6 Note for COMM 420 with Professor Connolly-Ahern at PSU
6 Note for COMM 420 with Professor Connolly-Ahern at PSU
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Pennsylvania State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
Reviews for 6 Note for COMM 420 with Professor Connolly-Ahern at PSU
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
Social Science Research 1 Know the de nitions of research How is research impacted by epistemology Understand the differences between the pre modern modern and post modern paradigms Research 7 the patient systematic study to learn new things about communication things that neither you nor I nor anybody else ever knew before Research is impacted by epistemology by because the study of how we come to know things will impact how researchers reach conclusions about the answers to research questions 2 Know Kerlinger s ways of knowing and what makes the scienti c method unique Understand the ve tenets of the scienti c method Kerlinger and Lee s ways of knowing are tenacity authority intuition and science The Scienti c Method 7 the process of systematically using observation to form theories about phenomena which are tested empirically in order to gain understanding The scienti c method is unique because communication researchers who take a scienti c approach model their methods after those used in the physical sciences and as articulated by philosophers They start with a problem and propose a theory which predicts that if the proposed solution is correct certain events ought to occur under certain circumstances and uses the results of the observation to con rm modify re ne or reject theory The scienti c method is also selfcorrecting is always public knowledge and its openness and detailed descriptions of procedures available for reproduction Scienti c method addresses questions of fact and not value Scienti c research is truth 39 t 1 3 Know what is measurable and make sure you understand the differences between the three types of measurables in the social sciences The following are measurable Direct observables 7 the woman s dress is purple Indirect observables 7 the designer logo indicates the dress is expensive but we didn t see her pay Constructs 7 theoretical creations based on observation but which is not direct or indirectly observable the woman is status conscious 4 Know the phases of mass media research remembering the examples I gave of the kinds of research projects that t into each area Phase 1 7 Research on the medium itself Phase 2 7 Research on uses and users Phase 3 7 Research on medium s effects Phase 4 7Researcher on medium improvement 5 Understand the scienti c method How does it relate to the social sciences The scienti c method studies social sciences empirically which means capable of being veri ed through observation 6 What kind of questions can communications research answer Questions of de nition fact value and policy How to improve the human condition involves studying how humans encode transmit and receive symbols to in uence one another follow certain prescribed rules collection and analysis of data and asking a questions addressing an important aspect of communication Theory and Research 1 How is academic research different from proprietary research Why is academic research important to a theory s self correctiveness Academic research is more theoretical and uses public data Academic researchers are free to choose research topics and is less expensive than private sector research However research methodologies don t different between academia and the private sector Because academic research is public other scholars are likely to catch mistakes through a process of controlled systematic observation 2 What is a theory How are theories related to variables and constructs Why is prediction such an important part of theory development What is the function of control Theory 7 statements about the relationships among abstract concepts or variables A communication theory provides explanations for and predictions about communication phenomena and their effects Sc1ence has four purposes 397 Description 7 constructs build a variable Explanation 7 independent and dependent variable Prediction 7 hypotheses and operational de nition the more a theory can predict the more useful it is Control 7 control the notion of causality the attempt to make dependent variables take on desirable values 3 Understand the difference between induction and deduction Why are they associated with particular research paradigms Why do I refer to research as a cycle Deductive Relationships between variables is theorized Observation research used to con rm the theory Inductive Everything about a phenomenon is studied Theory is developed from observations Observation 7 deductive Theory 7 inductive Research is a cycle because it depends on where you are comfortable starting in the cycle whether it is observation or making a theory or inductive or deductive research 4 Know the major communications theories we discussed in class What are the assumptions of each theory In which communications disciplines have they been used Understand the kind of research related to each theory S 7 39 asks why people engage in media behaviors Assumes that audiences are aware of and can articulate their rationale for making media choices Used to examine media consumers and simple needs satis ed by the media 1 1 7 the public s agenda is shaped by their exposure to the media McCombs and Shaw conducted rst empirical studying linking quantity of media coverage given to particular issues and the public perception that those issues were important Ethics 1 The common assumption of agenda setting is that the ability of the media to in uence the visibility of events in the public mind has been a part of our culture for almost half a century Therefore the concept of agenda setting in our society is for the press to selectively choose what we see or hear in the media Agenda Building seeks to understand how the media agenda is set focuses on opinion leaders Framing ak a secondlevel agenda setting seeks understand how the media portray certain issues Starting in political communication but now used in all area Frames have been found but effects are unclear Methods content analysis surveys most important problem longitudinal research some experimentation u 7 organizations are part of an environment made up of multiple systems that have an interest in a corporation s activities stakeholders Public Relations functions as a boundary spanner between corporations and the environment Systems theory is used to examine the relationship between an organization and various publics Assumes that there are universal principles of organization which hold for all systems be they physical chemical biological mental or social 7 Theorizes that individuals or groups accept new ideas by going through 5 steps Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption Diffusion research centers on the conditions which increase or decrease the likelihood that a new idea product or practice will be adopted by members of a given culture Diffusion of innovation theory predicts that media as well as interpersonal contacts provide information and in uence opinion and judgment 7 People can lea1n new behaviors simply by observing others even through mass med1a Assumes that the likelihood that behaviors will be imitated is determined by anticipated rewards or consequences of the behavior Intemal Extemal What is the likelihood of finding a uni ed communications theory Why There is no unified theory because current trends favor complex theories of communications based on a multivariate model There is no single theory to explain communication and its effects TV is more studied than other forms of media Academic research has focused more on information and program than on advertising and public relations Why do social scientists have such a huge responsibility to behave ethically Social scientists must behave ethically because Ethics concerns questions of value and thus the result of empirical research is ultimately in the individual and the locus of the answer to value questions lies within us Rules of scholarship 7 many of us have assumed certain rules and ethical procedures Humans participate in our research project and thus we cannot just retrieve knowledge from our participants and skip debrie ng which should erase all negative effects Ethical Responsibility 7 Includes a clearly thought out research plan tied closely to the research question or hypotheses under test They must also ensure that those who are working with him or her understand the implications of the research and must take responsibility for the actions of these assistants as well as ensure that all involved are treated fairly and equitably For QUESTIONS OF VALUE RESEARCHERS shoulder the ethical responsibility Know the de nitions of the three schools of ethical theory we discussed in class Think about the t V s of research 39ud ments each might lead researchers to make Consequentialist ethics bases decisionmaking on the best outcome for the largest group that also results in the least harm Of the three theories consequentialism is perhaps the most exible because of its focus on outcomes This theory has been promulgated in business literature because of its utility principle however its weakness is also its focus on possible consequences simply because it is not easy to foresee all potential outcomes Deontological eth1cs is a dutybased approach which focuses the individual s ethical decisions on his or her duty to others The decisionmaker uses traditional values such as honesty fairness and loyalty This theory is perhaps less exible because it bases actions on established moral imperatives Choices are more restrictive because of the duty owed to others Virtue ethics 1s based on the classical concept of values promulgated by Aristotle Decisionmakers themselves form the framework for this theory Of the three theories virtue ethics is the only one that focuses on the individual s moral stature rather than the morality of the act itself A moral actor will base his or her decisions on ingrained values rather than consequences or duty However the individual is part of a community so the virtues valued by the community affect the individual decisionmaker39s thought processes A culture39s values are incorporated into the individual39s ethical framework Understand the importance of an informed consent and its relationship to the main principles of social science research ie nonmaleficence the ethical principle of doing no harm and voluntary participation Informed consent tells your participants basically what they will be doing you don t have to tell them exactly what your purpose is and must allow them to decline participation The must be able to withdraw at any point in the study The Consent Form or the introduction to the survey tells the prospective subject approximately what you are doing and how it will be done and any potential risks to be identified Both the researcher and volunteer must sign the form Voluntary participation is a core ethical principle in conducting research If a person has taken the time and effot in good faith to participate in a study or if they were required to participate after reading the consent form to receive the promised credit the researcher would be exercising a degree of coercion to induce participation What is concealment How is it different from deception Think about examples in which either might be acceptable How is debrie ng related to deception quotConcealmentquot is involved when the researcher intentionally does not reveal initially to the participant all details of the protocol not the whole truth quotDeceptionquot is involved when participants intentionally are told something untrue not the truth Immediately after participation participants must be told of such deception and the reason for it explained because uch of social science research engages in some form of deception Also may be necessary with your confederate who knows only as much as is needed to do his or her job Know the difference between anonymity and con dentiality What is the best way to protect participants Anonymity means that no one even the researcher knows who gave which responses BEST Con dentiality means that only the researcher knows who gave the responses About the movie Understand the importance of the Tuskegee syphilis experiments What are the legacies of Tuskegee in the African American community In social science as a whole The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was unethical because it dehumanized a sector of the human population and deceived everyone entirely and falsify treatments Documentary research 1 Why do social scientists begin their work with a review of previous literature Why is it an important step in the research process Literature review presents the relevant literature pertaining to your topic and functions to look again at the reports of what others have done in a related area This establishes your perspective of the relevant literature This review sets the author s rationale his or her theoretical perspective and presents the context the previous research he or she feels lead up to the research questions or hypotheses addressed The literature review will culminate in a written argument for conducting the research What s the difference between primary and secondary research Primary 7 original sources Secondary 7 compilations of others work Know the bene ts and limitations of documentary research Benefits Different perspective from different people So many sources Limitations Just because a source is listed in a database does not mean it is good or even relevant INSTITUTE Data may be unreliable no control Know the main sources of documentary research and the kinds of information you might find from each source Print Books 7 indepth analysis of its topic and provide historical perspective and theoretical perspective Two types of books 7 for general public and advanced readers Periodicals 7 magazines some are developed for general public and do not provide thoroughly tested sources of information Second are journals which are usually produced by a professional organization and re ects the ideas and interests of that organization It is more complex than publications intended for a general audience and typically have expert review boards Third type is the newsletter produced by special interest groups to present ideas and events which often provide information that the more formal sources cannot The fourth type is newspaper which is like the generalaudience magazine the paper presents information from less technical and theoretical perspective but provides an extremely timely source of information Newspapers are important in conducting historical research Electronic Documents 7 includes published and unpublished resources stored in computer systems such as the ERIC This may also take the form of audiovisual materials Measurement and Instrumentation 1 Know the definitions of a concept and a construct How are they related Concept 7 abstract idea generalized from particulars Construct 7 a specific kind of concept eg conservatism fear happiness credibility consists of expertise likeability and trustworthiness 2 What is a variable Know the different kinds of variables What are the levels of variable measurement Go over the readings and your labs to make sure you can identify each type Variable 7 a phenomena or events that are measured or manipulated in research in order to gather information about a construct or concept Independent 7 measured or manipulated by researchers and cases changes in dependent variables Dependent 7 variables thought to be caused by an independent variable Sometimes a variable can be both independent and dependent depending on the question 3 Know the difference between an index and a scale Scaling is the process of measuring or ordering entities with respect to quantitative attributes or traits Indexes are similar to scales except multiple indicators of a variable are combined into a single measure The index of consumer confidence for example is a combination of several measures of consumer attitudes 4 Know the elements of the different scaling methods including Guttman semantic differential Liker t like and Thurstone scaling Know which are used frequently and infrequently in advertising and public relations research Guttman 7 Defines a continuum of belief within a construct through the assumption that people will agree with an intense position will agree with all less intense positions Measures only one variable Takes a great time and energy to develop and rarely used in media research expect political communications Semantic Differential 7 Asks subjects to choose between antonyms or opposite positions honestdishonest It is based on the concept of semantic space and positive negative items must be ipped to avoid a response set Likertlike 7 large number of favorable and unfavorable statements are generated bout an object and pilot tested Measure ment technique is based on standard response categories strongly agree neither agree and a smaller number of representative items are chosen Results are generally factor analyzed to determine construct validity Thurstone 7 Used to measure attitude Usually over 100 positive and negative statements about an object are generated and require professional judges IT IS VERY EXPENSIVE TO CREATE RARELY DONE Know what an operational de nition is An operational de nition is a speci c statement about which phenomena are to be observed to measure a construct It is often based on answers to questions about aparticipant s knowledge attitudes opinions behaviors selfreports Know the definitions of reliability and validity How is reliability usually established Know the types of reliability and validity Make sure you understand that bull s eye analogy Reliability 7 a measure of quality of your research methodology suggests the likelihood that the same data would be collected anytime the same phenomenon is observed 07 or better Intercoder reliability 7 how many times coders agree on their observation Cohen s kappa Measurement item reliability 7 how consistent the respondents are in their responses KR20 Testretest reliability 7 test reliability over time Pearson r Splithalf reliability 7 how one part relates to the second half Pearson r Internal consistency reliability 7 examining the extent to which several measures that appear on the same questionnaire and are designed to measure the same variable are in agreement KR20 test Instrument error Application error and random error Validity 7 An indivation of how accurately you re measuring the concept you want to measure Face validity 7 makes sense on its face Content validity 7 the measure covers all the facets of a concept Criterion predictive validity 7 validity based on external behavioral criteria Construct validity 7 determines how well concepts and theories have been translated into measures Why do reliability and validity seem to have an inverse relationship Without measurement reliability the researcher has measured nothing But reliability by itself is equally useless unless within the context of the purpose of a study the measure is also valid Getting a job at Sears to measure job satisfaction of retail employees would give a very valid measure However since the data you collected would be highly subjective and in uence by your relationship with other employees it might not very reliable A job satisfactions survey done by the company might be very reliable but fear of retribution for negative comments might make it invalid Think about the measurement lab we did in class what is the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis A theory is a wellestablished principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world A theory arises from repeated observation and testing and incorporates facts laws predictions and tested hypotheses that are widely accepted A hypothesis is a specific testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study For example a study designed to look at the relationship between study habits and test anxiety might have a hypothesis that states This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that students with better study habits will suffer less test anxiety Unless your study is exploratory in nature your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen during the course of your experiment or research While the terms are sometimes used interchangeably in general practice the difference between a theory and a hypothesis is important when studying experimental design Some important distinctions to note include A theory predicts events in general terms while a hypothesis makes a speci c prediction about a speci ed set of circumstances A theory is has been extensively tested and is generally accepted while a hypothesis is a speculative guess that has yet to be tested
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'