Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders
Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders Psy 202
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacquelyn Corpus on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 202 at Oregon State University taught by Patti Watkins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Identifying Psychological Disorders Mental disorder: persistent disturbance or dysfunction of behavior, thoughts or emotions that causes significant distress or disturbance 1 in 4 people experience a mental disorder int their lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) Medical model: the conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that, like physical diseases, have biological an environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures Drawbacks: ignore or minimize sociocultural factors that contribute to disorders —result in stigmatization Causation of Disorders and the Dangers of Labeling Stigma may occur when labeling people with psychological disorders - Roughly 70% of sufferers do not seek treatment - May lead to low self-esteem - May lead to discrimination - Organizations that combat stigma of mental illness - NationalAlliance for Mental Illness - Active Minds Biopsychosocial model: - Biological: genes, brain chemistry, brain structure/function - Psychological: behaviors, thoughts, emotional responses - Social: interpersonal circumstances, cultural influences, societal inequities Diathesis-stress model: suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress Anxiety Disorders and GAD Anxiety disorder: the class of mental disordering which anxiety is the predominant feature - Anxiety can be adaptive or maladaptive when it is disproportionate to real threats and challenges Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance - Roughly 5% of NorthAmericans - Occurs more in women - E.g. “worry warts,” relatively low level of anxiety, persists across situations, worries about realistic everyday events Phobic Disorders Phobic disorders: disorders characterized by marked, persistent and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations - Specific phobia: a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual’s ability to function - Social phobia: a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed Preparedness theory: the idea that people re instinctively predisposed toward certain fears — proposed by Martin Seligman - Evolution, heritability , and temperament argue for biological predispositions Phobias can also be classically conditioned —LittleAlbert-John Watson Specific Phobias Characterized by intense fear of particular objects or situations - Insects - Animals - The dark - Lightening - Heights - Flying - Needles, blood, doctors, dentists Marked by an intense and immediate fear, even panic, when confronted with every particular situations or objects Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder) Pronounced fear of humiliation in the presence of others Marked by severe self-consciousness about appearance or behavior or both - Public speaking anxiety - Dating anxiety - Performance anxiety (e.g sports, sex) - Social physique anxiety - Test anxiety Panic Disorder Panic disorder: a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute too feeling of stark terror —panic attacks - Approximately 22% of the U.S. population reports having at least one panic attack Agoraphobia: an extreme fear of venturing into public places —correlates with panic disorder Panic Disorder with or withoutAgoraphobia Panic attacks: sudden, short period of extreme anxiety involving physiological and psychological symptoms and intense fear - Characterized by 4 or more of the following symptoms - Sweating - Accelerated heart rate - Trembling or shaking - Feeling of Choking - Shortness of breath - Chest pain - Nausea or abdominal distress - Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded - Feelings of unreality - Fear of losing control - Fear of dying - Numbness or tingling sensations - Chills or hot flushes Agoraphobia: Intense fear of being in places from which escape might be difficult or in which help might not be able should a panic attack occur —escape or avoidance of these places Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive, thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual’s functioning - Roughly 1.3% of the population suffers - Moderate heritability Obsessions - Recurrent, persistent thoughts, impulses or images that are intrusive, inappropriate and distressing - Unwanted but uncontrollable - Not simply excessive worry about real-life problems - Contamination - Doubt - Need for Order - Impulses towardAggression - Sexual imagery Compulsions - Ritualistic, repetitive motor behaviors or mental acts intended to escape/avoid anxiety provoking-thoughts - Washing, counting, checking, repeating words or phrases, ordering Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Triggered by exposure to a catastrophic or horrifying event that poses serous harm or threat - SexualAssault/Violent attack - War Trauma - Natural Disaster (e.g. earthquake, flood) - Severe accident (e.g. car crash, house fire) Re-experiencing trauma Avoiding thoughts, feelings, and activities associated with the trauma Increased arousal, irritability, difficulty sleeping, or exaggerated startle response Depressive Disorders Depressive disorders: mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature - Women experience depression at twice the rate of men Major depressive disorder: a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts 2 weeks or more and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness and lack of pleasure, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbances - Characterized by pervasive low mood, lack of motivation, low energy and feelings of worthlessness and guilt the last for at least 2 consecutive weeks - Changes in sleep, appetite, weight - Suicidal ideation and behavior - Dysthymia: form of depression that is milder that major depressive disorder Dysthymia: a disorder that involves the same symptoms as in depression only less severe, but the symptoms last longer, pressing for at least 2 years Mood Disorders and Depressive Disorders Seasonal affective disorder: depression that involves recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern Post partum depression: depression that occurs after the birth of a child Biological and Psychological Factors Heritability estimates for major depression range from 33% to 45% Depression may involve norepinephrine and serotonin and.or diminished activity in the left prefrontal cortex and increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex Aaron Beck noted dysfunctional attitudes (irrational thoguhts, cognitive distortions) and negative mood states in depressed individuals - Helplessness theory: the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (my fault), stable (always be my fault), an global (everything is my fault) - Depressed individuals tend to have depressive biases in thinking and memory Depression and Its Causes Combination of brain chemistry and life circumstance - Diathesis-stress model - Serotonin gene - Stressful events Suicide Risk and Prevention Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the U.S. 3rd among high school and collage students 50% who commit suicide do so during a depressive episode Suicide Demographic characteristics - In U.S. women make more attempts, men complete suicide more often - Age - Increasing among teens - 6% of college undergraduates contemplate - Older, white men are at greatest risk Risk Factors - Depression - Hopelessness - Recent loss - Major illness - Lack of social support - Suicidal ideation - Talking about ending one’s life - Giving away possessions - Past suicide attempts - Knowing someone who has committed suicide - Available means - Substance use/abuse Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder: an unstable emotional condition characterized by cycles of abnormal persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression) - Approximately 1.3% of people suffer - Rapid cycling bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder has the highest heritability (polygenic) amor the psychological disorders Biological causes (specific neurotransmitters) are difficult to substantiate Stressful life experiences often precede episodes Characterized by substantial mood fluctuations, a cycling between very low, and very high moods - Manic Episodes (Euphoric Mood) - Distractibility - Indiscretion (lack of impulse control) - Grandiosity - Flight of ideas - Activity increases - Sleep (need for) decreases - Talkativeness Schizophrenia: Losing the Grasp on Reality Schizophrenia: a disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes, a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in thought, motivation and behavior Occurs in about 1% Delusion: a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality Hallucination: a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation Disorganized speech: a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic Grossly disorganized behavior: behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances - Catatonic behavior: a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity Negative symptoms: emotional an social withdrawal, apathy, poverty of speech, and other indications of that absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion Major Symptoms - Positive - Hallucinations - Auditory (hearing voices) - Delusional thinking - False beliefs (often grandiose) - Disorganized thought and speech - Negative - Non-responsiveness - Emotional flatness - Immobility - Catatonia - Problems with speech - Inability to complete tasks - Cognitive - Problems working with memory - Attention - Verbal and visual learning and memory - Reasoning and problem solving - Speed of processing - Disordered speech - E.g. Word salad - Christmas teeth! Radiant brains! Biological and Psychological Factors Concordance rate increase greatly with biological relatedness Dopamine hypothesis: the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity Neuroimaging has revealed enlarged ventricles and progressive tissue loss in many cases of schizophrenia Disturbed family environment may affect development an recovery of schizophrenia Personality Disorders: Going to Extremes Personality disorder: disorder characterized by deeply ingrained inflexible patterns of thinking feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that cause distress or impaired functioning - Organized into 3 clusters: odd/eccentric, dramatic/erratic, and anxious/inhibited - 14.8% of the population has a personality disorder - Common feature is failure to take others’perspectives Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial personality disorder (APD): a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood - 3.6% of the population suffers —males outnumber females 3:1 - Individuals typically have a history of conduct disorder and may commit crimes Sociopathology and psychopathology describe people withAPD Newer theories suggest internal (biological) causes - Less sensitive to fear the brain
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