Arkansas Tech University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 3163 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Mikels-Schlutterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociological Research in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
Feb25 Research Methods Where we are going o Structure of inquiry Logic sampling Two types Sampling o The importance of sampling correctly: Has consequences for the generalizability of the findings Sample needs to represent entire group or you can’t say anything about the entire group because you don’t have a generalizable amount of evidence to represent population Where we are going o Discuss some sampling terminology and consider when sampling is not necessary o Examine two types of sampling methods, discussing when each is most appropriate Nonprobability Probability sampling Define Sample Components and the Population o Population – the entire set of individuals or other entities to which study findings are to be generalized o Sample – a subset of the population o Sampling Frame – the list or quasi list of units composing a population from which a sample is selected; want this to be as complete as possible (first step) o Elements – individual members of the sample whose characteristics are to be measured (ex. Individual cases) o Enumeration Units – units that contain one or more elements and that are listed in a sampling frame (ex. Household) o Sampling units – units listed at each stage of a multistage design (ex. School district high schools teachers students ) Must define your population and the sample components; must include all these pieces We do this to judge if the sample is representative or not and so it can be replicated Evaluate generalizability o Two types Cross population generalizability – findings from a study of one population that can be generalized to another population Sample generalizability – findings from a sample of the population be generalized to the population from which the sample was selected o Sample generalizability Depends on sample quality (i.e., little sampling error) Sampling error: the difference between the characteristics of a sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected To assess sample quality ask these questions o From what population were the cases selected? o What method was used to select cases from this population? o Do the cases that were studies represent the population from which they were selected? Representative Sample o A sample that “looks like” the population from which it was selected in all respects that are potentially relevant to the study o Get demographics and compare to population o Must determine the scope of the generalization you will make from your sample Consider a Census o Census – studying the entire population of interest, rather than drawing a sample o U.S. census every ten years o Drawbacks of a census: Expensive Time consuming Can do almost as well with a sample o When appropriate: when population is relatively small OR you can afford it
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