Chapter 20 Forms and Functions (2/2 and 2/4)
Chapter 20 Forms and Functions (2/2 and 2/4) Bio 1320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridgett Notetaker on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1320 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Mahon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/07/15
Chapter 20 Animal Structures and Functions 22 and 24 Animal structures are not the ultimate design they are quotjust enough to function Structure and Function in Animal Tissue 0 Structure is adapted in organisms to function in descendents ex a giraffe s larynx is 15 feet long As an embryo develops the nerve lengthens rather than breaking and forming a shorter connection 0 Fish and tetrapods share a common ancestor proven by similar embryo 0 Structures aren t perfect but they are good enough to function Structure Fits Function at all Levels of Organization 0 Anatomy Study of form of an organism s structure 0 Physiology study of the function of the structures in an organism o Hierarchy in Animals 1 Cell ex muscle cell 2 Tissue ex muscle tissue I An integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function 3 Organ ex heart I Made up of two or more tissues that perform a specific task 4 Organ system ex circulatory system 5 Organism the animal I An organism contains several organ systems and they all depend on one another Tissues 0 Groups of cells with a common structural function 0 Animals have four main categories of tissue 1 Epithelial tissue 2 Connective tissue 3 Muscle tissue 4 Nervous tissue Epithelial Tissue 0 Sheets of closely packed cells 0 Cove rs the body and lines the organs cavities and body surfaces 0 80 of cancer is in this type of tissue 0 Come in 3 shapes 1 Squamous look like a fried egg or tile fat with a bump in the middle 2 Cuboidal tall as they are wide 3 Columnar taller than they are wide like a pillar 0 They are named according to the number of cells layers and the shape of the cells in structure Connective Tissue o Binds and supports other tissue 0 Six major types 1 Loose connective tissue under the skin I Most widespread I Helps join skin to underlying tissue I Ropelike collagen and elastic fibers are strong 2 Fibrous connective tissue tendons I Densely packed collagen fibers I Forms tendons that attach to bone 3 Adipose tissue I Storesfat in large closely packed cells held in a matrix of fibers 4 Cartilage at the end of bone I Strong and exible skeletal material I Commonly surrounds the end of bones 5 Bone I Has living cells I Matrix of collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral substance containing calcium magnesium and phosphate 6 Blood I Transports substances throughout the body Muscle Tissue Functions in Movements 0 Muscle is the most abundant tissue in animals 0 Three types of muscles 1 Skeletal causes voluntary movement attaches to bone 2 Cardiac pumps blood heart 3 Smooth moves the walls of organs Organs exintestines 0 Muscle cells only contract they can t relengthen they return when they relax Nervous Tissue Forms a Communicative Network 0 Nervous tissue senses stimuli and rapidly transmits information o Neurons carry signal by conducting electrical impulses o Other cells in nervous tissue insulate axons nourish neurons and regulate fluid around neurons Organs and Organ Systems Organs o Organs are made of tissue 0 Hearts have extensive muscle that generates contractions in epithelial tissue lines chambers and prevents leaks Bioengineers Learning to Produce Organs for Transplant o Decellularize animal organs to have the quotscaffoldquot of an organ for living cells to grow on the connective tissue keeps the structure scaffold 0 Lab made hearts can beat but are not functional 0 Also can make organs on a computer with 3D printers Organ Systems Work Together to Perform Life Functions 0 Most systems work with other systems to perform their functions and are made up of several organs to make it functional 0 Circulatory System Delivers oxygen and nutrients to body s cells transports carbon dioxide to lungs and carries metabolic waste to kidneys 0 Respiratory System Exchanges gas with the environment supply blood with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide o Integumentary System Protects against physical injury infection drying out heat and cold 0 Skeletal System Supports the body protects organs and provides framework for muscles o Muscular System Moves body maintains posture and produces heat o Endocrine System Secretes hormones that regulate the body 0 Urinary System Removes waste products from the blood excrete urine and regulate the pH and water balance of blood 0 Digestive System Ingest and digest food absorb nutrients and eliminates undigested materials o Nervous System Coordinates body activities by detecting stimuli integrate info and direct responses 0 Lymphatic Immune System Protect body from infection and cancer 0 Reproductive System Produces gametes and sex hormones Integumentary System 0 Skin consists of two layers 1 Epidermis Surface of the skin I Stratified squamous epithelium I Functions are to resist physical damage decrease water loss and prevent penetration by microbes 2 Dermis Deeper layer of skin I Dense connective tissue with elastic fibers and collagen fibers I Contains hairfollicles oil glands muscle and nerves sweat glands and blood vessels I Functions are to collect sensory info synthesize Vitamin D and help regulate body temp o Hypothermis is underneath these layers adipose tissue 0 Hair helps insulate the body and consists of a shaft of keratin filled with dead cells 0 Oil glands release oil to lubricate hair skin and inhibit bacterial growth External Exchange and Internal Regulation Structural Adaptations Enhance Exchange With Environment 0 Living organisms are open systems that exchange energy with surroundings o Breath in oxygen and out carbon dioxide 0 Cells in flat animals exchange materials directly with the environment 0 All cells must be bathed in fluids even in large animals like whales 0 Interstitial fluids fluid that bathes body cells and facilitates exchanges 0 Blood passes through this fluid to cells 0 Digestive system gt nutrients absorbed in intestine lining gt pass through fluid to capillaries Animals Regulate Their Internal Environment With Homeostasis o Homeostasis Actively maintaining a steady state within the body the external environment may fluctuate but internal remains stable 0 Depends on negative feedbadlt 0 Positive feedback isn t responsible for homeostasis but is used to upregulate response for a period of time o Fever is in response to an infection 0 Oxytocin releases in response to birth contractions
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