141 Class Note for CHEM 108 at PSU
141 Class Note for CHEM 108 at PSU
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Pennsylvania State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
Reviews for 141 Class Note for CHEM 108 at PSU
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
LECTURE WORKSHEETS Lecture Worksheets The purpose of the lecture worksheets is to make you aware of some of the basics that will be covered in Chem 110 lecture in the hopes that you will get more out of lecture through this kind of preparation The answers to the questions in the lecture worksheets can be easily found in your teXt book in the sections shown at the top of each page They are intended to help you focus on what you read and increase your understanding If you pay attention as you ll out the worksheet you will get more out of them The due date for many of the worksheets is prior to the lecture where you will encounter the subject This is done intentionally so you will get ahead and have some preparation for each lecture Lecture Worksheets are to be turned in at the beginning of the Chem 108 recitation each week Early lecture worksheets will be accepted Anything past the indicated due date will not receive credit In general Lecture Worksheets will be graded based on effort rather than results ie if the assignment is done on time and with reasonable care full credit will be given even if there are some mistakes in the work Lecture Worksheet 1 Name Chapter 1 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 4 1 De ne the following a mixture b element c compound d solution 2 a De ne physical and chemical property and give an example of each 3 a De ne physical and chemical change and give an example of each 4 Using scienti c notation write the following numbers in meters a 1 km d 200 m b 26 cm e 760 nm c 25 mm 5 What is the freezing and boiling point ofwater in C F and K 6 How many signi cant gures are in the following numbers a 36 c 000057 b 1006 d 04500 7 Describe how you deal with signi cant gures in a multiplicationdivision problems b additionsubtraction problems Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 2 Name Chapter 214 513 613 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 4 Chapter 21 4 1 What is the modern view of an atom What are the names of the subatomic particles in an atom and where are they 2 a What is the difference between the mass number and the atomic number b In the symbol 162C what does the number 12 tell you about the atom structure What does the number 6 tell you about the atom structure Chapter 51 3 1 For a chemical reaction in a laboratory what is the system What are the surroundings 2 De ne the following a heat b Enthalpy 3 What are the units of energy Chapter 61 3 1 What is the value of the speed of light include units 2 Give the relationship an equation between the speed of light c wavelength 7 and frequency v 3 What is a photon How do we describe the energy of a photon 4 What is the difference between a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum 5 Write the equation that predicts the frequency of absorbed or emitted light when an electron in a hydrogen atom moves between energy levels Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 3 Name Chapter 64 6 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 4 1 If u is a wave function of an electron in an atom what is the physical interpretation of 412 2 What is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle How does it apply to the structure of an atom 3 a What are the names and letter designations of each of the 3 quantum numbers needed to designate an orbital What do each of these quantum numbers tell you about the orbital b What is meant by the term subshell c Which quantum numbers are needed to de ne a subshell 5 Draw the following a a ls orbital b a 2pX orbital next to a Zpy orbital What is different about these two orbitals c a 2s orbital next to a 3s orbital What is different about these two orbitals Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 4 Name Chapter 6 79 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 11 1 How does the presence of additional more than one electrons affect the orbital energy levels 2 What is the fourth quantum number 3 De ne the Pauli Exclusion Principle 4 a De ne Hund39s Rule b What are two possible ground state electron con gurations for a nitrogen atom Which one is correct according to Hund s rule 5 What is meant by core and valence electrons 6 a Write the full electron con guration of Br b Write the electron con guration of Br using the noble gas shortcut 7 Given these three atoms in their ground state indicate the principal quantum number of the electron in the highest energy orbital outermost occupied shell for each a Li b Cl c Sn 8 a Write the electron con guration of Cr and Cu b Why are these anomalous See page 249 of the text Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 5 Name Chapter 25 716 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 11 Chapter 25 On the periodic table what is a period and a group Chapter 71 6 1 a What is the equation used to de ne the effective nuclear charge of a many electron atom What do S and Z in the equation mean b What would the effective nuclear charge be in a one electron atom or ion 2 What is the periodic trend for increasing size of atoms in a family In a period 3 a What is the periodic trend for increasing size of ions of the same charge in a family b What is the trend in size for ions with the same electron configuration isoelectronic series 4 a Define ionization energy b How can you tell from successive ionization energies that a core electron has been removed c What is the periodic trend for increasing first ionization energy 5 Define electron affinity in words 6 Using the following list of elements C Na F Cs Ba Ni a Which are metals b Which one has the most metallic character c Which one from the complete list given above has the least metallic character Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 6 Name Chapter 268 813 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 11 Chapter 27 8 2 How many electrons do NaJr and Cl have compared to the neutral atoms 3 Name the following ions a A13 c N03 b 32 d SO42 Chapter 81 3 1 De ne ionic bond and covalent bonds 2 What are valence electrons 3 State the octet rule Give an example of how it works in ionic bonding 4 a De ne lattice energy b Define E k Q1 Q2 and din the following equation k Q1Q2 d E 5 What is the electron configuration of Fe and Fe Is the octet rule satisfied for the Fe2 ion 6 What kind of bonds is present between the atoms in the polyatomic ions given in tables 24 and 25 7 Compare the length and strength of double and triple bonds Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 7 Name Chapter 846 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 18 Chapter 84 6 1 De ne bond polarity 2 What is the de nition of electronegatiVity 3 Why is sodium uoride written as NaJr F but hydro uoric acid written as H5 F5 4 What is a dipole moment See gure 88 5 Why is hydrogen at the end of the formula for MgHz and at the beginning of H28 What are the differences in these compounds that effect their names and molecular formulas 6 a Illustrate the steps for drawing a Lewis structure for 8042 writing down something for each step 7 What are the formal charges of the S atom and the oxygen atoms in your Lewis structure of 8042 Be sure to show how you determine formal charge 8 Draw all resonance structures for NO3 Compare the length and strength of the 3 NO bonds in NO3 Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 8 Name Chapter 868 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 18 l a Resonance is an important concept in describing the bonding of which class of hydrocarbons What is the name and structure of the simplest molecule of this type b What is special about this bonding arrangement 2 a Draw the Lewis structure for BF3 b Does this molecule obey the octet rule c Why does BF3 react with molecules that have a lone pair 3 Explain why PC15 PC13 and NCl3 are known compounds whereas NC15 is not 4 Consider any molecule made up of a central atom with an expanded octet surrounded by other atoms a What are the characteristics of the central atom size electronegatiVity etc b What are the characteristics of the surrounding atoms 5 a De ne bond dissociation energy b Why is this energy ALWAYS endothermic 6 Considering only single bonds how does a bond s length vary with its strength Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 9 Name Chapter 26 335 29 252 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Sept 25 Chapter 26 33 5 1 What is the difference between a molecular formula and an empirical formula 1 What is the formula weight of MgN03z What is the of Mg by mass in MgN03z 2 What is Avogadro39s number What is a mole 3 What is the procedure to convert a grams to moles b grams to molecules 4 What is the difference between molecular formula and empirical formula Illustrate using benzene C5H5 Chapter 29 252 1 What is organic chemistry 2 What is a hydrocarbon Draw the structural formula of two simple hydrocarbons 3 What is an alcohol Draw the structure of two alcohols that are derived from the two hydrocarbons you just drew 4 An alkane contains only CC single bonds What is the class of compounds called that contains CC double bonds Draw and name one example 5 What is the class of compounds called that contains CC triple bonds Draw and name one example Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 10 Name Chapter 913 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 2 1 Give the names of the geometries of the following simple molecules Draw them a PF5 b CF4 c SF6 2 a What is the difference between electrondomain geometry and molecular geometry b Give the electron domain geometry and molecular geometry of NH3 Draw and name them 3 What are the steps needed to predict molecular geometries with the VSEPR valence shell electron pair repulsion model 4 What role do double and triple bonds have in predicting geometry 5 Why is the HOH angle in water 1045O even though the electronpair geometry is tetrahedral and the tetrahedral angle is 10950 6 For a molecule with more than two atoms what features effect the dipole moment Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 11 Name Chapter 946 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 2 1 According to valence bond theory what causes a covalent bond 2 Mixing 3 atomic orbitals produces how many hybrid orbitals 3 If one s atomic orbital and two p atomic orbitals are mixed to form hybrid orbitals what is the name of the hybrid orbitals which form 4 Does the geometry of the hybrid orbitals of an atom parallel its molecular geometry or its electron pair geometry 4 What are the names of the hybrid orbitals use by atoms that have expanded octets 5 a What are the three steps used to predict the hybrid orbitals used by an atom in bonding b Illustrate these steps by showing how you would determine the hybridization of N in NH3 6 a What is a sigma bond How is a sigma bond formed b What is a pi bond How is a pi bond formed 7 What are delocalized bonds Which kind of bonds sigma or pi are used in forming delocalized bonds Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 12 Chapter 111 2 amp 6 Name Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 9 1 Do intermolecular forces affect melting points and boiling points If so how 2 a b 3 a b 4 a b Name three intermolecular attractive forces known to exist between neutral molecules What intermolecular force is important in solutions of ionic solids in polar liquids What is the meant by an instantaneous dipole What is the name of the attractive interaction produced by instantaneous dipoles Define polarizability How does a molecule s polarizability vary with its size 5 Define hydrogen bonding 6 Use the FLOWCHART on page 452 Fig 1112 of your text to determine the intermolecular forces between the molecules methanol HO CH3 Chem 108 PF5 NF3 NH4Cl benzene C6H6 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 13 Name Chapter 101 5 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 9 l a Explain how a barometer measures atmospheric pressure b Explain how an open end manometer measures the pressure of an enclosed gas 2 a What conditions for a gas must be de ned for Boyle39s law to be true b Under these conditions how does the pressure of a gas relate to its volume Use both an equation and plot to show this 3 a Give an equation and plot that represents Charles39s law b Give an equation and plot that represents Avogadro s law 4 What conditions represent STP 5 What is so special about 224 liters of gas at STP 6 Under what conditions does PlVlTl P2V2T2 7 The idealgas equation has many applications a Give the equation for the density of a gas b Give the equation for determining the molar mass of a gas Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 14 Name Chapter 1069 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 16 1 Air is composed ofa mixture of gases a What did Dalton observe while studying the properties of air b Give the equation that demonstrates his observation 2 De ne mole fraction a in terms of moles b in terms of partial pressure of gases 3 a What property of a gas depends only on temperature b How does this property depend on temperature 4 How is the rootmeansquare speed of a molecule related to its average kinetic energy 5 a What is the difference between light and heavy molecules in terms of rms speed b Give the equation that describes this phenomenon 6 a State Graham39s law of effusion in words and by an equation b How does rate of effusion relate to rms speed 7 Under what conditions of pressure and temperature do real gases most closely approximate ideal gas behavior Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 15 Name Chapter 1814 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 23 l a Name the regions of the atmosphere b Why is it organized in this way 2 a Give the chemical reaction for the photodissociation of 02 b Give the chemical reaction for the photoionization of N2 c Why are these thermosphere reactions important to life on earth 2 Why is the concentration of O3 fairly large in the stratosphere the region between 30 and 90km 3 a Why is the presence of ozone in the stratosphere important to us b Why does the presence of CFC39s in the stratosphere interfere with this process 4 a Give the chemical reaction that shows how troposphere 03 is responsible for acid rain b Give at least two environmental problems caused by acid rain 5 Why is carbon monoxide CO poisonous 6 What atmospheric gases are responsible for photochemical smog 7 a Brie y explain the greenhouse effect b What two gases are responsible for it Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 16 Name Chapter 55 1136 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Oct 30 From Chapter 5 section 5 1 De ne Heat capacity and Speci c Heat How are they different Chapter 1136 2 De ne heat of fusion and heat of vaporization 3 Why does a substance39s heating curve have a plateau at the melting and boiling point 4 De ne dynamic equilibrium 5 a De ne vapor pressure b What is the vapor pressure of H20 at 25 C Use the table in Appendix B of your text 6 De ne normal boiling point and normal melting point 7 Using the phase diagrams on page 464 in your text gure 1127 to answer the following a What is the critical point of C02 b What is the triple point of water c What state is C02 in when P 1 atm and the T 100 C d When P 73 atm and T 25 C Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 17 Name Chapter 1313 41 amp 5 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Nov 6 Chapter 131 3 1 Is the solution process exothermic or endothermic 2 What is the role of entropy or disorder in the solution process 3 a Define saturated How does dynamic equilibrium apply to saturated solutions Give an example a What is solubility b Define unsaturated c Define supersaturated 4 What does quotlike dissolves likequot mean 5 How does the partial pressure of a gas affect the solubility of that gas 6 a How does temperature affect the solubility of ionic salts in H20 b How does temperature affect the solubility of gases in water Chapter 41 amp 5 7 a What happens to an ionic compound when it dissolves in water b What happens to a molecular compound when it dissolves in water READ this carefully 8 What is an electrolyte What is the difference between a strong electrolyte a weak electrolyte and a nonelectrolyte Give an example of each 9 Define molarity Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 18 Chapter 1346 Name Chem 108 Section Due Tues Nov 6 1 Give de nitions of the following concentration units a b c d b mass percent parts per million ppm molality m Molarity and molality are very similar One is the moles per volume of solution the other is moles per kg of solvent What is the reason for these two different concentration units See page 499 of your text What is a colligative property by definition What are the four colligative properties 3 What happens to the vapor pressure of an aqueous solution when you dissolve an ionic salt in it 4 What is a colloid Give some examples Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 19 Name Chapter 312 423 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Nov 13 1 What is the difference between a subscript and a coefficient in a chemical reaction Which is changed when balancing a reaction 2 Give an example of a combination reaction and a decomposition reaction Clearly label which is which 3 What are the products of the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon in oxygen gas 02 4 Circle the compounds that are soluble in aqueous solution KCl BaSO4 MgOH2 PbBrZ NH43PO4 and FeNO32 5 a De ne metathesis reaction Give an example 6 a What is an acid What is a base b What is the difference between a strong acid or base and a weak acid or base c List the 7 strong acids and the 8 strong bases Memorize them 7 Using the table on page 133 decide if the following substances are strong weak or nonelectrolytes a H3PO4 phosphoric acid c CaClz b CH30H methanol d HBr 8 For the reaction between aqueous hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium hydroxide a Write the molecular equation b Write the ionic equation c Write the net ionic equation and list the spectator ions Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 20 Name Chapter 44 367 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Nov 13 Chapter 44 1 Define oxidation and reduction 2 What is the oxidation state of silicon in SiCl4 of bromine in Br2 of nitrogen in NO3aq 3 What is meant by an active metal Given an example of one Chapter 36 7 1 List two ways of interpreting stoichiometric coef cients in a balanced chemical equation 2 a De ne limiting reagent b A ham sandwich consist of2 slices of bread and one piece of ham 2B H gt BzH What is maximum number of identical sandwiches you can make with 10 slices of bread and 7 slices ofham What is the limiting reagent What is the excess reagent b What is maximum amount in moles of water H20 that can be made when you start with 10 moles of hydrogen Hz and 7 moles of oxygen 02 HINT write a balanced reaction rst It is NOT the same as the sandwich reaction What is the limiting reagent What is the excess reagent 3 a De ne theoretical yield b De ne actual yield c De ne percent yield Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 21 Chapter 46 105 Name Chem 108 Section Due Tues Nov 27 Chapter 46 1 How is mass converted to moles Show how lg of NaOH can be converted to moles 2 a Given molarity M and volumeV how do you determine the moles of a solute in solution b If you have 100 mL of 12M H2SO4 how many moles of sulfuric acid would it contain c How many moles of acid Haq do you have 3 a What is the equivalence point of a titration b What is the endpoint of a titration Chapter 105 4 a How are the moles of gas related to experimentally measurable quantities What equation do you need b How many moles of gas are in a 10L ask at STP 5 Use the following balanced reaction to answer the next questions a b Chem 108 2NaN3s gt 2 Nas 3 N2g If you know the mass of sodium azide NaN3 in a car outline the procedure to nd the volume of N2 that will be produced when it decomposes assuming T 25 C and P latm If you know the volume of N2 at T 25 C and 1 atm that you want in the airbag outline the procedure to nd the mass of sodium azide that must decompose to produce it Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 22 Name Chapter 535 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Dec 4 1 What is the difference between enthalpy AH and internal energy AB 2 What is the equation that describes the enthalpy change for a chemical reaction 3 a What is an extensive property b Give an example of an extensive property other than enthalpy see sec 13 4 For the reaction A 2B gt C the Aern 310 k a Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic b If 2 moles of A react how much heat will be given off c Aern for the reverse reaction is 5 De ne calorimetry 6 What is the difference between molar heat capacity and specific heat capacity 7 Using a coffee cup calorimeter the heat absorbed by a solution is measured at constant pressure What equation can be used to find the heat of a reaction from the measured heat given 8 How is the heat of reaction determined when a bomb calorimeter constant volume calorimetry is used Use and equation to answer this but be sure to define each variable Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 23 Name Chapter 567 88 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Dec 4 1 State Hess s Law 2 What is meant by standard state What temperature is used to report standard state enthalpies 3 What is the standard enthalpy of formation of a compoundAH f 4 What is the heat of formation AHOf for any element in its most stable state at 25 C and standard atmospheric pressure 5 How can AHorxn be determined from heats of formation Chapter 88 6 What is the equation needed to estimate Aern from bond dissociation energies Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 24 Name Sections 151 154 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Dec 11 l a What is chemical equilibrium Give an example of chemical equilibrium 2 a What is the law of mass action b What is the equilibrium constant expression Keq for the reaction 4 N2 3H2 r2NH3g 3 If the numerical value of Keq is greater than 1 what does that say about the chemical reaction 4 If you know Keq for the following reaction 2A i B how can you use that number to nd Kc for the reverse reaction A B r 2A How can you nd Kifor the reaction A r B 5 a De ne homogeneous equilibria b Give an example of a homogeneous chemical reaction c What is the equilibrium constant expression for that reaction 6 a De ne heterogeneous equilibria b Give an example of a heterogeneous chemical reaction c What is the equilibrium constant expression for that reaction Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed Lecture Worksheet 25 Name Chapter 1558 Chem 108 Section Due Tues Dec 11 1 What is the reaction quotient 2 What is the difference between K and Q 3 a If the value of Q is greater than the value of K what do you know about the direction of the chemical reaction b If the value of Q is less than the value of K what do you know about the direction of the chemical reaction 4 What is Le Chatelier39s Principle 5 For the following reaction at equilibrium N2 3H2 i 2NH3 heat how will the following disturbances affect this reaction a increasing N2 b increasing NH3 c increasing the pressure by decreasing the volume d increasing the pressure adding Ar e heating up the mixture Chem 108 Lecture Worksheet BLB 10Lh Ed
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'