New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 1

by: Amanda Kelehan

VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 1 VIAR 121

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > Art > VIAR 121 > VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 1
Amanda Kelehan
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.607
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Art History Survey 1

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Art History Survey 1 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Part 1 of the notes for the early Middle Ages
Art History Survey 1
Rebecca Kreisler
Class Notes
VIARS121 EarlyMiddleAges




Popular in Art History Survey 1

Popular in Art

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Kelehan on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to VIAR 121 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Rebecca Kreisler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Art History Survey 1 in Art at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Similar to VIAR 121 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette


Reviews for VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Notes Part 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/10/16
VIAR 121 Early Middle Ages Islam  Founded by the prophet Muhammad, born in Mecca around 570  Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina in 622  Muhammad dies in 632, and within 2 years his successor, the first caliph (ruler), unites Arabia under Islam  Over the next few decades, Islamic armies conquer large portions of the Byzantine Empire and the Middle East  Like in Judaism, images that might be used as idols are prohibited by the faith; thus Islamic art tends toward awe-inspiring, non-figurative forms, such as calligraphy and geometric patterns  Page from the Kairouan manuscript of the Koran, written in Kufic, Tunisia, 9th–10th centuries o The spread of Islam led to the spread of the Arabic language, and writing is highly valued in the Islamic world o 2 main types of script:  Kufic, the earliest, similar to Western printed letters  Cursive, evolved from the 12th century onward  Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, late 7th century o Earliest surviving Islamic sanctuary o Encloses a rock outcropping that is sacred to Judaism and Christianity as well as Islam (the Temple Mount) o Centrally planned, octagonal layout, inspired by Christian martyria and nearby Byzantine architecture o Commissioned by the Caliph Abd al-Malik who wished to “dazzle the minds” of the worshipper  Most mosques incorporate local tradition, but with some shared features: o The sahn, an enclosed courtyard, especially in early mosques o The qibla (prayer wall) oriented toward Mecca o The mihrab, a small niche set into the qibla o The minbar, a pulpit from which an imam (teacher) leads the faithful o Minarets, tall exterior towers from which a muezzin (crier) calls the faithful to prayer  Great Mosque, Samarra (Iraq), 847–852 o Now in ruins, but once had 464 beams surrounding a huge sahn, supporting a wooden roof o Single cone-shaped minaret still stands on the north side  Plan of the Great Mosque, Córdoba, Spain, originally built 786–787 o Larger than any existing Christian church o Axis points southeast toward Mecca o Additions/enlargements added in 832-848, 961, and 987 o Turned into a Christian cathedral in the 13th century  Arches of the Great Mosque, Córdoba, begun 786–787 o Unique system of double-height horseshoe and round arches made from voussoirs of red brick and white stones, resting on Roman-derived columns o The second tier of arches spring from posts that sit on the lower columns, and they originally supported a wooden roof o Forest-like space with a continual sense of movement, repetition and energy  Mihrab bay, the Great Mosque, Córdoba, c. 961 o Mihrab built as part of the second expansion o In front is this area, reserved for the caliph and his retinue, consisting of 3 domed chambers entered through tiers of lobed arches that crisscross to form an interlaced screen  Dome in front of the mihrab, the Great Mosque, Córdoba, c. 961 o Built in intricate geometric patterns on 8 intersecting stone arches/ribs o Central dome and qibla wall feature elaborate mosaics with gold backgrounds (influenced by Byzantine decoration)  Detail: dome in front of the mihrab, the Great Mosque, Córdoba, c. 961 o Mosaics are vegetal motifs with bands of calligraphy o Synthesis of structure and ornamentation becomes characteristic of Islamic architecture  Plan of the mosque of Suleyman I and the imperial complex, Istanbul o 1453: Constantinople is conquered by the Ottoman Turks from central Asia; renamed Istanbul o Most important work was the mosque of Suleyman I, begun in 1550, built as part of a larger imperial complex  Sinan the Great, Mosque of Suleyman I, Istanbul, Turkey o Elevated site intended to appear aligned with the horizon, adding to its sense of monumentality o Based on idea geometry of the circle inscribed within the square (the circle considered a divine shape with God at its center) o 4 minarets surround the exterior  Courtyard (sahn) of the Mosque of Suleyman I, Istanbul o The sahn is surrounded by a colonnade which helps support a series of vaults that in turn support a series of domes  Interior of the Mosque of Suleyman I and detail of dome o Interior reflects strong influence from Hagia Sophia o Striped voussoirs are similar to those at Córdoba o Mosaics of ceramic tiles create elaborate floral and calligraphic designs  The Lutfullah Mosque, Isfahan, Iran, 1602–1616 o Intricate geometric, floral, and calligraphic tile work cover every surface o Reminiscent of designs of knotted carpets for which this region (Persia; modern Iran) was renowned Northern European/Germanic Art  Islamic influence in the Early Middle Ages was concentrated in the south (the Austrasian ruler Charles Martel halted the Muslim invasion of Europe at Tours in central France  The north (Modern England, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, etc.) became a new focus of political and artistic activity – more influenced by Germanic tribes (Franks, Anglo-Saxons, Nordics, etc.) than by Islam or Hellenistic-Roman tradition  Sutton Hoo purse cover, East Anglia, England, c. 630 o New craft developed around metalwork brought by the invaders o Discovered among treasures of a pagan ship burial, likely for someone of royal personage o Made of gold cloissoné and dark red garnets o Complex interlace patterns (a style which would continue through the Medieval period Hiberno-Saxon Art  Centered in Ireland, which had escaped occupation by the Roman Empire and invasion by Germanic tribes  Hibernia=Latin for Ireland  Also called Insular art (Insula=Island)  Christianity introduced by St. Patrick in the 5th century, missionaries from Ireland contributed to the spread of Christianity through Europe  Growth in Christian art in Ireland and surrounding British Isles during the 5th and 6th centuries  Celtic cross, Ahenny, Tipperary, Ireland, late 8th century o 7th and 8th centuries saw pagan interlace incorporated into Christian art o Designs likely evolved from similar patterns in metalwork o Celtic cross combines the cross with a ring o Stone crosses were often erected as free-standing monuments marking sacred places  Lion Symbol of Saint John, from the Book of Durrow, c. 650–700 o Illuminated manuscripts also combine increasingly complex interlace patterns with Christian iconography o Patterned, stylized body  Tunc Crucifixerant XPI, from the Book of Kells, late 8th or early 9th century o Text of manuscript is the 4 Gospels, written in Latin o Human/animal figure incorporated into letters (historiated initials) o Iconography assimilated into form; X shape (Chi) represents Christ The Viking Era c. 800-1000  Vikings were Scandinavian warriors who inhabited Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and were known throughout Europe for their paganism and destructive raids  Icelandic sagas recorded oral traditions of Scandinavia and present a valuable account of the pre-Christian culture, the Norse Gods, and Viking society  Around 800, the Scandinavians developed sailing ships propelled by oars, which made extensive travel possible; this leads to traces of Islamic, Byzantine, and Near Eastern/Scythian influence on Viking art  Animal headpost, Oseberg, Norway, 800–850 o Headpost from a Norwegian ship burial o Compact form with a monumental quality and elegant stylization o Function is unknown, but likely served some role as a guardian  Axe, from Mammen, Jutland, Denmark, Late Viking, c. 950–975 o Silver and gold inlay indicate high status of owner o Geometric design with natural elements such as foliage and a bird  The Rök stone, Östergötland, Sweden, early 9th century o A more specifically Scandinavian development are rune stones (featuring written inscriptions) and picture stones (featuring images) o Inscriptions include memorials/records of voyages, battles and daily activities o The Rök stone features the 1st known runic inscription of an oral narrative in Scandinavia; a memorial dedicated by a Viking chieftain to his dead son  Warrior Entering Valhalla, Tjangvide, Gotland, Sweden, 8th–9th century o Runic picture stone created as a memorial stone for a Viking warrior o At the top, a warrior rides Odin’s eight-legged horse into Valhalla; above are 2 more warriors, one falling and one dead, denoting battle o A Valkyrie welcomes the warrior into Valhalla by extending a drinking horn


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.