ANEQ 328 Fondation in Animal Genetics Week Six Class Notes
ANEQ 328 Fondation in Animal Genetics Week Six Class Notes ANEQ328-001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Destinee on Friday February 26, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ328-001 at Colorado State University taught by Milton Thomas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Foundation in Animal Genetics in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/26/16
ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) Mitosis and Meiosis Role of Genetic Material o DNA codes for genes that are transmitted from sire/dam to progeny. o DNA has two main roles: code for protein and for the transmission of genes from parent to progeny (heredity). Role of DNA DNA Codes For a Protein Heredity (Transmission of genes from parent to progeny). TranscriptionTranslation DNA Replication and Cell Division Proteins Reproduction and Gestation Cell Function and Physiology Progeny Phenotype o In order for DNA to accomplish its roles it must be stable, accurately replicate, and have the capacity for diversity. Vocab Terms For Mitosis and Meiosis o Haploid (n) When cells have half the number of usual chromosomes. Gametes (sperm and egg cells) are the only haploid cells in the body that will contain a half of a set (1 of each chromosome) of chromosomes. o Diploid (2n) When cells have a complete set (2 of each chromosome) of chromosomes. Somatic Cells which is any cell in the body excluding gamete cells (sperm and eggs cells) that contains a full set of one’s chromosome. o Gametogenesis The formation of gametes—spermatogenesis (sperm) and oogenesis (egg). o Fertilization When a haploid sperm and a haploid egg meet to form a diploid zygote. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) o Zygote to Gastrulation Gastrulation After the zygote has been fertilized the blastomere forms into a placenta, which will then form into differential tissue and a fetus. Blastomere A type of cell produced by cell division within the zygote. Blastocyst The outer layer of the zygote that contains blastomere. o Differenation Cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide through mitosis to produce stem cells. o Immortalized Cells Cells that keep dividing through the process of mitosis. Ex. HeLa Cells. o Embryonic Stem Cells Cells that can be turned into any cell within the body. o Apoptosis Programmed cell death. Cell Cycle o The cell cycle depicts the life cycle of a somatic cell, which is any cell in the body except for gamete cells (sperm and egg). Interphase The phases (G ,1S, G 2) in which the cell grows, synthesizes (replicates) it’s DNA, and prepares for mitosis. G 0hase A phase in which a somatic cell is not actively dividing. G 1hase The phase in which the somatic cell grows. Synthesis Phase (S Phase) The phase in which DNA synthesizes (replicates). ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) G2Phase The phase in which the somatic cell continues to grow. Mitosis (M Phase) The phase in which a somatic cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Cell Replication and Gamete Formation o Mitosis The process in eukaryotes by which somatic cells replicate their DNA to form two identical daughter cells. Somatic Cell Any cell in the body except for gamete cells (sperm and egg). o Phases of Mitosis Prophase The chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Each centrosome makes it way to the opposite sides of the cells and starts forming mitotic spindles. Centrosome Helps in the formation of mitotic spindles. Prometaphase The nuclear envelope disappears. Mitotic spindles attach to each side of the chromosome’s centromeres by attaching to the kinetochore. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) Centromere Where two sister chromatids are closely attached. A chromatid is an individual chromosome. Kinetochore A protein structure on the centromere where mitotic spindles attach. Metaphase The chromosomes are aligned along the metaphase plate with the help of mitotic spindles and centrosomes. Anaphase With the help of the centrosomes and the mitotic spindles the two sister chromatids separate from each other and are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell. Telophase Each daughter cell now has the same number of chromosomes as its mother cell. A nuclear envelope starts to redevelop around the chromosomes. The chromosomes start to de-condense into chromatin. A cleavage furrow starts to develop between the two daughter cells. Cleavage Furrow The dividing of the two daughter cell’s cytoplasm. Cytokinesis The division of the two daughter’s cell cytoplasm. Once complete the cells are now two separate identical daughter cells. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) o Meiosis The process in eukaryotes by which gamete cells divide for sexual reproduction, leading to four genetically diverse (different) cells. Gamete Cell Sperm and oocyte (egg) cells. o Phases of Meiosis o Meiosis I: Homologous Chromosomes Separate Prophase I Just as in mitosis the centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell, and chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Crossing over occurs. Crossing Over In which two different sister chromatids exchange DNA, leading to the genetic diversity of gamete cells. Metaphase I A chromosome randomly pairs up with another chromosome along the metaphase plate with the help of mitotic spindles and centrosomes, creating what is called homologous chromosome pairs. Anaphase I With the help of the centrosomes and the mitotic spindles each pair of homologous chromosome separate from each other and are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) Telophase I Each cell is now made up of single chromosomes, that each contain two sister chromatids. A cleavage farrow forms. Cytokinesis The cytoplasm between the two cells is separated, forming two haploid daughter cells. o Meiosis II: Sister Chromatids Separate Prophase II The two haploid daughter cells from meiosis I will then each separate again to form four genetically diverse cells. Centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell, and chromatin condenses into chromosomes. The two sister chromatids move towards the metaphase plate. Metaphase II The two sister chromatids randomly line up along the metaphase plate. Anaphase II With the help of the centrosomes and the mitotic spindles each sister chromatid separate from each other and are pulled to the opposite ends of the cell. Telophase II Each cell is now made up of single chromatids. Cytokinesis The cytoplasm between the cells is separated. There are now four genetically diverse haploid cells. Genetic Diversity o Crossing Over A naturally occurring way to create cell diversity during prophase I of meiosis, by exchanging DNA between homologous chromosomes. o Recombination The rearrangement of genetic material through crossing over, causing the progeny to look different from its parents due to the genetic diversity of the gamete cells that occur through meiosis. o Linkage Genes that are located closely to each other are most likely to be inherited together during the crossing over of meiosis. o Linkage Disequilibrium When genes are always going to be inherited together. Linkage Equilibrium When genes are not linked and thus are not going to be inherited together. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) o Holstein have haplotype blocks within their genome. Occurs due to the selection pressure in one breed for one trait: milk production. Hapmap A genome that contains haplotype blocks. Allows us to improve selective breeding. Taq-SNP A SNP that represents a haplotype block. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) Mendelian Inheritance Vocab Terms o Phenotype One’s physical characteristics and trait measure. Ex. Red Coat Ex. How fast a quarter horse can run in a quarter mile. o Genotype One’s genetic makeup. o Allele A variation of a gene. o Locus The location of a gene on a chromosome. o Heredity (Inheritance) What genes get passed down (segregated) from the parents to progeny. o Trait A genetically determined characteristics. Trait doesn’t always equal phenotype. o Simple Trait When a gene is controlled by 1 or a few loci. Can be qualitative or categorical. Ex. The coat color of a horse is only controlled by a few loci. o Complex Trait When a gene is controlled by many loci. Can be quantitative or polygenic. Ex. Milk production in cows in controlled by many loci. o Pleiotropy When a single gene controls many things. Ex. The growth hormone somatotropin (rbst) Foundational Information to Understand Inheritance o Need to know the genotypes of the parents. o Need to know how genes interact with each other. o Mendel’s principles and how they work. o How genotype and allele frequency work. Mendel’s Principles o Segregation The separation of paired alleles during meiosis. Ex. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) o Independent Assortment Alleles on different chromosomes will separate independently of each other during meiosis. Ex. Mendel’s Traits o Mendel compared many different phenotypic traits of plants to help him understand how genotype affects phenotype. Color of the plant Purple or White Flower Position Axil or Terminal Stem Length Short or Long Seed Shape Round or Wrinkled Seed Color Yellow or Green Pod Shape Inflated or Constricted Pod Color Yellow or Green Understand Segregation via Animal Pedigree o A pedigree can give us information on the genotype or performance of the ancestors of an individual. ANEQ 328 Foundations In Animal Genetics Week 6 Notes (2/23/16-2/25/16) Understanding Segregation via Al Sire Lineage and Generations o By looking at sire lineage we can see which sires had really good traits and thus, were bred to pass the same traits down to the next generation. Understanding Segregation via Punnett Squares o Punnett Squares help us understand segregation of alleles by helping us calculate the different possible outcomes of a progeny based on the parent’s genotype. Information Needed to Construct a Punnett Square o Are we looking at single loci or multiple loci. o Is there a linkage (haplotype) present or it just a regular chromosome. o Are we looking at one chromosome or multiple chromosomes. o Information (genotype) of the sire and dam. Information That is Obtained From a Punnett Square o Phenotypic Ratio o Genotype (allele) ratio o Probability of inheritance (phenotypic or genotypic). Randomness of Inheritance and Genetic Diversity o Homozygosity When the alleles are the same. Ex. BB or bb If an individual possess the genotype BB they are said to be homozygous dominant for that trait. If an individual possess the genotype bb they are said to be homozygous recessive for that trait. o Heterozygosity When the alleles are different. Ex. Bb If an individual has the genotype Bb they a said to be heterozygous for that trait. The number of heterozygous outcomes can be calculated by using n the following equation: 2 , where n equals the number of heterozygous loci. Ex. BbxCc There are two different alleles, so the equation is 22 which gives you 4 different out comes. (BC, Bc, bC, bc).
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