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Government Week 2 Notes

by: Andrea Montano

Government Week 2 Notes POLS 1336

Andrea Montano
GPA 3.918
US and Texas Const/Politics
Cyrus Contractor

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About this Document

I started with the Conflict of 1786 and stopped right before "Intergovernmental Relationships Today" since we did not get to discuss much of it.
US and Texas Const/Politics
Cyrus Contractor
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Montano on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1336 at University of Houston taught by Cyrus Contractor in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see US and Texas Const/Politics in Political Science at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 02/06/15
The Con ict of 1786 and The Articles of Confederation 2 sides Yeoman Farmers In debt Revolutionary War Veterans Bankers Merchants Lived in Urban areas legislators close to government 0 Cause Recession Yeoman farmers couldn t pay money 0 Demand of Yeoman Farmers Asked the government to simply print more money which would lead to in ation lnitial Response of all States but Rhode Island NO to printing more money 0 Response from the farmers Shay s Rebellion 1 Led by Daniel Shays An insurrection to overthrow government 2 Government could not call the militia because the rebels WERE the militia 3 Interrupted sessions beat up tarred and feathered people 4 The Confederation itself did not have a military so they had to beg other states 0 Rhode Island Was a Yeoman farmer friendly state and printed more money Creditors had to accept the money or they would go to quotCreditor s Pdsonquot The Call for a Constitutional Convention 0 Who favored it Founding fathers Bankers Merchants Who opposed it Farmers they did not want a stronger government Like Patrick Henry Rhode Island Yeoman farmer state did not even send a delegation knowing that they needed all 13 votes to do anything Explicit formal instructions of the convention Wanted to amend the articles not make a new form What it actually did Created a new constitution According to Madison the Articles were too weak to just amend Largest Challenge Facing the Convention Preventing future abuses of government power Formula for facing this challenge Separate power into 3 branches Think of the Military Congress legislative branch is in charge of budget and declaring war but the President executive branch is the commander in chief The Military is under civilian control to prevent an overthrow of government How were bitter con icts resolved Bargain and Compromise 1 Apportionment of power in congress New Jersey Plan favored the small states while the Virginia Plan favored the large states RESULT Connecticut Great Compromise Made two chambers in Congress The Senate the higher chamber with 2 representatives per state favoring the small states and the House the lower chamber with representation based on population favoring the large states 2 Legal Status of Slave Labor Should slaves be counted as part of population for representation RESULT The 35 Compromise Slaves would count as 35 of a person for representation In addition no more slaves could be imported after 1808 After that all slave trade would happen within the borders of the US BARGAINING AND COMPROMISE IS NECESSARY FOR GOVERNMENTS TO FUNCTION The problem of getting the constitution adopted They only wanted to amend the articles at rst Needed unanimous votes to amend the articles Rhode Island was Yeoman Farmer friendly Rati cation Struggle and Federalist Papers Written by Madison jay and Hamilton Madison s Federalist 10 and 51 are in every textbook AntiFederalist were against the Constitution They were less known They wanted a Bill of Rights Everything we think about the constitution comes from the AntiFederalists Intentions of the Framers as seen in Madison s Federalist 10 Faction Number of citizens majority or minority joined Interests clash Most common and durable faction Unequal distribution of wealth and power Yeoman farmers bankers different classes and interests Most dangerous faction The majority The lesser interests the quothave notsquot Would redistribute wealth 1st Object of Government Maintain the unequal distribution of property and wealth 5 features in Constitution to guard against the majority 1 A Republic Not democracy but a group of elite 2 Large Republic both in population and actual landmass 3 Limited Suffrage At that time only propertied white men could vote Staggered Elections Not everyone is up to be reelected every 2 years 5 Indirect Elections Electoral College elects President Why don t most Americans know this We aren t all well educated We have gradually democratized 3 Main Elements of Gradual Democratization 1 Expansion of Suffrage 2 1915 Direct Election of Senators 17th Amendment 3 Presumed direct election of President Stages in Expansion of Suffrage 1830 Propertyless white males 1870 Males who were former slaves 1920 Women 19305 Native Americans 1965 African Americans in Old South 1971 18 year olds due to the war and drafting but pretty useless The young don t vote Proposing Amendments 23 vote in each house of congress Constitutional Convention called by 23 of states 34 quotArticle V Conventionquot NEVER USED Ratifying Amendments 34 of states in special convention 34 of state legislators THE LANGUAGE OF THE CONSTITUTION IS SO AMBIGUOUS THAT SOMETIMES THIS ISN39T NECESSARY THE CONSTITUTION WAS MEANT TO BE HARD TO AMEND Formal Amendments 1 Made a more egalitarian and democratic US 2 Emphasis of Equality 3 Expand Liberty and Equality 4 Furthered the will of the people Informal Amendments Constitution changes formally AND informally 1 quotUnwritten Constitutionquot 2 Judicial InterpretationJudicial Review 3 Changing Political Practice 4 Technology 5 Demand for new policies 6 Flexibility US HAS THE LONGEST STANDING CONSTITUTION lf gradual democratization happened what about Madison s predictions Since his supposed quotpredictionquot has not come true what are 2 logically possible explanations 1 Madison was just wrong 2 Rich elite still make policies They are the ones in office and giving money Federalism A system of organizing government De nition 2 Constitutionally recognized levels of government Not many nations have this system today Unitary Government More centralized This is what most countries have Confederation What the US had with the Articles of Confederation Intergovernmental relations Interaction between state and national government 0 Why is Federalism important 1 Decentralizes Politics 2 Decentralizes Policies Constitutional Basis Division of Power 1Nannal 2 State 3 Article VI Supremacy Clause a Constitution b Laws of National Government that are consistent with Constitution c Treaties 4 Judges uphold constitution rst 5 Questions remain concerning the boundaries of the national government s powers 0 National Supremacy McCulloch vs Maryland 1 for National gov 0 for States 1 Government of the US though limited is supreme in sphere of acUon 2 Necessary and Proper Clause used to carry enumerated powers Civil War 2 for National gov 0 for States NOTE This war was fought for states rights Slavery was just the quotfacequot of it Civil Rights Movement 3 for National Gov 0 for States 1 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Kansas Ended segregation of schools and public facilities Used Topeka to focus on the Separate aspect of quotSeparate but equalquot because Topeka was Separate and equal 2 Con ict between states and national government over equality in favor of nation Federalism is more than a relationship between nation and states Full faith and credit Recognize other states laws Extradition Send back criminals to state where they committed the crime Privileges and Immunities of Citizens For people moving to other states ALSO A HORIZONTAL RELATIONSHIP STATE TO STATE


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