Note for PSYCH 340 with Professor Chowdhury at OSU
Note for PSYCH 340 with Professor Chowdhury at OSU
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11102011 12300 AM Review List EXAM 2 Psych 340 The list is not meant to be exhaustive the Exam might very well test on concepts that are not on this list but in your readings ChaQter 6Cognitive Development All concepts associated with Piaget s Theory and Piaget s stages of development Proceess of development Schemas Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge o Ex Driving a car o Balancing a Budget o Concept of fairness Assimilation o Occurs when children use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences 0 Ex A toddler who has just learned the word car may identify all vehicles as cars including trucks the child has assimilated these objects to his or her existing schema Accommodation o Children begin to adjust their schemes to take new information and experiences into account 0 Ex child soon learns that motorcycles and trucks are not cars and fine tunes the category to exclude motorcycles and trucks accommodating the schema Organization o In piagets theory is the grouping of isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order system 0 Ex A child who has only a vague idea about how to use a hammer may also have a vague idea about how to use other tools 0 After learning how to use each one the child relates these uses organizing his knowledge Equilibrium o Name given by piaget to the mechanism by which children switch from one stage of thought to the next Equilibration o Name Piaget gave the mechanism by which children shift from one stage of though to the other Piagets Stages of development Stage 1 The sensorimotor stage o Lasts from birth to about 2 years of age o In this stage infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences such as seeing and hearing with physical motoric activities 0 At the beginning of this stage infants have little more then reflexes with which to work At the end of this stage 2 year olds can produce complex sensorimotor patterns and use primitive symbols 0 Divided into six sub stage 0 Simple reflexes corresponds to the first month after birth In this sub stage sensations and actions are coordinated primarily through reflexive behaviors such as rooting and sucking o First habits and primary circular reactions 0 Develops between 1 and 4 months Infants can coordinate sensation and two types of of schemes Habits and primary circular reactions A habit is a scheme that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus n Ex Repeating a body sensation first experienced by chance sucking thumbs for example then infants might accommodate actions by sucking their thumb differently then they suck on a nipple Secondary circular reactions o 48 months o Infants become more object oriented moving beyond self pre occuption repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results 0 Ex An infant coos to make a person stay near as the person starts to leave the infant coos again Coordination of secondary circular reactions o 812 months o Coordination of vision and touch Hand eye coordination coordination of schemes and intentionality o Ex Infant manipulates a stick in order to bring an attractive toy within reach Tertiary circular reactions novelty and curiosity o 1218 months o infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects they experiment with new behavior o Ex A block can be made to fall spin hit another object and slide across the ground Internalization of schemes o Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations o ExAn infant who has never thrown a temper tantrum before sees a playmate throw a tantrum the infant retains a memory of the event then throws one himself the next day Preoperational stage o 27 Years of age o The child begins to use mental representations to understand the world Symbolic thinking reflected in the use of words and images is used in the mental representation which goes beyond the connection of sensory information with physical action However there are some constraints on the child s thinking at this stage such as ego centrism and centration Ex Preoperational thought is the beginning of the ability to reconstruct in thought what has been established in behavior Piaget noted that children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic cannot mentally manipulate information and are unable to take the point of view of other people which he termed egocentrism During the preoperational stage children also become increasingly adept at using symbols as evidenced by the increase in playing and pretending For example a child is able to use an object to represent something else such as pretending a broom is a horse Role playing also becomes important during the preoperational stage Children often play the roles of quotmommyquot quotdaddyquot quotdoctorquot and many others Egocentrism Piaget used a number of creative and clever techniques to study the mental abilities of children One of the famous techniques egocentrism involved using a threedimensional display of a mountain scene Children are asked to choose a picture that showed the scene they had observed Most children are able to do this with little difficulty Next children are asked to select a picture showing what someone else would have observed when looking at the mountain from a different viewpoint Invariably children almost always choose the scene showing their own view of the mountain scene According to Piaget children experience this difficulty because they are unable to take on another person39s perspective Conservation Another wellknown experiment involves demonstrating a child39s understanding of conservation In one conservation experiment equal amounts of liquid are poured into two identical containers The liquid in one container is then poured into a different shaped cup such as a tall and thin cup or a short and wide cup Children are then asked which cup holds the most liquid Despite seeing that the liquid amounts were equal children almost always choose the cup that appears fullerPiaget conducted a number of similar experiments on conservation of number length mass weight volume and quantity Piaget found that few children showed any understanding of conservation prior to the age of five of Concrete Operations Logic The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven During this time children gain a better understanding of mental operations Children begin thinking logically about concrete events but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts Piaget determined that children in the concrete operational stage were fairly good at the use of inductive logic Inductive logic involves going from a specific experience to a general principle On the other hand children at this age have difficulty using deductive logic which involves using a general principle to determine the outcome of a specific event Reversibility One of the most important developments in this stage is an understanding of reversibility or awareness that actions can be reversed An example of this is being able to reverse the order of relationships between mental categories For example a child might be able to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador that a Labrador is a dog and that a dog is an animal Formal Operational Stage Logic The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve to and lasts into adulthood During this time people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts Skills such as logical thought deductive reasoning and systematic planning also emerge during this stage Piaget believed that deductive logic becomes important during the formal operational stage Deductive logic requires the ability to use a general principle to determine a specific outcome This type of thinking involves hypothetical situations and is often required in science and mathematics Abstract Thought While children tend to think very concretely and specifically in earlier stages the ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage Instead of relying solely on previous experiences children begin to consider possible outcomes and consequences of actions This type of thinking is important in longterm planning ProblemSolving In earlier stages children used trialanderror to solve problems During the formal operational stage the ability to systematically solve a problem in a logical and methodical way emerges Children at the formal operational stage of cognitive development are often able to quickly plan an organized approach to solving a problem All concepts associated with Realistic and pragmatic theory Vygotsky sSocial Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behaviotheory Major themes Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development In contrast to Jean Piaget s understanding of child development in which development necessarily precedes learning Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development He states Every function in the child s cultural development appears twice first on the social level and later on the individual level first between people interpsychological and then inside the child intrapsychological Vygotsky 1978 The More Knowledgeable Other MKO The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner with respect to a particular task process or concept The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher coach or older adult but the MKO could also be peers a younger person or even computers The Zone of Proximal Development ZPD The ZPD is the distance between a student s ability to perform a task under adult guidance andor with peer collaboration and the student s ability solving the problem independently According to Vygotsky learning occurred in this zone Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences Crawford 1996 According to Vygotsky humans use tools that develop from a culture such as speech and writing to mediate their social environments Initially children develop these tools to serve solely as social functions ways to communicate needs Vygotsky believed that the internalization of these tools led to higher thinking skills Applications of the Vygotsky s Social Development Theory Many schools have traditionally held a transmissionist or instructionist model in which a teacher or lecturer transmits information to students In contrast Vygotsky s theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning Roles of the teacher and student are therefore shifted as a teacher should collaborate with his or her students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students Learning therefore becomes a reciprocal experience for the students and teacher Chapter 7Information processing Encoding Automacity Strategy construction Metacognition Speed of information processing 4 types of attention Habituation dishabituation Joint attention Schema theory of memory Implicit explicit memory Imagery Elaboration Fuzzy trace theory Episodic Fuzzy trace was originally about the development of children39s memory but it can also be applied to adults It says there are two parallel memory representations formed in your mind verbatim traces remembering things exactly wordforword and gist traces remembering the general meaning of things For example if you hear the word spaniel a verbatim trace would consist of actually remembering the word quotspanielquot a gist trace would be things that you know about spaniels eg spaniels are hunting dogs with long coats and drop ears So generally verbatim memories are more specific than gist memories category of longterm memory that involves the recollection of specific events situations and experiences Your first day of school your first kiss attending a friend39s birthday party and your brother39s graduation are all examples of episodic memories In addition to your overall recall of the event itself it also involves your memory of the location and time that the event occurred Closely related to this is what researchers refer to as autobiographical memory or your memories of your own personal life history As you can imagine episodic and autobiographical memories play an important role in your self identity semantic explicit Explicit memory also called quotdeclarative memoryquot is one of the two major subdivisions of longterm memory Explicit memory requires conscious thought such as recalling who came to dinner last night or naming animals that live in the rainforest It39s what most people have in mind when they think of quotmemoryquot and whether theirs is good or bad Explicit memory is often associative your brain links memories together For example when you think of a word or occasion such as an automobile your memory can bring up a whole host of associated memories from carburetors to your commute to a family road trip to a thousand other things Implicit memory o a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming a process whereby subjects show improved performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously preparedImplicit memory also leads to the illusionoftruth effect which suggests that subjects are more likely to rate as true those statements that they have already heard regardless of their veracityIn daily life people rely on implicit memory every day in the form of procedural memory o Ex the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities Research into implicit memory indicates that it operates through a different mental process from explicit memory Source memory Prospective memory Critical thinking Use it or Lose it o Has to do with language Chapter 9Language Development Generativity o Term coined by the psychoanalyst Erik Erikson in 1950 to denote quota concern for establishing and guiding the next generationquot It can be expressed in literally hundreds of ways from raising a child to stopping a tradition of abuse from writing a family history to restoring land You try to quotmake a differencequot with your life to quotgive backquot to quottake carequot of your community and your planet Language s rule system Referential and expressive style Overextension underextention Vocabulary spurt Fast mapping Whole language approach Basic skills and phonics approach Bilingualism Language dev in adolescence Biological influences on language ChomskyLAD Recasting Expanding Labeling LASS Chapter 10Emotional Development Emotion coachingdismissing approach Primary selfconscious emotions Types of crying smiling in infants Stranger anxiety separation protest Temperament Theories of classifying temperament Goodness of fit Attachment Social referencing Ainsworth s attachment categories Types of adolescent attachment Sternberg s triangular theory of love 11102011 12300 AM 11102011 12300 AM