Notes Week 1
Popular in Europe and the Two World Wars
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Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meg Wurm on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST469 at University of Reading taught by Mandy Link in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see Europe and the Two World Wars in History at University of Reading.
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Date Created: 02/07/15
From Edwardian Progress to the Great Wgr 14 J g 393 Victorian Era gives way to the Edwardian Era 393 Prewar world 19001914 Technology 0 Aristocracy begins to buy cars I Cars begin to shape the way that the landscape is set up infrastructure etc I Advent of car racing the wealthy drove the cars but everyone could participate in some way I Creates a new form of entertainment 0 First manned ights I Humans making huge technological advancements that hadn t been reached before I Creates a sense of hope invincibility what can t we do 0 Cinema starts to become a popular form of entertainment I People of all classes can participate in this I Beginning of pop culture as we know it mass pop culture where knowledge of people and elements of pop culture were known to everyone not just those of the upper class 393 Prewar Europe and Violence 0 The prewar world was not unaccustomed to violence I Sinking of the Titanic 1912 I The South African War also called the Boer War 18991902 0 War between the British Empire and the Afrikaans speaking Dutch settlers 0 British use technology that they will refine for use in WI 393 Struggle for Women s Rights 0 Massive strides for women up to 1914 0 Pankhurst family most famous suffragettes in Europe I Emmeline goes to work after her husband dies 0 She becomes frustrated by the status of working class women subject to rape lower wages etc I Upset that women were being forced to live with the decisions of men without having a say themselves 0 I began to think about the vote in women s hands not only as a right but as a desperate necessity 0 Women s Social and Political Union WSPU I Formed by Emmeline and her daughters I Radical group I Use militant tactics I We are soldiers engaged in a holy war and we mean to go on until victory is won I Hunger strikes in prison many women died as a result of these 0 Marie Curie I Discovered radium I 1903 won the Nobel Prize I 1911 won her second Nobel Prize I First woman to win Nobel Prize first person to win two I Still the first woman to win two I Ostracized by the French scientific community because of her gender 393 Causes of the Great War Industrialization and Military Technology 0 Industrialization led to better more efficient military technology 0 O I Also made it easier to produce very quickly for not as much money 1884 machine gun I 500 bullets per minute British tested on Sudanese I 1898 Battle of Omdurman I 10800 Sudanese dead 16000 wounded I 48 British dead I Leads to the conclusion that modern warfare is going to be a lot faster shorter easier wars with lower casualties I They don t think about what wars will be like when faced with an enemy with the same technology Before WWI the last continental war was with Napoleon no one was left alive that remembered what a continental war was like Edwardian Military I British Army was classbased I Wellbom Englishmen joined the cavalry exclusive club I Needed at least 500year 60000 today I Late 19th century cavalry sword and lance similar to those used at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 I Cavalry warfare based on ideas of courage rather than modern technology Cult of the Offense I Change in military planning 0 Attack first 0 One decisive battle I No room for diplomacy I Schlieffen Plan Germany I Plan XVII France I Plans A and G Russia Empire I AngloGerman competition I Naval Race 0 Steadily increased after German unification in 1881 I Increased competition between European empires Scramble for Africa I Role of Nationalism 0 European Alliances 1914 I The Triple Alliance 0 Germany AH Italy ally together against possible threat from Russia and France I The Triple Entente 0 France Russia ally in response to the increasing threat from Germany British join later I Serbia allies With Russia due to shared SlaVic background 0 Tensions rise between AH and Serbia When AH takes over Bosnia O Serbians felt Bosnia should be theirs gtlltgtllt Assassination in Sarajevo Empire Nationalism and the Outbreg of World Wgr One 16 Jan 393 The Hapsburg Family of the AH Empire 0 Series of tragedies Empress Elizabeth Assassinated in 1898 I Emperor Franz Josef I Withdraws from public life leaves a vacuum at the center of his empire I Rudolph and his father have a falling out he and his mistress commit suicide 0 Archduke Otto becomes heir terribly affected by syphilis 0 After that Archduke Franz Ferdinand becomes heir I Without Josef as a central figure nationalist movements in AH begin to spring up 393 Nationalism and the AH Empire 0 Definition of nationalism Belief that a nation state should be founded on shared cultural and historical identity I Based in Enlightenment thinking of the 18th century I In uence of US French Haitian Revolutions I Nationalism as an ideal really takes root in the 19th century in uenced by social change brought on by the Industrial Revolution 0 MonarchyStatus quo is defunct at this point I The people believe the monarchy isn t providing for them I Future democratic or socialist states based on shared historical and cultural practices I On the eve of WWI this country is vulnerable faltering 0 Without Franz Josef there s no one to make political decisions 0 90 The Balkans O 1908 AH takes control of BosniaHerzegovina from failing Ottoman Empire 0 1912 First Balkan War between the Balkan League and the Ottoman Empire I BL Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro 0 1913 Second Balkan War results in AH intervention and end of Ottoman rule in the Balkans 0 AH rejection of Slavic nationalism leads to radical Slavic national groups Serbian Nationalism and Gavrilo Princip O The Black Hand I Secret nationalist organization 0 90 0 One of the most radical nationalist organizations in the country at the time I Pushing for unification of the southern Slav states I Greater Serbia I Saw war with AH as inevitable 393 Assassination in Sarajevo June 28 1914 0 First assassination attempt failed 0 Second attempt by Princip killed both the Archduke and Duchess I Princip captured and tried 0 Diplomatic Breakdown 0 After assassination Germany pledges full support to AH and pressures them to go to war with Serbia I AH was interested in war with Serbia as retribution and to save face on the world stage I Send The Note to Serbia with their demands over the top on purpose because they wanted the Serbians to deny them so they could declare war 0 10 main demands having to do with censoring antiAHanti imperial propaganda the right to monitor propaganda and try Princip 0 Infringements upon Serbia s independence 0 Serbia accepts almost all the demands but AH declares war anyway 393 War with Serbia turns into World War 0 July 29 Russia began mobilizing for war due to their alliance with Serbia 00000 Aug 1 Germany declared war on Russia Aug 3 Germany declared war on France Aug 4 Britain declares war on Germany Aug 6 AH declared war on Russia By early August all the major combatants were at war