4 Note for ANTH 021 with Professor Westin at PSU
4 Note for ANTH 021 with Professor Westin at PSU
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Introductory Biological Anthropology ANTH 021 Fall 2010 Exam 3 Final Exam Study Guide The final exam will be held in 121 Sparks from 650 pm to 840 pm you will only need 1 hour on Monday December 13m This study guide is designed to direct your attention to the most important material from the lectures While this study guide covers most of the material that you will see on the exam it is NOT an exhaustive list You are also responsible forthe material covered by the inclass lab activities and the homework assignments if the material was also covered in lecture It is not enough to just memorize vocabulary words you need to understand howthose terms and concepts relate to the subject matter and to our understanding of evolution as a whole Reading the chapters assigned in the textbook will help you study for the exam by reinforcing the material covered in lecture Please note that there will not be questions on the exam from the textbook that were not discussed in lecture You may find it helpful to make a table of the different species through time and their characteristics technologies locations significant fossils etc Good Luck Lecture 17 Primate Evolution amp Bipedalism What are some of the main fossil species we discussed 0 Protoprimates Plesiadapiforms 0 Early true primatesquot oAdapoids amp Omomyoids o Subfossil Lemurs 0 Early Fossil Anthropoids o The Fayum Primates oApidium Parapithecid 0 Fossil Platyrrhines o Miocene Old World Moneky Fossils 0 Theropithecus o Apes 0 East African Miocene Proconsul o Suspensory Miocene Apes o Sivapithecus o Gigantopithecus Which taxonomic group are they a part of Which anatomical features helped us identify and discriminate them 0 Primates Why could most of the plesiadapiforms not have been ancestral to today s primates 0 They had 3 premolars which indicate that they are not primate ancestors as the earliest primates had 4 premolars What does it mean to be a primate of modern aspect 0 True Primatesquot are also called POMA or Primates of a Modern Aspect What traits did these species have 0 They exhibit an emphasis on vision including a postorbital bar and frontation of the orbits 0 They also had nails and an opposable hallux which suggest grasping ability 0 Their remains have been discovered in Europe and North America What happened to the largebodied lemur species of Madagascar 0 The ancestors of modern Lemurs are said to have rafted or used land bridges to migrate to Madigascar about 55 million years ago 0 Humans arrived about 2000 years ago and wiped out many of the larger species of Lemur How did Platyrrhines likely get to South America 0 Different theories suggest that they could have migrated from either North America or Africa What dental traits were found in various fossil species and what does that tell us about their identity 0 Dental traits tell us about diet How did the early Miocene apes compare to the late Miocene apes think dental and locomotor features 0 Who were the largest primates ever to have lived o Apes Where were they found 0 Africa and Asia What happened to ape and old world monkey species diversity throughout the Miocene and later 0 Diversity among the Apes was very high during the Miocene era 0 Ape diversity fell dramatically and Old World Monkey diversity rose during the modern era 0 This suggests some kind of trade off between Ape and OWM diversity What was the likely influence of the environment on our shift from quadrupedalism to bipedalism o The end ofthe Miocene era was cooler drier and more seasonal o This resulted in more open habitats with scarcer food resources 0 The first Hominids came down from the trees and walked upright during this time What were the main hypotheses for bipedalism that we discussed and what were some of the problems with them 0 The Carrying Hypothesis explains tht bipedalism frees the hands for various tasks 0 The problem with this hypothesis is the finding of facultative shortterm bipedalism in some extant apes o The Ecology and Energetic Efficiency Hypothesis states that bipedality arose because travel between patches of forest became necessary 0 The Hunting Hypothesis dates back to Darwin and is derived from the man tge hunterquot premise that Hominids were hunters o The problem with this hypothesis is that there is no evidence of hunting in the earliest hominids 0 Also Chimpanzees have been found to hunt without bipedality o The Provisioning Hypothesis was developed by Lovejoy in 1981 and states that monogamous males brought food back to their female mates 0 This would have increased reproductive success and bipedality would have increased the efficiency of foraging o The problem with this hypothesis is the fact that sexual dimorphism existed in early hominids suggesting polygynous and polygamous living groups 0 Also there exists no suitable living model suggesting this behavior 0 The Thermoregulation Hypothesis states that standing upright meant less direct exposure to solar radiation keeping the skin temperature cooler Lecture 18 Bipedal Features amp Early Hominids What anatomical traits do humans exhibit for bipedal locomotion 0 Head position of the Foramen Magnum the hole in the skull where the spine connects to the spine 0 The Foramen Magnum in humans is located in the inferior position of the skull o The Foramen Magnum in nonhuman apes is located in the posterior position of the skull o The Vertebral Column amp Center of Gravity o In humans the spine is Sshaped and the center of gravity is located in the middle of the pelvis o In nonhuman apes the spine is Cshaped and the center of gravity is anterior to the pelvis o The Pelvis o Iliac Blades Humans have short broad iliac blades Nonhuman apes have tall narrow iliac blades 0 Position of Iliac Blades In humans the iliac blades face laterally In nonhuman apes the iliac blades face posteriorly o Sacrum The human sacrum is broad In nonhuman apes the sacrum is narrow oThe Femur amp Knees o The human femur is angled with a valgus knee joint that are capable of knocking together This shape makes humans capable of onelegged balance 0 The nonhuman ape femur is straight with a varus knee joint This shape makes nonhuman primates incapable of onelegged balance 0 Humans have longer legs than arms and a robust platform at the knee joint portion ofthe Tibia o The Foot 0 The human foot has an adducted inline nonopposable big toe o Humans have two arches longitudinal and transverse o The nonhuman ape foot has an abducted outofIine opposable big toe o Nonhuman apes have only one arch transverse Why do we call walking bipedally controlled fallingquot What is the single criterion for determining whether a fossil ape was a hominid o Bipedal locomotion is currently the only criteria needed to classify a fossil as an ancestral hominid What other criteria did we consider as definitive of our ancestors in the 1800 s and early to mid 1900 s 0 Relatively large brain size 0 Toolmaking behavior Which three genera include potential early hominids Where were these species found What evidence do we have as far as their locomotion How confident are we that they were bipedal o Sahelonthropus tchadersis o The sands of Djurab Desert in northern Chad 0 Its paleoecology was a dry lightlyforested area near a lakes 0 Hominid Yes Large brow ridge somewhat smaller canine teeth a nonfunctional CP3 honing complex no diastema and possibly an anterior placed Foramen Magnum which may indicate bipedalism No Small brain size a Ushaped dental arcade and somewhat thin enamel o Orrorin tugenensis o The Lukeino Formation of the Tugen Hills of Kenya 0 Its paleoecology was a woodland and a savanna area 0 Hominid Yes suite of postcranial characters that indicate biped small teeth possess thick enamel No large upper canine o Ardipithecus ramidus and Ardipithecus kadabba o Northeastern part of Ethiopia nearthe Red Sea 0 Hominid Yes somewhat smaller canine and the anterior position of the foramen magnum which may indicate bideality No molars are apelike in size relatively thin enamel What environment did Ardipithecus ramidus live in o Dense forest inhabited by ancestors of modern colobine monkeys and forest antelopes Does this contradict where we thought we would find early hominids 0 Yes We expected to find the earliest hominids living in open savanna habitat not closed forests similar to those in which apes live today Make sure you knowthe terminology introduced in this lecture as well for example postcranium canineP3 honing complex prognathism valgus knee etc Vertebral Column the column of bones and cartilaginous disks that houses the spinal cord and provides structurl support and flexibility to the body Cervical Vertebrae the sevenneck vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae the twelve vertebrae of the thorax that hold the ribs Lumbar Vertebrae the five vertebrae of the lower back Sacrum the fused vertebrae that form the back of the pelvis Coccyx the fused tall vertebrae that are very small in humans and apes Foramen Magnum hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord connects to the brain lnnominate Bones os coxae the pair of bones that compose the lateral parts of the pelvis each innominate is made up of three bones that fuse during adolescence lschium portion of the innominate bone that forms the bony underpinning of the rump llium the blade of the innominate to which the gluteal muscles attach Pubis portion of the innominate that forms the anterior part of the birth canal Gluteal Muscles gluteus maximus medius and minimus the muscles of walking which have undergone radical realignment in habitual bipeds Femoral Condyles the enlarged inferior end of the femur that forms the top of the knee joint Tarsals foot bones that form ankle and arches of the foot Metatarsals five foot bones that join the tarsals to the toes and form a portion of the longitudinal arch of the foot Phalanges bones that form the fingers and toes CP3 Honing Complex combination of canine and first premolar teeth that form a selfsharpening apparatus Australopithecus the common name for members of the genus Australopithecus Megadontia enlarged teeth Type specimen according to the laws of zoological nomenclature the anatomical reference specimen for the species definition Cranial Crests bony ridges on the skull to which muscles attach Sagittal Crest bony crest running lengthwise down the center of the cranium on the parietal bones for the attachment of the temporalis muscles Compound Temporonuchal Crest bony crest at the back of the skull formed when an enlarged temporalis muscle approaches enlarged neck nuchal muscles present in apes and A afarensis Breccia cementlike matrix of fossilized rock and bone Many important South African early humans have been found in breccias Endocast A replica or cast of the internal surface of the braincase that reflects the impressions made by the brain on the skull walls Natural endocasts are formed by the filling of the braincase by sediments HardObject Feeding chewing tough hardtobreak food items such as nuts or fibrous vegetation Muscles of mastication the chewing muscles masseter temporalis medial and lateral pterygoids Postorbital Constriction the pinchingin of the cranium just behind the orbits where the temporalis muscle sits Little constriction indicates a large brain and a small muscle great constriction indicates a large muscle as in the robust Australopithecus o Zygomatic Arch the bony arch formed by the zygomatic cheek bone and the temporal bone of the skull o Osteodontokeratic Culture a bone tooth and horn tool kit envisioned by Raymond Dart to be made by Australopithecus o Postcranium all parts of the skeleton except for the skull o Prognathism projection of the face well in front of the braincase o Valgus Knee Lecture 19 Australopithecines Starting with this lecture you will need to know the specific skull morphologies of several species or taxa robust australopithecines Homo erectus Neandertals and anatomically modern Homo sapens You can consider these groups to be similar in the main features while recognizing that several species might exist within the group eg there are three robust australopithecine species but we will consider their similarities rather than their differences similarly Homo erectus can be divided into multiple species but we won t do so Additionally think about the australopithecine morphology as a starting point in the continuum towards AMH I recognize that robust australopithecines were an evolutionary dead end but the traits they exhibited to a great degree were also found in more moderate forms in the gracile australopiths which could have evolved into the genus Homo So consider the australopithecine morphology as a starting point for the morphological trends leading from the australopiths to early Homo Homo erectus archaic Homo sapens and AMH Traits such as face and teeth size prognathism and brain size are included in these trends Be generally familiar with the different species in order and their geographic locations I won t ask a lot of specific questions but you should understand some of the basics o graciles came before robusts 25 mya was important because of A gahrl stone tools and robusts etc What can we learn about australopithecine locomotion from A afarensis 0 Lucy o A afarensis is clearly an accomplished biped with a pelvis with short broad iliac blades that curve around the side of the animal What are the two main interpretations of A afarensis locomotion o The Stony Brook perspective states that the pongid morphology of this species means something 0 They suggest that these creature were inefficient bipeds that spent most of their time in the trees 0 The LovejoyKent State perspective states that this species was actually a superbiped o This means that they had better pelvic structures than ours which was suitable for bipedal locomotion 0 They also argue that the pongid features were simply holdovers and do not have any effect on the specie s modes of locomotion What traits of A afarensis are ancestral and which are derived 0 Derived large molars and thick enamel eventually disappeared through the process of evolution 0 Ancestral prognathic face cranial crests sagittal and compound temporonuchal still placed a a premium on chewing dental arcade U shaped large anterior teeth parallel rows of cheek teeth shallow palate In what ways was A africanus derived compared to A afarensis 0 There is less cresting and prognathism 0 They have larger brains 0 They also have a parabolic dental arcade What can we learn about cognitive ability and brain size regarding tool use if we consider A gahrito have been the first tool maker Small brain 0 Prominent prognathic face 0 Large canines o Sagittal crest What skull traits are found in the robust australopithecines o It had cranial cresting o It had huge postcanine teeth 0 And it had small incisors and canines What does this tell us about their diet 0 Coarse tough food requiring a lot of chewing Why do we have difficulty pinpointing the dates of many of the South African fossils o The leopards would eat small primates and store their food in trees 0 Their fossials would many times wind up underground in limestone caves o In these locations vertical shafts and toofs would collapse damaging the fossils 0 Lecture 20 Early Homo amp Homo erectus Slide two gives a list of the trends we have been talking about in the human fossil record Which australopithecine species might have been directly ancestral to the genus Homo Why do we think so 0 Gracile Australopithecines 0 Both the A afarensis and A africanus species were considered strong cadidates for the missing link 0 Australopithecus garhi o The species lived 25 million years ago in East Africa 0 Whether the garhi used tools is still up for debate 0 However its limb portions are quite close to that of modern humans What is confusing about the early Homoquot material 0 Bone and teeth characteristics quite different from those of the Australopithecines What different morphological complexes do we see 0 Larger more rounded brain case Smaller less projecting face Smaller teeth Larger body o More efficient striding bipedalism How have some people treated the material ie how many species have been named o The Lumper argument states that all of these findings represent a single species Homo habilis o In general this way of classifying specimens states that there is a great deal of intraspecific variation within a single species allowing for anomalies to occur 0 The Splitter argument states that these findings represent at least two different species Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis o In general this way of classifying specimens states that even subtle interspecific variations can be enough to distinguish between different species What is unusual about OH 62 0 Almost all the features of the skull closely resemble habilis fossils such as OH 24 ER 1813 and ER 1470 rather than the australopithecines But the estimated height is very small maybe about 105 cm 3395quot and the arms are very long in proportion to the legs These are australopithecine traits and in fact the skeletal bones are very similar to those of Lucy This find is significant because it is the only fossil in which limb bones have been securely assigned to habilis Because of the small size this was almost certainly a female As with the australopithecines males would have been considerably larger How would you describe Oldowan tools 0 Comprised of Basalt and Quartzite specimens that have been carved with few of the flakes remaining What fossil or archaeological evidence can distinguish hunting from scavenging 0 Hunting bands of early humans may have courageously attacked and slaughtered large and dangerous game 0 Savenging Fought off large predators such as sabertooth cats to gain access to significant amounts of meat and marrow or crept nervously up to decomposing nearly stripped carcasses to glean a few scraps of meat and fat 0 Human made cut marks on top of carnivore tooth marks What three species all lived at 18 mya in East Africa 0 A boisei H habilis early Homo H erectus Which ones went extinct and which one persisted o Homo erectus winner What allowed that one to persist o Largeer brain 980 cc ave Smaller face smaller teeth What are the three main opinionsinterpretations about Homo erectus 0 Single worldwide species 0 The first camp explains that H erectus represents the one worldwide human ancestral species in this time period 0 Split into several species 0 The second splits the genus Homo into three separate species The African species is Homo ergastor The Asian species is Homo erectus The European species is Homo antecessor o Abolish Hama erectus and just use Homo sapiens o The third camp suggests that the H erectus should be abolished and that just the Homo sapiens classification should be used for all of these findings How did glacial advance and retreat affect Homo erectus migrations o Migrations were most likely influenced by glacial action 0 Glacial advance caused sea levels to decrease exposing land bridges 0 And glacial retreat caused sea levels to rise covering land bridges up again At what sites did we find Homo erectus materials 0 East Africa North Africa Indonesia China Spain What morphological features are common with Homo erectus o Sagittal keel Supraorbital torus brow ridge Alveolar prognathism Long low cranial vault Occipital torus No chin Increasing brain and body size with time Robust postcranial features Wide lower skull To what climate was the Nariokotome boy adapted and what did we learn from his skeleton about limb proportions and speech ability 0 West Turkana Kenya East Africa 0 The boy s limb proportions match those of the equatorial populations discovered with a humerofemoral index of 75 o It is not likely that this species was capable of speech because it had no hybrid bone and the holes in its vertebrae were not large enough to support speech How would you characterize the individuals from Dmanisi Small brains Premolar and molar tooth structure Brow ridges High cranial vault How do we know that they might have helped out an old man in their group 0 One had no teeth which poses interesting questions about how he prepared his food and whether he could survive on his own or needed the assistance of others in the group Make sure to know something about the Indonesian and Chinese H erectus history and morphology What have we learned about H erectus behavior from the site of Zhoukoudian 0 Characteristics 0 Long low cranial vault Suprtoral sulcus High supraorbital torus Occiptal torus Alveolar prognathism o No chin Findings suggest that the individuals living there were huntergatherers or potentially scavengers 0 Deer horses and other animal remains were found in the same location as the H erectus remains 0 Fruits berries and Ostrich eggs were also found there At first it was believed that the remnants of a fire ring had been found at the site but further investigation suggets that it was actually a collection of organic residue from puddles There is also evidence suggesting that these individuals were capable of speech including a lateralized brain and low vocal tract Plenty of awls and what appear to be bone needles were also found at the site suggesting that these individuals made clothing 0000 What evidence might tell us that a hominid population practiced cannibalism 0 Broken bits of bone What are Acheulian tools like 0 Bifaces a stone tool that has been flaked on two faces or opposing sides forming a cutting edge between the two flake scars 0 Hand axe usually teardropshaped with a long cutting edge 0 Cleaver usually oblong with a broad cutting edge on one end Lecture 21 Archaics amp Neandertals What is the main reason why this set of fossil materials is placed in our species 0 Why are these individuals still considered archaic o More parallel but thick vault big face less prognathism inflated cheeks less post orbital constriction arching supraorbital torus occipital torus Be somewhat familiar with the early archaic specimens in Africa Asia and Europe but don t worry about memorizing too much detail Remember that the early archaic morphology in Europe foreshadowed the Neandertal morphology of later European archaics amp that with the early European archaics we see better hunting evidence 0 The foods found at these sites included fruits veggies seeds nuts bird eggs and marine resources 0 On the French coast wooly rhinos and mammoths were found along with new tool specimens 0 In Germany six foot spears dating back 400 thousand years ago were found 0 In England cuts were found underneath tooth marks on many bone fragments as well as a wounded horse scapula presumably from a spear What cranial and postcranial traits did the Neandertals exhibit What explanations are there for the postcranial characteristics 0 Cranial Morphology o The brain was between 1200 and 1740cc with an average of 1478cc An occipital bun is present as opposed to an occipital torus They had a large cranial vault They had large shoveled incisors Their faces were larger with arched brow ridges They had large noses Their cheeks were inflated 000000 0 And they exhibited midfacial prognathism as opposed to maxillary prognathism o Postcranial Morphology 0 They had robust short distal limbs 0 Their body size was sexually dimorphic Males were about 5 65 and 143lbs Females were about 5 3 and 110lbs 0 They lived in a very cold environment glacial Europe 0 They apparently lived in harsh conditions as evidenced by a great deal of bone damage found in the specimens 0 They also exhibit a great deal of laterality Their right arms were thicker and more robust than their left 0 They were also highly carnivorous Be familiar with the important Neandertal sites and specimens and with the evidence of Neandertal symbolic behavior 0 Sites 0 Belgium First fossil hominid ever found 0 Germany Neander Valley Original Neandertal specimen First adult Neandertal specimen was found there 0 France La ChepilleauxSaints 40 thousand year old specimen was found Skull and skeleton of the specimen were excavated 0 France La Ferrassie Site appeared to be burial site containing adult males females and subadults Late Mousterian tools were also found at this site 0 Specimens 0 Croatia ESR dating shows that the specimens found in Croation date back 130 thousnd years Over 800 fragments of adult and juvenile specimenas were excavated Signs of fire use were found as well Cut marks and burn marks were found in the mandibles and vaults o This suggests that cannibalism was practiced among this group 0 The Neandertal bones showed the same processing marks as animal bones found in the area 0 Shandiar Specimens between 50 and 40 thousand years old were found in the Zargos Mountains in Iraq They exhibited typical Neandertal morphology Evidence of flower burials was also found at the site Injured remains were found as well suggesting that the injured and sick were cared for o Habitation and Substance o Caves rock shelters and some openaired sites appear to have been the most common living areas of Neandertals o It also appears that these sites were occupied for long periods of time Spears were found with projectile points 0 Evidence of hunting specifically large animals and marine resources was found at these sites as well 0 Signs of cannibalism were also found 0 Symbolic Behavior 0 Articulate speech may have been possible in some Neandertals ln Kebara Israel 60 thousand year old specimens were found to have a hyoid bone the bone that enables speck in humans 0 Signs of burial were found including a large number of burial pits o It is also believed that grave goods were placed at these burial sites Flowers dating back 50 to 40 thousand years ago were found at Shandiar At TeshikTash goat horns dating back 70 thousand years ago were found 0 Art pieces were also found including carved animal teeth at Arcysur we dating back 34 thousand years ago 0 What types of tools did Neandertals make and where did they tend to live How did they hunt o Mousterian tools were the tools most associated with Neandertals o This tool set contained the first evidence of hafting affixing rock blades to wooden sticks and additional types of tools 0 Soft hammer made from bones and antlers and evidence of retouching are present in this tool set 0 Levallois Flakes a tool construction technique dating back 300 to 200 thousand years ago is present in this set as well 0 This technique resulted in a prepared core through the process of flaking which required a great deal of forethought How did dentition and tool quality change over time in general notjust with Neandertals and what does this tell us about dietary and technological adaptations of the ancient hominids 0 Lecture 22 Modern Human Origins What are the anatomical traits of anatomically modern humans 0 The cranium of the AMH has the following characteristics 0 Rouded vertical skull with a high maximum width 0 No browridge 0 Small face and teeth 0 Chin which serves as extra bone support for chewing o The postcranial morphology of an AMH consists of less robust longer and thinner bones o Behavioral changes specifically in tool technology lagged behind these morphological changes What are the two main hypotheses for modern human origins and what are the predictions of each 0 African Replacement AR 0 AR is also known as the out of Africaquot hypothesis 0 Recent African Speciation Separate species of archaics migrated out of Africa and replaced the other species of human ancestors in Asia and Europe 0 Predictions The first AMHs appeared in Africa There was an abrupt change between dominating species There is no continuity of morphology or shared genes among species 0 Multiregional Evolution MRE o MRE is also known as the regional continuityquot hypothesis 0 Homo erectus dispersal created a web of gene flow across continents 0 Continuous migration and interbreeding lead to the creation of relatively homogenous populations 0 Predictions There are a number of transitional fossils spread throughout Africa Asia and Europe There exists a regional continuity of morphological traits Tools and genes were shared between the archaics and AMHs What are the main fossils of this time period 0 Are they fully modern o By the time AMHs reached Australia they were considered fully modern Do they still show archaic features or features indicating hybridization What are these features 0 A morphological mix was present in this specimen o It had Neandertallike short distal limbs o It also had an AMHlike chin small teeth and nose How can we interpret these features What happened in the Levant as far as modern human and Neandertal occupations What tools were used by modern humans and Neandertals in the Levant o The speciments found between 1929 and 1934 date back between 110 and 90 thousand years ago Their average brain size was about 1500cc Seven adults and three subadults were found Mousterian tools were present at the site and appeared to be alternating between Neandertal and AMHs at different times They also featured variable morphological traits some of which were modern Why do we knowthat the first Australians to reach Australia must have been fully human consider how they got there o It is theorized that AMHs came from Borneo Java and New Guinea to the island of Australia by some sort of watercraft Knowthe three lines of evidence and which evidence supports which hypothesis If you understand the hypotheses you should be able to reason out which evidence supports which one o Paleontological o Transitional forms existed as well as a continuity of morphology in Africa AR 0 This continuity may have existed in Asia and Europe as well MRE 0 There existed a geological patterning in the appearance of the fossils AR 0 The Near East might have the earliest AMH specimen MRE 0 Archaeological o Sophisticated tools first appeared in Africa AR 0 Early LSA tools were not that different from MSA tools MRE 0 Rapid replacement of tool technology occurred in Europe AR 0 Only MSA tools were found in Levant MRE 0 Genetic o Humans are genetically homogenous AR 0 lnterbreeding could explain this homogeneity MRE 0 Current African DNA exhibits more variation and shows coalescence at about 200 to 150 thousand years ago AR 0 Africa is a large continent with a large population and some genes appeared earlier and outside of Africa MRE o mtDNA in Neandertals differed from that in AMHs AR 0 14 of Eurasian nuclear DNA appears to match up with Neandertal DNA MRE What are the advantages of the two main hypotheses 0 AR Advantages 0 An emphasis is placed on AMH competitiveness o This hypothesis helps to explain uniform morphology o MRE Advantages 0 An emphasis is placed in AMH gene flow 0 This hypothesis helps to explain regional variation Be familiar with the technological advancements of the Upper Paleolithic especially in Europe 0 Solutrean blades were found dating back 21 thousand years ago 0 Tool industries of the Late Stone Age 0 Chatelperronian o Aurignacian o Gravettian o Solutrean o Magdalenian o It appears that through time tool protection became more efficient 0 Blade Tools Assembly Line Production 0 The hammer and punch and pressure flaking methods were both used 0 Composite Tools Atlatl Spear Thrower o The spear thrower increased the force speed and accuracy of a projectile spear usually used for hunting large game Lecture 23 Forensic Anthropology In what context do forensic anthropologists work 0 Forensic Anthropology is the use of archaeological and biological anthropological skills to recover and identify human remains in a legal or humanitarian context What are the three main stages of forensic cases 0 Recovery or accidental discovery 0 Laboratory work 0 Report of findings or testifying What are the different aspects of the biological profile 0 Age 0 Sex 0 Ancestry 0 Height and weight 0 Disease ortrauma How is each one determined from a skeleton 0 Age 0 The age of young individuals is most accurately determined through dental eruption analysis 0 The age of older individuals is more accurately determined through an analysis of the attachments and growth plates of long bones specifically the diaphysis and epiphyseal plates 0 General wear on teeth and bones can be used to identify age as well 0 The size and shape of the pubic symphisis is analyzed when determining the age of an adolescent 0 Sex 0 The following is a list of cranial characteristics that can be used to identify sex Males have more robust skulls than females Males have a square jaw and chin Males have larger brow ridges than females Males foreheads are sloped females are slightly protruding Males have larger teeth than females Males also have a larger mastoid process than females 0 Though these traits are generally distinguishing characteristics the degree to which they can accurately determine sex depends on the population 0 The following is a list of pelvic traits that can be used to identify sex Females have a wider pelvic outlet than males Females have a sacrum that is tilted back males have a forward tilting sacrum o Ancestry 0 There are characteristic differences between people from European Asian and African descent 0 Height and weight 0 The bones that contribute to a person s stature can be measured to gain knowledge on height 0 Measurements taken on incomplete portions of these bones can be multiplied to gain a rough estimate of total bone length 0 More massive bodies put more weight on their bones thus their bones will be more robust 0 Disease ortrauma o Antemortem trauma occurred before death and is evidenced by signs of healing or change in bone shape 0 Perimortem trauma occurred at or around the time of death and is generally related to the cause of death or coverup attempts o Postmortem trauma occurred after death and is due to the effects of taphonomic processes How can moleculargenetic information be used in forensic cases 0 DNA information can be extracted from teeth bone and hair samples 0 Genetic markers can point out individual traits about the person in some cases 0 Generally this kind of information can determine whether forensic anthropologists have a match with the person in question Lecture 24 Biocultural Evolution Why are biology and culture inextricably linked in humans 0 Biocultural evolution is an evolutionary process that is the result of culture s interaction with biology throughout human evolutionary history 0 The human predisposition for culture is perhaps one of the most critical aspects of human evolution and as such has had significant effects both on human and nonhuman biology How does culture affectinfluence evolution 0 Some examples of biocultural adaptations would be lactose intolerance the maintenance of the sicklcell allele in some tropical areas and cold adaptation What are the biocultural aspects of childbirth growthmaturation menopausesenescence infectious disease and diet 0 Childbirth o The biological aspects include changes in pelvic morphology head size and the necessity of bipedal efficiency Lucy was more bipedally efficient than us 0 The cultural aspects include medical intervention midwives and c sections GrowthMaturation o The biological aspects include genetic inheritance of physical characteristics dental eruption size increase and puberty o The cultural aspects include the changing role of the child as laborer vs student and the quality of nourishment o MenopauseSenescence o The biological aspects include the development of a lengthy post reproductive lifespan and the breakdown of the body over time o The cultural aspects include medical intervention fertility aids bone density aids and the institution of laterlife care 0 Infectious Disease 0 The biological aspects include increasingly strong immune system and varying disease ecologyepidemiology o The cultural aspects include the shift to sedentary living migratory patterns sexual practices STD transmission the separation ofthe sick from the population and the creation of medicine Film Ape to Manquot from the History Channel available online You should knowthe main discoveries in order and the people who discovered them How were these discoveries generally received What was Piltdown s role in influencing the paradigm of the day
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