Fabian PSYC 1000: 4-8 April Notes
Fabian PSYC 1000: 4-8 April Notes PSYC 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
CH. 14 Prejudice Prejudice – an unjustified, usually negative attitude toward a group Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) Predisposition to act (to discriminate) Levels of Prejudice can Change Support for interracial dating has increased by generation Overt prejudice wanes, but subtle prejudice lingers Social Roots of Prejudice Social inequality – when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others The just-world phenomenon – those doing well must have done something right so those suffering must have done something wrong Us vs. Them: Ingroups and Outgroups Even if people are randomly assigned to groups, our natural drive to belong leads to ingroup bias Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: The Other-Race Effect One way we simplify our world is to categorize When we categorize, we tend to stereotype “They” look and act alike but “we” are more diverse We have a greater recognition for our own race faces Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: Judging Based on Vivid Cases We don’t always rely on statistics Vivid cases easily come to mind Islam and terrorism Thinking Habits Reinforce Prejudice Availability heuristic – stereotypes are built on vivid cases rather than statistics Confirmation bias – we are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes Hindsight bias – “they should have known better” blames victims for misfortunes Cognitive dissonance – “my culture and family treats minorities this way, can we be wrong?” Social Relations: Aggression Behavior with the intent to harm another person Biological factors – genetic factors (heredity), neural factors (stimulation of amygdala, underactive frontal lobes), biochemistry (testosterone, alcohol) Social Relations: Psychosocial Factors and Aggression Frustration-aggression principle Aversive stimuli can evoke hostility Reinforcement (sometimes aggression works) Modeling (when parents scream and hit, they are modeling violence) Aggression in Media: Social Scripts Aggression portrayed in video, music, TV, and other media follows and teaches us social scripts When we are in new situations, uncertain how to behave, we rely on social scripts Effects of Social Scripts Studies: Exposure to violence and sexual aggression on TV Sexual aggression seems less serious Believing the rape myth Increased acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations Increased punitive behavior toward women More Media Effects on Aggression Active role-playing in video games Playing positive games can increase real life prosocial behaviors Violent Video Games Can prime aggressive thoughts and decrease empathy Increases in hostility and physical aggression NOT a “release” for aggressive impulses Desensitization to violence Social Relations: Understanding Attraction Proximity – mere exposure effect Physical Attractiveness – different cultural standards, some universal aspects of attractiveness Similarity – shared attitudes, beliefs, interests (even age, race, religion, education, economic status, etc.) Keys to a Lasting Love Relationship Equity Self-Disclosure Positive interactions and support Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of other people Helping and protecting others without need for personal gain Bystander Intervention Attention – notice incident? Appraisal – is it an emergency? Social Role – assumes responsibility? Taking Action – attempts to help Bystander effect – fewer people help when others are available Strongest predictor of helping behavior – we are happy/in a good mood Conflict and Peacemaking Conflict – a perceived incompatibility in goals, ideas, and actions between people or groups Those in conflict tend to form diabolical images of each other Peacemaking Contact – exposure, interaction, familiarity Cooperation – shared goals Communication – sometimes with mediators Conciliation CH. 13: Personality Personality An individual’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Persisting over time and across situations Freud: Psychoanalysis Belief that physical symptoms could be caused by purely psychological factors He “discovered” the unconscious Free association – speaking freely, supposed to bring up the unconscious Psychoanalysis – name for his theory and treatment techniques Freud: personality/mind iceberg The mind is mostly hidden Unacceptable passions and thoughts are repressed Personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint Id (pleasure), Ego (reality), Superego (moral compass) The ego is the mediator Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Stages Id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones (sensitive areas of the body) People can get fixated at one stage Male Development Issues “Oedipus complex” – boys in the phallic stage develop unconscious sexual desires and view their father as a rival Resolution of the conflict – boys identify with their fathers rather than seeing them as a rival Defending Against Anxiety We are anxious about our unacceptable impulses so the ego represses the anxiety with the help of defense mechanisms Assessing the Unconscious: Psychodynamic Personality Assessment Freud tried to get unconscious themes to be projected into the conscious world through free association and dream analysis Projective tests – ambiguous prompts should reveal the inner workings of your mind (Thematic Apperception Test) Rorschach Test – what do you see in the inkblots? Results do not link well to traits (low validity) and different raters get different results (low reliability) Evidence has updated Freud’s Ideas development is lifelong peers have more influence on personality dreams, as well as Freudian slips, do not reveal deep unconscious conflicts and wishes traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered NOT repressed gender and sexual identity seem to be more of a function of genetics few objective observations, few testable hypotheses Humanistic Theories of Personality The “third force” in psychology They studied healthy people and the conditions that support healthy personal growth Maslow: the Self-Actualizing Person People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs Self-transcendence – meaning/purpose beyond the self Self-actualization Rogers’ Person-centered Perspective 3 conditions that facilitate growth and fulfillment – genuineness, acceptance, empathy If our self-concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively Critiquing the Human Perspective Encouraging self-indulgence, self-centeredness The human capacity for evil Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait Humanist response – self-acceptance is not the end, it then allows us to move on from defending our own needs to loving and caring for others Trait theory of personality Trait – a characteristic pattern of behavior or a predisposition to feel and act a certain way We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person More concerned with describing traits than with explaining them Traits: Rooted in Biology? Brain - extroverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low Body – the trait of shyness appears to be related to high autonomic system reactivity (an easily triggered alarm system) Genes – selective breeding of animals, can select for traits, suggesting genetic roots for these traits The “Big Five” Personality Dimensions Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness Extraversion Questions About Traits Stability – change over the lifespan? Not much. With age, traits become more stable However, everyone in adulthood becomes more conscientious and agreeable, less extroverted and neurotic, less open Heritability – in general, genes account for 50% of variation for most traits Predictive value – do traits predict behavior? Conscientiousness – grades, healthy lifestyle behaviors Extraversion – social activities Happiness – low neuroticism Maritial satisfaction The Person-Situation Controversy Are your behaviors due to situations or stable traits? Specific behaviors can vary in different situations We change interests, careers, relationships But averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce
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