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by: Krista Lindenberg
Krista Lindenberg
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture following our midterm.
Intro to Sociological Research
Dr. Mikels-Schlutterman
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 3163 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Mikels-Schlutterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociological Research in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 02/26/16
Feb25 Research Methods  Where we are going o Structure of inquiry  Logic sampling  Two types  Sampling o The importance of sampling correctly:  Has consequences for the generalizability of the findings  Sample needs to represent entire group or you can’t say anything about the entire group because you don’t have a generalizable amount of evidence to represent population  Where we are going o Discuss some sampling terminology and consider when sampling is not necessary o Examine two types of sampling methods, discussing when each is most appropriate  Nonprobability  Probability sampling  Define Sample Components and the Population o Population – the entire set of individuals or other entities to which study findings are to be generalized o Sample – a subset of the population o Sampling Frame – the list or quasi list of units composing a population from which a sample is selected; want this to be as complete as possible (first step) o Elements – individual members of the sample whose characteristics are to be measured (ex. Individual cases) o Enumeration Units – units that contain one or more elements and that are listed in a sampling frame (ex. Household) o Sampling units – units listed at each stage of a multistage design (ex. School district  high schools  teachers  students )  Must define your population and the sample components; must include all these pieces  We do this to judge if the sample is representative or not and so it can be replicated  Evaluate generalizability o Two types  Cross population generalizability – findings from a study of one population that can be generalized to another population  Sample generalizability – findings from a sample of the population be generalized to the population from which the sample was selected o Sample generalizability  Depends on sample quality (i.e., little sampling error)  Sampling error: the difference between the characteristics of a sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected  To assess sample quality ask these questions o From what population were the cases selected? o What method was used to select cases from this population? o Do the cases that were studies represent the population from which they were selected?  Representative Sample o A sample that “looks like” the population from which it was selected in all respects that are potentially relevant to the study o Get demographics and compare to population o Must determine the scope of the generalization you will make from your sample  Consider a Census o Census – studying the entire population of interest, rather than drawing a sample o U.S. census every ten years o Drawbacks of a census:  Expensive  Time consuming  Can do almost as well with a sample o When appropriate: when population is relatively small OR you can afford it


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