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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretchen Mills on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views.
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Date Created: 02/07/15
CLASSIFYING MATTER A Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass Solid liquid gas a Sohd i Does not ow ii Atomsmolecules are closely packed b Liquids i Volume fixed ii Flows takes the shape of container iii Doesn t expand c Gas i Doesn t have a fixed volume ii Flows no shape iii Particles are not held together iv Lots of empty space The graphite within a pencil can be classi ed as a Solid B Composition Another way to classify matter Pure Substance or Mixture a Composition includes i Types of particles ii Arrangement of the particles iii Attractions and attachments between particles C Pure Substance matter whose composition doesn t change from one sample to another a Made up of one type of particles b All samples show the same intensive properties Elements Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions c Decomposedbroken down d Basic building blocks of matter e Composed of single type of atom Compounds Pure substances that can be decomposed f Chemical combinations of elements g Composted of molecules that contain two or more different kinds of atoms h All molecules of a compound are identical so all samples of a compound behave the same way D Mixture matter whose composition may vary form one sample to another a Made up of multiple types of particles b Samples may show different intensive properties Homogeneous Mixture mixtures that have uniform composition throughout a Every piece of a sample has identical characteristics though another sample with the same composition has different characteristics b Atoms or molecules mixed uniformly Heterogeneous Mixture Mixtures that do not have uniform composition throughout a Regions within the sample can have different characteristics b Atoms or molecules not mixed uniformly Mixture Examples Neon Gas Mixture Element Carbon Dioxide Mixture Compound Classify a Coke soda pop Homogeneous mixture ATOMS AND ELEMENTS A Atoms Protons Neutrons Electrons a All matter is made of atoms b In a chemical reaction atoms are never created or destroyed ProtonsPositive Charge a Lives in the nucleus b 100727 amu mass c Charge of 1 d Symbol ppH NeutronNo charge a Lives in nucleus b 100866 amu c Charge of 0 1 Symbol Electrons Negative charge a Orbits the nucleus empty space b 000055 amu c Charge of 1 d Symbol n 110 Know it is small B Elements a Each element has a specific number of protons within its nucleus Atomic Number b The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom c Atomic number uses the symbol Z i Ex Z2 is a helium atom What element has Z9 Answer F How many electrons does this element have Answer 9 9 because it has 9 protons and 9 electrons C Isotopes a All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons b Number of neutrons can vary c Carbon i Z6 6 protons 6 neutrons 6 electrons Carbon12 determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons 6612 ii Z6 6 p 7 n 6 e Carbon13 I 67 iii Z6 6 p 8 n 6 e Carbon14 I 86 d Practice Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic Mass Atomic Number Number Symbol 6 7 6 6 13 C 42 54 42 42 96 Mo D Ions a Neutral atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons i of electrons can differ from the of protons A The Law of Conservation of Mass Antoine Lavoisier 17431794 a In a chemical reaction matter is neither created or destroyed b The mass of what you end up with must equal the mass you started with always B The Law of Definite Proportions a All samples of a pure substance always have the same proportions of their constituent elements b EX 18g of water I 16g of O2 amp 2g of H2 81 ratio c Oxygen to Hydrogen always have a RATIO OF 81 What is the mass of oxygen in 810g of Water 720 g C John Dalton 17661844 a Parts of Dalton s Atomic Theory are still viewed to be mostly correct after 200 years Elements are made up of atoms All atoms of a given element are identical incorrect theory Atoms cannot be created or destroyed incorrect theory Compounds are made of atoms combined in whole number ratios During a chemical reaction atoms are separated and combined T omson and the Cathode Ray a Glass tube containing metal electrodes from which almost all the air had been evacuated b When connected to a high voltage power supply a glowing area is seen emanating from the cathode c The beam is de ected by external charges and magnets d Similar to an oldschool TV e Solution De ection was related to two factors the charge and mass of the particles the particles have a negative charge learned about negative charge E Millikan s Oil Drop Experiment a By knowing the mass of the oil drops and the strength of the electric field Millikan could measure the amount of charge on the drops b The charge on each drop was a multiple of 160x10 19 C don t need to memorize number c This is the charge of an electron 0999 WHAT WE KNOW 1 Normal matter isn t charged and atoms are not charges 2 Normal matter contains small particles called electrons 3 Why are atoms not negatively charged 4 There must be positively charged particles within atoms F The Plumpudding model of the atom a This model showed that atoms have inner structure and its divisible b This model was wrong G Alpha Particles a Positively charged particles emitted by some radioactive materials b Way heavier than electrons c Rutherford was studying the interactions of alpha particles with matter d Was trying 0 gather evident to support the Plum Pudding Model H Rutherford s Gold Foil Experiment a Conclusions Most alpha particles travel straight through the foil Therefore matter and atoms is mostly empty space b Proposed that the nucleus is composed if particles that are positively charged He called it PROTONS c Also concluded every atom has the same number of protons and electrons A The Atomic Mass a Many elements have multiple stable isotopes b The ratio of different isotopes Within a sample is constant C d e EX Chlorine i 2 common isotopes 35Cl and 37Cl 1 35Cl 17 protons and 18 neutrons 37Cl 17 protons and 20 neutrons ii 35C is 75 abundant 37Cl is 24 abundant sigmafractional abundance of isotopen X mass of isotopen The exact mass of 35Cl is 3497 amu and the exact mass of 37Cl is 3667 amu What is the Atomic Mass of chlorine i Atomic Mass of Chlorine 3497 amu075773667 amu 2433 26496797 8921811 3541858 3542 1 KNOW HOW TO DO SIG FIGS B Mass Spectrometry a There are many different ways for a scientist to measure the mass of an isotope b A Mass Spectrometer can measure the mass of atoms and molecules Works by moving ions past magnets and measuring how much the ions are de ected by the magnets Why can there be so many signals for an element i Many combinations of the different isotopes 1 EX Chlorine What is it good for i Determines isotope rations ii Measuring the mass of molecules can be applied to proteins iii Commonly used in forensic analysis iV Commonly used in medical diagnostics
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