Latin American and Iberian Studies
Latin American and Iberian Studies
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Date Created: 04/04/14
Welcome Monolay March 31 ZQJ14 33 PM Today39s historical importance C sar Chavez Day In 1962 after working for many years as a community organizer he founded the organization which later became the United Farm Workers UFW As leader of the UFW Chavez organized agricultural laborers to protest and demand improvements in their working and living conditions The UFW motto of quotSi se puede or quotYes we can continues to resound as a timeless rallying cry to workers for social justice Check out this Presidential Proclamation released on the White House website httpwwwwhitehousegovthe press office20140328presidentiaIproclamationcesarchavez day2014 Basic questions and contexts Framework power relations relationships of power dentity Key considerations Complexity and contradictions NOTHING IS EVER SIMPLE Classifications What39s in a name What is Latin America What are the politics and power relationships connected to a name The term 39Latin America came about mid180039s and is rooted in 39Latin the origin of the languages most commonly spoken Spanish Portuguese and French What is America quotAmericaquot was used to designate the New World Naming theories Amerigo Vespucci the Italian cartographer that explored South America What is the West The occident The quotwestquot now tends to mean Europe US and Canada but originally was West in contrast to Europe Orient east of Europe oriri to rise ie where the sun rose Occident west of Europe occidere going down ie where the sun set What is Latin Romance Languages ie those derived from Latin also refers to Rome Italy Spanish Portuguese French Italian and Romanian Naming to Divide Term first used in mid 1800s Latin Europe versus Teutonic Europe German AngloSaxon America and Europe Great Britain and Slavic Europe eastern Europe France was crucial to these power games Lecture Notes Page 1 GIILJ JIGVIL LUI UPC CGDLCI II LUI France was crucial to these power games Latin America 1 Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries 2 All Americas south of the US 3 Countries where a romantic language is spoken Latin America Spanish Portuguese and French Should this include those parts of Canada that speak French Subdivisions include Geography politics language demographics culture etc What is Iberia The Iberian Peninsula includes Spain Portugal Andorra and Gibraltar owned by UK BUT this course will focus on Latin America Lecture Notes Page 2 Historical Review Monday April 17 ZQJ14 331 PM Review from last week Latin American studies involve the whole world Questions and Contexts Framework Power relations Notions of identity Key considerations Complexities and contradictions quotracequot as a category quotethnicityquot as a category quotnationalityquot as a concept quotidentityquot as a concept Social Categories What constitutes a category Where did it come from What does the terminology imply Prejudicial terminology for groups Historical Review Periodization Prehispanicprecolombian pre 1492 Colonial period 1492 182039s quotNationaquot period post 182039s after the Independence movements Modern era post 187039s The first era of Globalization the European Age of Exploration and the quotNew Worldquot European explorations of African coast Indian ocean and transatlantic voyages Economic potential trade in high value products such as gold black slaves and sugar Religious motivation wanting to convert natives to Christianity Gold Glory and God Exploration contact conquest and settlement Overseas expeditions as crown outsourcing Extension of sovereignty without cash outlay Crown exerts control when an area is clearly profitable Spain in the 140039s The Catholic Monarchy Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille unified two kingdoms Led to the creation of a viceroyalty in Aragon and the ascendance of Castille Sent Christopher Columbus an Italian mariner from Genoa to America The Caribbean Phase 1492 1519 Initial lack of understanding that this was a quotnew worldquot 1493 Columbus makes a second voyage and establishes a European settlement The first European settlers gain the most wealth and privilege Oppressed the indigenous for labor Initial Spanish patterns of contact conquest and establishing a settlement Establishment of permanent European settlements with European institutions Settled areas were a jumping point for subsequent explorations for those who sought more opportunity Hernan Cort s a prime example of a conqueror conquered the Aztecs of Mexico 1519 21 Lecture Notes Page 1 Modern political boundaries of Latin American countries In America 0 s 1 J quot q 39 V v J 39 39 39 6Ivy vcrcuoui s v 0050 g sokc 390 so 0 do 1 I x Yholohunu lUH39 than I 39 quot xIa Ooain Cb cm Ropobhc W I quotlt3 noun Hum 3990quot No II I 0 quotv 39n o W M 39quot AIQ 5llnrholi Ioondwu quotquot 39 O c 39imu Q A quotquot39 39 n quot3939 quot39 1quot 39 39 rt ix 56 Iunrbovu quotquotquot quot liavbsdcs 39 u 319 GquotOfldl Vnm oe we Iohogo 39 W DonoiSod 39 C01 I I M 02 n mu Guyana quotlquotlquot l 0 Sumumo 39ote 30400 n q ou o I M Ilnlh 9 JV t DINO Scoso 1 50000000 lrnlovvs Ur41 0 gym pApg Inn Uohmnr n 1 1 1 numo4at N U I 39 39 gr u mood Iv bgumu x c 5 r n 39 33 mum uwsphu o oAu hqeuv uoonuu my 3 l A39 39 39 uunu Iq Ingasoc tauso sunoo 3 90 Lecture Notes Page 2 Classifications Wednesday April 39 Z 14 336 PM Naming and Classifying Native Indians Europeans Africans Chinese Japanese and immigrants from all over the world are in Latin America Latinization significant parts of US society have become Latinized by influence of migrants from Mexico Puerto Rico Cuba etc Identity What is identity Are we multiple identities Identity is a constant process We are always changing There are many axes of identity including Race ethnicity culture linguistics class religion sexual gender age nationality etc It39s created through binary and division saying something is not this but that At any given moment and context one axis of identity is usually more dominant than the other What about gender quotGender is not something one is it is something one does it is a sequence of acts a doing rather than a beingquot Our integrated selves vs our multiple selves How does being part of a group become an identity in you Does it repress your other identities Race and Ethnicity as Categories What constitutes a category What does the terminology imply Prejudicial terminology for groups What is race What is ethnicity o Both are socially constructed Race I Biological It is in and through the body I A major division of human kind having distinct physical characteristics I A group of people with common features What are those features Is it simply the color of your skin I Social cultural sharing the same culture history language etc What is culture What is lifestyle These things need to be defined if you39re trying to understand something Ethnicity I An quotarguable and murky intellectual termquot and a quotproblematic wordquot I Arose from the social and political organization of cultural differences I Constructed identity I Engages notions of power struggles and hegemonic processes Tactics for Power Tactical management of ethnic identity Creation of elites and those in positions of power who draw upon distort and fabricate materials from the cultures of the groups they wish to represent in order to protect their own wellbeing or existence or to gain political and economic advantage for their groups as well as for themselves Money in exchange for power Lecture Notes Page 1 Historical Trajectory PreColombian America had diverse populations 0 There was no sense of common identity 0 Wide range of culture and language 0 Tens of millions of people spread over two continents 0 Three important civilizations Mayan Aztec and Incan Colonialization 0 Spanish began importing African slaves 15 million between 1518 1870 Mostly through Cuba and northern tip of South America 0 Races divided as indigenous European and African 0 Classifying people per race I Complex caste system I Facial features indicated mixing of races and defining roots Classification is in the eye of the beholder Virgin of Guadalupe is in the eye of the beholder Late Colonial Period 0 Forms of nationalism and criolloism emerged 0 Superiority of creoles Creoles Spaniards born outside of Europe Independence 0 Distinctions and rivalries between creoles and peninsulares Lecture Notes Page 2 Tambi n Ia Iluvia Even the Rain Monday April 14 ZD14 336 PM Takes place in Cochabamba Bolivia year 2000 Sebastian is directing a movie about Columbus first landing in Hispaniola They39re filming in Bolivia because everything is cheaper extras resources living costs The movie crew hosts an open casting for extras to which a lot of people show up to Daniel one of the men in line gets mad when the crew says they won39t be able to see everyone because his daughter Bel n wants to act Daniel gets hired as one of the main characters Costa the producer is against hiring Daniel for the movie because he seems like trouble Sebastian being idealistic as he is hires him anyways because he39s perfect for the part In their filming of the movie Columbus is shown making his demands of the natives honor the Catholic Church and the Holy Mother recognize the Spanish Crown and give gold to the Spanish If they don39t they39ll be enslaved mercilessly Bartolom de las Casas was a Spanish priest in Hispaniola who began supporting the native39s cause after seeing traumatizing massacres According to the actors de las Casas supported Spanish rule but under the native39s consent Antonio Montesinos was the first person to speak against Spanish wrongdoings against the indigenous people both by the Crown and the Church He was the quotfirst voice of conscience against an empirequot He preached his beliefs his entire life until he was later killed in Venezuela Daniel39s town is running out of water so the townspeople bought a well in a hill and are trying to make a ditch to transport the water to their small town Authorities close up the well under government orders Townspeople begin protesting against the government for taking over their basic necessities and enabling the privatization of water In his first letter to Spain Columbus refers to the natives as naive and too generous The extras on set are only getting paid 2 a day In the movie natives who didn39t collect enough gold for the Spanish were punished One native is shown getting his arm cut off Daniel is organizing the townspeople to take the water back from the government on march on the government They plan on blockading the city and roads unless the water is returned to them The mayor says that the indigenous people have mistrust of government embedded in their genes given their long history of exploitation Costa offers Daniel money to stop the demonstrations so that he won39t get in trouble because he39s important to the movie Daniel goes to the demonstration anyway and gets arrested Sebastian and Costa pay to get Daniel out ofjail but the warden39s condition is that Daniel has to return to jail after filming the movie In the movie Hatuey Daniel39s character one of the indigenous people39s leaders and 12 other men are burned on crosses as an example of what would happen to natives who ever defied the Crown and the Church Police arrive to arrest Daniel as soon as they finish filming The other extras stop the cops from leaving and Daniel escapes The city isn39t safe to stay in anymore because of civil unrest so the crew has to move to the countryside Bel n gets hurt in the demonstrations Teresa her mother asks Costa for help because he39s the only one who can get through the city and take her to the hospital Sebastian asks him not to go because the movie is more important Costa goes despite Sebastian39s opinion and the danger and violence faced in the city Costa takes Bel n to the hospital by paying for the right to drive In the end the crew decides to fly back to Spain because they39re scared the movie will be filmed elsewhere We don39t know whether the water strike was won Costa tells Daniel that he39ll help with Be n39s future surgeries but he doesn39t plan on returning to Bolivia Lecture Notes Page 1 The Interoceanic Highway Weolnesday April 16 2014 330 PM From Peruvian Coast to the Brazilian Amazon on the Interoceanic Highway a guest lecture from Prof Hoelle of the anthropology department Cultural anthropology study of contemporary human beings Interoceanic Highway Connect Peruvian coast to Brazil via the Andes and the Amazon A big development project Improves trade access to resources and efficiency Local and regional costs and benefits Some observations from the road to the Amazon Part of regional infrastructure improvements Homestead Subsistence Pastoraism sheep llamas alpacas vicunas Potato diversity also seen across vegetation Effect of the road On biodiversity Transportation of goods What comes in with the road Gasoline cheaper goods outside influences Roads open up previously inaccessible areas to colonization and resource extraction Leads to deforestation The Amazon Drainage basin for the Amazon River and its many tributaries and covers 27 million square miles compare to the continental US 31 million square miles River is more than 4000 miles long Mouth of river is 250 miles wide Gives off 11x the discharge of the Mississippi River Around 70 indigenous groups protected by the Brazilian government they have a high mortality rate because of low contact with the outside world Amazonian Rivers Transportation Seasonal flooding Flooded forests Rains bring sediments which are left on banks in dry season Floodplain agriculture Cutting Down the Forest Tensions between economic development and environmental preservation It39s worth more you can39t measure the value of the forest Land tenure policies show you39re using the land Deforestation control government regulates people deforesting their land Indigenous Point of View Desire to be seen as quotwesternquot Preserve nature because of much they rely on it Lecture Notes Page 1 Don39t want to be seen as quotbackwardsquot An alternative Rubber Tappers tapping a tree but conserving the ones at it Forest extravicism Use and preservation Lecture Notes Page 2 The Power of Naming Myth History and the lquichanos Monday April 21 2014 330 PM Guest lecture notes History The article is the product of not finding what you39re looking for How do you make sense of your findings Or your lack of findings History is in the landscape language architecture Everything seen can be history a sign of the past History is about analysis Uncovering history in a new way and relating it to today Don39tjust tell what happened Tell why it happened History is a question mark History is rewritten everyday What one generation knows might be different than what another knows History in Peru War killed 69000 Quechan peasants because a radical Marxist group took power and led to a revolutionuprising The Shining Path is the most violent guerrilla group to exist in the Western Hemisphere Peasants in highlands suffered the most 1983 Eight Peruvian journalists traveled to highlands to investigate the death of peasants but were massacred before arriving to their destination Blame fell on either the peasants or the military In the end it was the peasants because they thought they were in danger of the Shining Path The government said the lquichanos were isolated and didn39t know what they were doing 0 The lquichanos were previously known for uprising The defense of the peasants was that they had their roots to blame The indigenous are viewed as ancient but 0 They39re part of the construction of the Peruvian state 0 They engaged in the massacre because they were just as much as part of the war Ethnicity is Political State participates in making of ethnicities Ethnicity is related to power Idea If you aren39t fighting to keep a part of your culture in the world you live in you aren39t ethnic You aren39t born into an ethnicity it39s constructed Lecture Notes Page 1 Connections Disciplines and Research Methodologies Weolnesday April 23 ZDML 531 PM War Can be internal and between two countries Internal war with government Connections Linguistics Political Geographical construction Research Methods What39s the framework of what you39re reading What do you know about the methods of gathering the data What39s the evidence Always think critically Anthropology Study of humankind Divided into biological amp cultural Rituals and cultural practices unwritten rules that we use to guide our daily lives Economic and ecological anthropology and conservation and development in Latin America When you get to writing the term paper start with a good questions Don39t start with an answer It39s not a simple good vs bad Don39t search for right and wrong 0 Search for complexities and contradictions Look at economic and political sides Infrastructures Tensions between economic development and ecological deforestation Privileged view form the US 0 quotwequot in the US have our needs met mostly What are positive changes VVater Dams IMF International Monetary Fund Global resource Resources are always political Transnational and global companies controlling quotnaturalquot resources Research Methods Fieldwork Observation Interviews Documents popular culture Lecture Notes Page 1 History Allows us to understand past and present and move onto the future Ongoing connection between the two Key points Debunking myths Knowledge of the past can help you get ride of prejudices the more informed we are the better decisions we can make Ethnicity always political Sef identity state imposed identity Defining yourself for legal purposes What happens with stereotypes Boundariesflags as declarations of nationality Lecture Notes Page 2 Celebrating Gabriel Garcia Marquez Monday April 28 ZQJ14 336 PM News How do news and headlines and news stories circulate globally Headline news quotAuthor Gabriel Garcia Marquez diesquot quotTributes pour in for Columbian author GGMquot Aso quotgapyear student dies in Columbian tribal drug ritualquot In these cases what are the connotations attached to the word 39Coumbian39 Gabriel Garcia Marquez Considered one of the greatest Spanish anguage authors Best known for his masterpiece of magica reaism 100 Years of Solitude 1967 0 Sold more than 30 million copies 0 Translated into more than 30 languages Awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1982 Born March 6 1927 in Aracataca Columbia Novelist and journalist Played with fantasy and fact Always political Critic of US backed coup in Chile Denied a visa to the United States until Clinton 1995 Columbia quotCoumbia a land of paradoxquot Named for Columbus but he never set foor there Ethic of convivencia civility but had eras of terrible violence Longest surviving democracy in Latin America but also Longest lasting guerilla movement Migration Migration to South America Arab immigration from Syria Lebanon Palestine Genre magical realism Strange surreal details to highlight ordinary events Between reality and fiction hard to distangle Works against journalistic investigative style Lecture Notes Page 1 Celebrating WorldInfluencing Latin American authors Wednesolay April 3 Z 14 331 PM Gabriel Garcia Marquez His grandfather killed his best friend in a duel over a matter of honor Lived wgrandparents until he was 8 Politically leftist Mainly lived and wrote in exile from Chile Isabel Allende Chilean but born in Peru 1942 Travelled the world as diplomats daughter Worldfamous novelist Her uncle was President Salvador Allende 19701973 when Agosto Pinochet seized power in a CIA backed military coup He was killed Isabel and her family fled to Venezuela Rigoberta Menchu Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 Born as poor indigenous peasant in Guatemala Lecture Notes Page 1 Cuba complex and ever changing Monday May 05 2014 330 PM Emargo ban on trade The US has enacted an embargo on Cuba stopping it from trading with other countries Cuba now What is Cuba most associated with Why It has a vital location strategic location in the Caribbean basin Utterly tied to global contexts and power struggles between other countries and other ideologies US vs Cuba USSR socialism communism 2010 statistics 11 million population Literacy rate 100 Life expectancy 79years Testament to food quality amp their health care system Periodization Pre 1492 pre Coumbus indigenous 1492 1898 Spanish colony African slaves 1898 Independence movement 1959 Revolution 1959 2006 Fidel Castro Bay of Pigs Cold War Cuban Missile Crisis 1990 collapse of USSR loss of Allies 2008 Raul Castro steps in when Fidel gets ill Post invasion 1492 Christopher Columbus lands on island or first trip Became staging ground for Spanish expedition Indigenous population more or less wiped out Crop Cultivation Disappearance of indigenous population Import of African slaves in large numbers Coffee boom Cultivation of tobacco Cane Sugar Political crop continued through revolution and today 1860 Cuba was producing nearly a third of the world39s entire sugar supply Slavebased quotplantationquot society Import of 600000 slaves from Africa Owners didn39t actually live on plantation Sugar production was seasonal so there was a sense of unemployment Cuba and the US 188039s began trading and investing US keeps trying to buy Cuba Lecture Notes Page 1 Religion and Cuban church Weak institution small urban white population associated with Iberianselites Lack of dominant Catholic church Most Cubans not connected with established institutional religion 1898ndependence Spanish gradually becoming weaker Cuban wars for independence Protectorate not a colonization but still under US protection US didn39t intervene all the time but involved through public opinion and trade Guantanamo Bay US naval base US had permanent territoryfoothold on Cuban national soil Leased to US May 5 1901 Sugar production On an industrial scale Increasing Tensions 193358 Increasing US influence Fulgencio Batista 19521959 Corruption political repression Seen as tool of US and its interests Rise of a young lawyer in opposition 0 Fidel Castro Fidel Castro Ruz Part of elite system but he was aware of its flaws Involved in student politics Passionately nationalist Bogotazo Way out of the elite system Revolution Imprisoned but released and fled to Mexico Mexico planned and launched revolution July 26 became revolution name Was with Ch Guevarra Journey to Cuba Flee to mountains and start encampment Cuban authorities aware Guerilla warfare What is revolution Eliminate elite system Cuba has to be country of fairness Revolutionary process Importance of government Lecture Notes Page 2 0 Allowed Fidel Castro to be seen as legitimate world leader 1959 Batista weakened and fled Got on a plane and left 1960 allies with USSR marxismcommunism Establishment of authoritarianism regime 0 Is he a dictator What about his popular support Bay of Pigs US failed attempt to invade Cuba Ties with USSR Provided actual tangible support CubaUS Negative relationships because of US insistence on telling Cuba how to live Lecture Notes Page 3 The Butterfly Effect Monday May 19 2 14 33 PM Can random and apparently disconnected events produce the most unexpected effects The Butterfly Effect change any condition and you39ll end up somewhere else There is always a cause The MidAtlantic Ridge Underwater mountains that run down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean because of volcanic eruptions Anticyclones regions with high pressure and calm winds at center Winds flow away from the center where winds increase Rotate clockwise in north counterclockwise in south Anticyclone winds crucial to European explorers success and arrival to America Names of Brazil Pindorama given by indigenous tribe Vera Cruz Island explorers thought it was an island Santa Cruz Land definitely not an island Brazil names after exploited tree native to the land Sugar Canes in Brazil Brought African slavery sold in slave markets 15 died on transatlantic journey from poor conditions Largest importer of African slaves Napoleon Bonaparte Changed life in Europe o Butterfly effect gt changed Brazil Napoleon waged war on Britain and wanted to invade Portugal a British ally Portuguese royal family flees to Brazil in 1808 Went back to Portugal in 1820 and left son in Brazil Effects on Brazil John VI created United Kingdom of Portugal Brazil and Algavares elevating Brazil to the same level as Portugal bringing it one step closer to independence Independence Royal family returns to Portugal but leaves son Pedro I Portuguese ask for Brazil to return to colonial status Independence from Portugal in September 1822 Pedro I becomes emperor of Brazil Women Behind the Scene Princess Leopoldina de Braganza Pedro 39s wife Educated Austrian woman Marquesa de Santos extramarital lover Becoming a Republic 1826 Don Joao dies Pedro I briefly becomes king of Portugal but abdicates the throne to his eldest daughter Do a Maria II 1831 D Pedro abdicates Brazilian throne to his son Don Pedro II and returns to die in Portugal Lecture Notes Page 1 Abolition of Slavery Princess Isabel oldest daughter of D Pedro II signed Lei Aurea putting an official end to slavery Still maintained inequalities because Africans had few other options Repubhc Nov 15 1889 Proclamation of Republic after military coup ending D Pedro 39s reign Military Dictatorship March 31 1964 March 15 1985 Led by Armed Forces ousted democratically elected President Support from US in name of the Cold War Many killed and tortured for being labeled subversives XXI Century Post Bush 2008 economic crash Brazil had quotfund of reservequot to keep them afloat The quotmonstrousquot oil Reserve 2007 Brazil discovers massive oil reserve off coast of Southern Brazil Created hundreds of thousands ofjobs Attracted foreign investors Recent decade World39s 7th wealthiest economy World Cup of 2014 demands investment 0 With it comes corruption Recent economic downturn makes Brazilian people upset Lecture Notes Page 2
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