GC 444: Functional Ink Notes
GC 444: Functional Ink Notes GC 4440
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GC 4440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. O'Hara in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Current Trends and Deviations in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
Functional Inks Printed Electronics GC 444/644 Printing is becoming one of the most significant manufacturing processes in the world •3D printing for fabrication •2D printing for electronics— ”functional printing” History of Functional Printing nThe first printed circuit was made in 1936 by Paul Eisler for a radio nRFID was introduced in WWII to identify friendly aircraft nWhile its been a recent buzz-word, printed circuits and membrane switches have been common for decades. 1 What is functional? n Aesthetics (color) n Protection n Chemical n Abrasion n Environment n Electrical n Conductive n Insulation n Semi-conductive n Magnetic What is functional? n Reactive n Chemical n Radiation n Physical n Physical Properties n Surface friction n Adhesive Printed Electronics n An emerging technology that takes advantage of different printing technologies to manufacture electronic components of varying functionality and complexity. • Ambient conditions • Additive process • R2R (roll-to-roll) production • High Speed • Flexible Substrates 2 PE Arenas nRFID (logic and memory) nOLEDs (displays) nPhotovoltaics (energy) nSensors (bio-medical, food safety) nBatteries (energy) nLighting Market Potential—IDTechEx n$1.8 billion in 2007; $330 billion by 2027 nOrganics, inorganics, printed or potentially printed… Electronics potential nNot likely to replace most electronics—the resolution prevents high-power devices nHowever, there are new market opportunities for low-cost, minimal function devices if they can be made cheaply enough nSensors and data storage have huge potential for packaging and other markets 3 The Internet of Things (IoT) “Today computers—and, therefore, the Internet— are almost wholly dependent on human beings for information. Nearly all of the roughly 50 petabytes of data available on the Internet were first captured and created by human beings—by typing, pressing a record button, taking a digital picture, or scanning a bar code. Conventional diagrams of the Internet … leave out the most numerous and important routers of all - people. The problem is, people have limited time, attention and accuracy— all of which means they are not very good at capturing data about things in the real world. And that's a big deal. We're physical, and so is our environment … The Internet of Things (IoT) …You can't eat bits, burn them to stay warm or put them in your gas tank. Ideas and information are important, but things matter much more. Yet today's information technology is so dependent on data originated by people that our computers know more about ideas than things. If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things— using data they gathered without any help from us— we would be able to track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling, and whether they were fresh or past their best. The Internet of Things has the potential to change the world, just as the Internet did. Maybe even more so” —Kevin Ashton, 'That 'Internet of Things' Thing’ RFID Journal, July 22, 2009 The Internet of Things nThe idea of electronic intelligence in physical objects nFacilitated by smart phone technology becoming ubiquitous nThin Film Technologies prints memory with high-speed, roll-to-roll process nIs looking to a future of cheap electronics even on disposable items 4 Lighting Nth Degree 5 Konarka Technologies—PV Displays “All of our inks are functional.” —Don Duncan, Wikoff Color Corp. Graphics inks are engineered for color, slip, rub- resistance, drying speed, adhesion, odor, gloss, chemical resistance, flexibility, temperature range, and on and on… It’s a mature industry Printed Electronics inks are engineered for various functionalities as well, but this industry is in its infancy, and there is tremendous need for improvement 6 Printing is a high-speed, materials deposition process • Graphics inks deposit and adhere pigments to substrates in tight alignment and carefully controlled film thicknesses. • Pretty good at x/y direction (registration) •Very good at the z-direction (ink film thickness) •Process color images, color management all depend on this precision. Omet Varyflex530 Printing Processes Flexo Gravure Rotary Screen Multi-layer, functional electronic devices may require a hybrid process 7 Printing is a high-speed, materials deposition process Graphics printing deposits and adheres pigments to substrates in tight alignment and carefully controlled film thicknesses. • Pretty good at x/y direction (registration) •Very good at the z-direction (ink film thickness) •Process color images, color management all depend on this precision. Challenges for R2R Printed Electronics • Materials • Resolution • Registration • Hybrid Processes Resolution Finer features (positive and negative) enhance device performance. The smaller the channel length (gap between electrodes), the faster the switching speed of transistors. While printing offers high throughput, it cannot match the resolution and performance of traditional, subtractive fabrication. There’s generally an inverse relationship—high resolution processes are low throughput; print is high throughput with low resolution. 8 Registration issues for thin film transistors (TFT) BRUCE KAHN, PRINTED ELECTRONICS CONSULTING, 2014) Hybrid Processes Different device layers require different ink film deposits The dielectric layer of a transistor is ideally very thin, whereas the applications like batteries or antenna structures (RFID) require thick deposits. Different print processes will likely be involved to optimize these materials. Ink Systems Multiple systems required: • UV • Water-based • Solvent • Often simultaneously - must be explosion proof Volume is a major concern! • Materials costs can be prohibitive 9 In-line production of multi-layer devices Hybrid Processes – Gravure conductor (solvent graphene) – Flexo Dielectric (UV magenta) – Flexo Conductor (WB nano-silver) 200 ft/min Challenges for print n Print in three dimensions! nInk film uniformity (no pinholing), thickness, smoothness, edge acuity are all critical. n Materials must be processed from solution (have to be made into a printable ink!) nFormulate for screen printing, inkjet, gravure, flexography nWater-based, UV and solvent solutions Challenges for print n Curing nConductive materials like silver must not only dry the ink film, but sinter the silver—fuse the particles together nFlake silver nMicro silver nNano silver nOther conductives: nCopper (oxidation a problem) nGraphite/carbon nCarbon nanotubes 10 FlexAir Drying Tunnel Orientation: - Horizontal (transverse) vs vertical (press direction) Orientation: H vs V 4.3 3.8 H 3.58 H H 3.58 V2 3.8 3.3 20 20 3.3 um um 2.8 40 40 2.8 um um 2.3 60 60 2.3 um um 80 1.8 80 ( ) t ) um 1He um Hg 100 1.3 100 um um 1.3 200 200 um 0.8 um 0.8 400 400 um 0.3 um 0.3 -0.2 -0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Distance (mm) Distance (mm) 11 Resistance vs. Press Speed 1.4 1.2 Asahi 100 fpm PET 1.0 0.8 Asahi 600 fpm PET 0.6 qr pe O0.4 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 BCM 2.5 3.0 3.5 Line Dimensions 0.50 1.60 2.71 e m0.30 5.55 L ei ( H 0.10 m L td µ 35 w ( 30 0.010 0.009 0.008 / 0.007 Rit( sp 0.006 A 0.005 0.004 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Web Speed (m/min) Morphology vs. Speed 2.5 2.5 30.5 m/min 200 m/min 2.0 2.0 20 um 40 um 1.5 1.5 µ( ) 60 um Hi ie H 1.0 1.0 80 um 100 um 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 Distance (mm) Distance (mm) 12 Production of Transparent Grids Appropriate for backplanes for displays, photovoltaics Fully sintered, 660 ft./ min Transmittance vs. Rs BRUCE KAHN, PRINTED ELECTRONICS CONSULTING, 2013 Energy Harvesting nCapture ambient RF energy (radio, TV, cellphone, wi-fi) through rectifying antennas (rectennas). nCaptured energy can be used for ultra- low power devices nDesign scale is in millimeters rather than microns, so registration of layers is feasible. nUse of metamaterials to capture multiple frequencies in single rectanna structure Liam O’Hara 4/8/15 39 13
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