentives complement each other Value of incentive is low only strong drives cause behavior Value of incentive is high weak drives can cause behavior Drives and Incentives influence each other Strong drives can increase the value of incentives Strong incentives can increase the strength of drives 2 Masbw s Hierarchy ofNeeds LoweHeve needsmu t be barbaw satis ed before peop e can be mbtrvated by brgber goa s U mate striving toWards se fractuah39zatw39on Sel ulfillmen39 needs Psychological needs
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