Note for PSYCH 100H with Professor Brunner at OSU 02
Note for PSYCH 100H with Professor Brunner at OSU 02
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Psychology Final Study Guide Chapter 13Social Cognition I Impression Formation and Attribution Social Perceptionwe continually seekto know and understand others determine what others are feeling figure out who is lying form impressions of others Attributionsinferences made about the causes of behavior we make attributions when we ask ourselves quotwhyquot someone acted a certain way 1lnternal AttIibution behaving because of something internal they always behave that way dispositional factors 2External AttIibution notthe type of person they are but a situation is making them actthat way situational factors Example Campus Riots Internal reckless individuals prone to violence riots would not happen without them External confrontational police forced students to act up in response Biases in Attributionrely on shortcuts when deciding why someone acts the way they do usually incorrect Person Biasunderestimating the effects of the situation on other s behavior unaware of situational factors Fundamental AttIibution Error Biases in Explaining Own Behaviorsituational factors are generally more apparent to actors than to observers actorobserver bias Understanding Behaviorwe see what we wa ntexpect to see Example rough Princeton vs Dartmouth game 1 week laterfans had completely different views on what happened People weM can seemingly do no wrong attractive people tall people similar others Attractiveness quotHan Effectquotassociate physical attractiveness with otherdesirable qualities what is beautiful is good II Perceiving and Evaluating the Self SelfConceptall the things that make up who we quotarequot not all selfinfo is accessible all the time situations heighten accessibility of information Selfjudgments tend to be selfserving 1 Unrealistic selfevaluations we generally believe we are above average on favorable attributespersonal attributes linked to favorable outcomes 2 Unrealistic optimism we believe we are more likely to experience positive eventsfeel like we deserve positive outcomes 3 Illusion of ContIol people believe they can control outcomes thatthey have no influence overroling dice in a casino harderfor higher numbers People tend to take credit for success and to distance themselves from failure bad outcomes blamed on others orsituation SelfEsteemalthough often talked about as being high or low it is a continuous variable an evaluation of oneself High Stability base their selfesteem on relatively constant internal factors Low Stability base their selfesteem on everchanging situational factors SelfFul lling Prophecieswhen we have beliefs about others we are going to treat them in a way to get them to act in line with what we expect of them Example teacher made aware offew students with high aptitude for learningbeingtold the person on the phone is attractive or not Independent SelfConstIualbeing consistent and true to ilf is most important individualistic countries lnterdependent SelfConstrualself is connected with others and defined by relationships with those people III Personal and Social Identities Personal Identitycharacteristics we believe are most important define who we are Social Identitygroups we belong to ngroupsgroups we identify with Outgroups groups otherthan our own Large groups satisfy belongingnesssimila rity but will not satisfy distinctivenessindividualization Small groups will satisfy d ctiveness needs but not satisfythe need to belong A group that satIs Ies both needs is one where the person is optimally distinct IV Stereotyping and Prejudice Stereotyping quotpictures in our headsquot basis for prejudice or negative judgments Measuring Prejudice 1 Expli 39tselfreport measuresdirectly ask if people likedislike certain groups 2 lmplicitreaction time measures Affective Priming Procedures tries to get inside people39s heads and measure automatic evaluations IAT Testmeasu res automatic associations of different categories with quotgoodquot and quotbadquot easier to group togetherthings associated Chapter 14Social Influence I Conformity Social Normsunderstood by members ofa group guide social behavior Why people conform 1 Informational In uencepeople conform because they believe others are correct in their actions orjudgments Example SherifAutokinetic Effect Study subjects converged on a common estimate after several trial for how far light traveled 2 Normative In uencepeople conform because they fearthe negative consequences of appearing different Example Asch Line Length Study confederates gave the wrong answer participant had to decide to conform or give right answer Two types of conformity 1 Private Acceptance person privately accepts position taken by others 2 Public Conformity superficial change in behavior without a change ofopinion Conformity influenced bygroup size awareness of norms and unanimity having an ally in dissent Deindividualiztionpeople in a large groupfeel a loss of personal identity People feel less accountable for their actions people no longer selfawa re II Obedience When behavior is influenced bythe commands of an authority gure following direct orders instead of choosing to follow a quotrequestquot Stanley MilgramAdolph Eichmann was on trial for his Nazi war crimes Milgram studied if he was simplyjust following orders Milgram Studythe quotteacherquot delivered shocks increased with each wrong answer to the quotearneI Demonstrated that normal people have potential to be influenced by authorig figures and behave inconsistently to theirvalues III Compliance Change in behavior due to a direct reguest from another person Norm of Reciproci if someone does you a favor you return the favorcancel out feelings of debt FreeGift Technigue giving a quotno strings attachedquot gift DoorintheFace Technigue askfor a big favor follow by asking smallerfavor quotThat s Not Allquot Technigue offer something desirable then sweeten the deal before the offer is rejected Norm of Consistencypeople generally act according to theirvalues and follow through once committed FootintheDoorTechnigue askfor something small then askfor something larger once they agree LowBall Technigue get someone to agree to a request then add restrictions or higher price liking Norm if you like someone you should help them out even ifyou have only known them fora shorttime Norm of Scarcity if something is scarce it is seen as more valuable rare or quotgoing fastquot Scarcity makes us want to act quickly or impulsively Norm ofAutiIority when an authority figure asks you to do something you go along with what he or she says Example doctors appearing in TV commercials Chapter 15Pe rsona lity PersonalityTheowattempts to describe and explain how people are similar different and unique I Psychodynamic Approach Structure of Personality 1 IDpleasure 2 Superegomorality 3 Egoreality When ego loses balance Ego Defense Mechanisms counterbalance Ego acts as mediator can buy timequot by reducing anxiety Repression excluding anxietyprovoking thoughts from conscious awareness Freudian Slip an error in speech memow or behaviorthat is thought to reflect unconsciousthoughts Recovered Memories recalling memories of past events that were previously unavailable to conscious awareness Displacement unconsciously shifting and emotional urge to a substitute target is less threatening or dangerous Sublimation redirecting sexualaggressive urges toward social acceptable activities Reaction Formation defending against unacceptable impulses by acting oppositely Pro39ection attributing one39s own acceptable thoughts or impulses to another person Compensation striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears Karen Horney developed quotWomb Envy male envy of pregnancy childbirth and motherhood Gives rise to an unconscious desire to devalue women II Humanistic Approach Emphasizes attainment of human potential People are basically quotgoodquot destructive impulses are due to social factors SelfActualization is our primaw goal Two Orientations 1 De ciency Orientationpreoccupation with perceived needsforthings person does not have 2 Growth Orienta ontendencyto draw satisfaction from what is available in life ratherthan to focus on what is missing SelfActualized People realistically perceive themselvesare spontaneous and openmindedstrong need for independenceenjoy positive aspects of evenday life III Trait Perspectives Emphasizes enduring predispositions toward behavioral patterns Traits are consistent across situations and stable overtime emphasizes individual differences Allport over 4000 distinct traits Central Trait basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior example honesty SecondamTrait characteristics seen only in certain circumstances example social at parties Oopen ness to experience CconscientiousnessEextraversionAagreea blenessNneu roticism Trait Approach offers a way ofdescribing and comparing individuals using basic personality traitscan help in interpersonal understanding IV SocialCognitive Theories Emphasizes interactions in behavior cognition and the environment Albert Bandura reciprocal determi mPersonality caused by the interaction of behavioral cognitive and environmental factors What we do what we think and what39s going on or happening to us interact dynamically Walter Mischel quotsituationist cri quequot Relationship between personal and situational variables The person and situation interact to produce behavior Personal dispositions are more important in some situations than in others People choose to be in stuations that are in accord with their personal dispositions V Assessing Personality Life Outcomeseducationincome levels marital status Situational Testsmeasures of behavior reaction to conflict and frustration O bsener Ratingsfa m ilyfriends SelfReportsresponses to inteniewspersonality tests Objective Personality Tests tests containing direct unambiguous items relating to individual being assessedquantitatively scored standardized Projective Personality Tests tests made up of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many waysscoring is subjective Chapter 16Mental Disorders I Psychological Disorders A pattern of thought emotion or behaviorthat results in personal distress or a significant impairment in a person39sfunctioning Abnormal Psychologythe scientific study of abnormal behavior in orderto describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns offunctioning Clinical Psychologythe application of psychology to relieve mental distress in a health and social care context Biopsychosocial Model of explaining psychological disorders Biological factors brain chemistry genetics Psychological processes wants needs emotions learning experiences Sociocultural context gender age marital status economic situations traditions DiathesisStress Approach of explaining psychological disorders Psychological disorders arise when a predisposition for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms The more riskfactors for a disorder a person hasthe more likelythe person will develop a disorder associated with those riskfactors Learning coping skills can reduce this Classification for psychological disorders is made with the Diagnostic 8 Sta s cal Manual of Mental Disorders DSM II Anxiety Disorders Characterized by improper triggering andor persistence of anxiety responses Phobias irrational fear and avoidance of specific objects or situations that significantly interferes with functioning Panc isorder recurrent terrifying panic attacks that seem to come without warning or obvious ca use 0bsessive Compulsive DisorderOCD Obsessions repeated intrusive thoughts germs uncertainty violence Compulsions repetitive behavior pattern cleansing counting precision O bsessions a nd com pu lsions often cooccu r Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms linked to emotionally traumatic incidents that that affected person has experiences III Mood Disorders Significant and chronic disruption of moods emotions do not reflect objective reality Depressive Disorders Major Depressive Disorderfeeling sadhopeless forweeks or months dangerof suicide Dys lymic Disordermild depression for longer period Bipolar Disorders Bipolar I Disorder manic depressionalternating extremes of mood from deep depression to mania and back Bipolar ll Disorder hypomanialess severe manic phases IV Somatoform Disorders Characterized by physical symptoms that mimic physical disease or injuryfor which there is no identifiable physical cause Physica symptoms are experienced by the person as real but are due to mental ratherthan physical factors quotMadness of Crowdsquotphysical symptoms can be transmitted from persontoperson by seeing someone suffer or from hearing rumors of illness Body Dysmorphic Disorder extreme criticism of one39s physical appearance despite there being no noticeable defect Michael Jackson V Schizophrenia quotSplit Mindquot severe perceptual and cognitive distortions Positive Symptoms not quotgoodquot but quotpresencequotdelusional thinkingdistorted sensation and speechhallucinations Negative Symptoms not quotbadquot but quota bsencequotemotionally unresponsivered uced speech prod uctionreduced interest in activity apathy Causes 1 Genetic Factorsheritability studies role of environment risk increases with paternal age 2 Physiological Factorsinfluenza and otherviral infections excessive dopamine levels VI Dissociative Disorders Sudden and usually temporaw disruptions of conscious awareness memory and identity Controversies over existence causes and appropriate treatment Dissociative Identity Disorder Kenneth Bianchi Trial claimed to have 2 personalities heard that most people have 3 or more and changed his storyto fit that Chapter 17Treatment I Treatment Early mental asylums were little more than repositories forthe mentally ill Radical ProceduresFrontal Lobotomy Dr Walter Freeman considered an advance in surgew performed in large numbers until death of Rosemaw Kennedy Philippe PinelampDorthea Dix both founded human movements Deins mtionalization people with mental disorders are much less likely today to be committed to mental institutions Psychiatrists physicians who specialize in treating psychological disorders can prescribe meds Clinical Psychologists most have PhD s experts in assessment and therapy ClinicalPsychiatric Social Worker Masters of Social Work some can offer psychotherapy mostly to people with everyday personalfamily problems Modern Treatments Psychotherapy quottalkquot therapies Drug therapies II Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Sigmund Freudgoal is to recognize unconscious thoughts and emotions then work through the ways they affect client s evenday life III Humanistic Psychotherapy Treatment is an encounter between equals clients will improve on theirown Therapist engages in active listening and echoes restates and clarifies the patient39s thinking acknowledging expressed feelings Carl Roger s ClientCentered Therapy client decided what to talk about without direction judgment or interpretation from the therapist Fritz Perl39s GestaltTherapy treatments designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown feelings that are nottheir own IV Behavior Therapy Behaviorists assume most psychological problems are learned Change occurs by learning new behaviors not searchingfor underlying problems Classical ConditioningTechniques Floodingkeep people in a feared but harmless situation Systematic Desens onassociate a new response with feared stimulus Aversion Therapypairing problem behaviors with aversive stimuli badtasting substance on fingernails Punishmentcorporal punishment Operant Conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior mod ation in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are punished V Evaluating Psychotherapies Client s typically overestimate effectiveness of therapy Psychotherapies provided a hope for demoralized people a new perspective and a trusting relationship
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