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unit 1 notes

by: Coco Chen

unit 1 notes astro100-02 Exploring the Universe

Coco Chen
GPA 3.567
Exploring the Universe
Daniel Wang

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About this Document

These are the reading notes from unit one of our astronomy 100 course: an introduction to the universe and astronomy.
Exploring the Universe
Daniel Wang
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Coco Chen on Saturday February 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to astro100-02 Exploring the Universe at University of Massachusetts taught by Daniel Wang in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Exploring the Universe in Astronomy at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 02/07/15
Uth 1 OLIIquot PLaneTary NGIGHBOFHOOD Astronomy is the study of universe from Earth itself to the most distant galaxy from deciphering its nature at the beginning of time to predicting its eventual date in the remote future Galaxy is a slowly whirling system of billions of stars Through Astronomy we get to study places so remote that we can t never be able to visit and gain insights into alien environment unlike anything found on Earth Earth is our home planet with blue oceans white clouds and multihued continents The size of Earth and features on it are useful reference points for appreciating the sizes of other objects We also use Earth for defining the meter the fundamental unit of the metric system 0 meter used to be defined as one 10 millionth of the distance from the equator to North Pole measurement in 17003 was a bit off however Earth s circumference was roughly 40 000 kilometers 25 000 miles Discover of another measurement one for interpreting the processes that shape other planets when geological processes occurred on Earth A volcano spews molten lava provided a hint that it is extremely hot underground and it caused the earthquakes this allows us to make hypotheses about the processes that create similars features on other planets We then use what we discover on another planet to help us think about our Earth in a new way The Moon it s the nearest neighbor from Earth our satellite and orbiting Earth nearly 400000km away A of Earth s size rocky place we see evidence of history of steady pounding by objects crashed into it and our planet the Earth must have experienced similar pounding since we are so close to the moon Moon does not have atmosphere and is not protected Moon keeps its scars while Earth s past has been erased therefore we study Earth s ancient history from observing the Moon There are seven other planet circulating the Sun like Earth and Moon do O O O O O O 00 00 00 00 00 00 in order of increasing distance from Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune dwarf planets plutoids Pluto amp Eris Jupiter is largest the 4 outer planets have vast atmospheres Jupiter has a storm system that s the same as of Earth s Uranus and Neptune are blue because of a deep layer of methane our nearest neighbors Venus amp Mars provide deeper insights of our own planet The Sun s immense gravity holds planets in the solar system in orbit it is a star is 100 times the diameter of Earth and 300000 times heavier generates energy in its core by nuclear reaction producing energy in furious rate heat goes from its coregtits surfacegtthe space spreads the Sun would run out of fuel in another 56 billions years Solar system VVVV Sun the bodies orbiting it by its gravity filled with smaller bodies satellitemoons orbiting the planets sum of the mass of all lt 1 of Sun s disk shaped Sun at center and outermost planet Neptune lies about 45 billion km from the Sun beyond enormous amount of small objects orbiting in the Kuiper Belt Astronomers had developed units for measurements And we use astronomical units to measure the scale of solar system or beyond Mercury 04 AU or 60 million km from Sun Neptune 30 AU from Sun however our technology has limited us to explore farther than the solar system


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