World History 1020, Week Eight Notes
World History 1020, Week Eight Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
April 4-‐8, 2016 (Week 8) Dr. David Carter World History II Of Masses and Visions of the Modern World War I and Its Global Impact -‐ WWI was fought on a global scale and required resources from around the world, and the harsh peace settlement unbalanced the global economy leading the Great Depression The Quest for the Modern -‐ Becoming modern meant different things to different segments -‐ Mass production and mass consumption and their effects on propaganda and politics -‐ People favored strong leadership for their societies -‐ Three competing political visions of modernism emerged -‐ Liberal democratic (Italy, Germany) -‐ Authoritarianism (Portugal, Spain, Russia) -‐ Anticolonial (India) -‐ Used Declaration of Independence as a defense tactic The Great War (1914-‐1918) -‐ The causes of the war were complex -‐ Tension could be traced to conflict over colonial territories -‐ Decline of the Ottoman Empire (comes to an end after WW1) in southeastern Europe heightened international tension between Russia (transformed after WW1) and Austria-‐Hungary (comes to an end after WW1) -‐ Economic and naval rivalry between Britain and Germany further fueled tension -‐ International rivalries had led to the formation of military alliances -‐ The Central Powers were Germany and Austria-‐Hungary (winds up fighting with the Ottoman Empire before their undoing) -‐ The Triple Entente (later the Allied Powers) were Britain, France and Russia -‐ The reason these wars (WWI & WWII) go global is because of these alliances -‐ Pan-‐movements are movements that bring together a lot of different people who wouldn’t normal come together but share a certain sensibility -‐ Pan-‐Slavic movement, under Austria-‐Hungarian empire Slavic nationalism grows -‐ The 1914 assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian terrorist set the alliances against each other -‐ Railroads make the start of the war so quick and explosive -‐ Flongshlefan Plan is all about speed and mobilization (try to knock out France by beating them to the chase) The Fighting -‐ Begins in August 1914 -‐ Battlefronts, stalemate and carnage -‐ Instead of a quick war, vast armies fought a defensive war -‐ Called the Great War because of the scale and size of it -‐ Second World War often called the “Good War” but no one is going to call the First World War anything “good” -‐ The Western front degenerates into a stalemate of trench warfare -‐ They think they’ll “be home by Christmas” (that it’ll be a quick war) -‐ Trenches on the Western front went form the English Channel to the Alps -‐ Machine guns and barbed wire guarded the trenches -‐ Life in the trenches provided tedious, damp, dirty and disease-‐ridden -‐ No one anticipated what the Western Front would turn into (mustard gas, weapons of mass destruction, chlorine gas, machine guns etc.) -‐ On the Eastern Front, Russians moved into Prussia and Austria-‐Hungary -‐ By 1915 the war had grown into a stalemate -‐ The Battles of Ypres and Somme saw hundreds of thousands of casualties with little gain for either side -‐ The death toll forced governments to enlist more and more men so that millions were serving in each belligerent army, which leads to Modernism as people try to wrap their heads around the concept of death -‐ The war efforts recruit people from Africa, Oceania, etc. -‐ War undermined traditional gender roles -‐ Thousands of women served in auxiliary nits -‐ Women replaced men in occupations on the home front -‐ Food shortages led women to rebel against the state for food for their children -‐ Included nearly 70 million men fighting in the war -‐ By 1918, causalities exceeded 8 million, with another 20 million wounded -‐ Civilians suffered from aerial bombardments, food shortages and disease -‐ In 1919 there’s a huge influenza epidemic Empire and War -‐ The horror of war reached across continents -‐ The Ottoman Empire -‐ Armenians: genocidal activity? The Russia Revolution -‐ In Russia in 1917, military and civilian elites overthrew the Tsar in light of growing unrest -‐ Bolsheviks in turn overthrew them later that year and then signed a peace treaty with the Germans -‐ Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky -‐ Lenin says they have to maintain the revolution even if that means losing a part of Russia The reds = communist supporters The whites = communist opposers without much in common other than hating the Bolsheviks The Fall of the Central Powers -‐ The United States entry into the war in 1917 tipped the balance in favor of the Allies -‐ In 1918, Germany was on the verge of civil war, and German generals agreed to an ARMISTICE (not a surrender) -‐ The Kaiser fled the country and the empire became a republic = Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic was a weak period in German history that focused heavily on art -‐ Hitler is going to say that the German’s never really lost the war -‐ Hitler hates the Weimar Republic -‐ Unrestricted Submarine Warfare -‐ Zimmerman Telegram -‐ United States = sleeping giant The Peace Settlement and the Impact of the War -‐ The victors imposed a punitive peace on Germany at the peace conference held at the Palace of Versailles in 1919 (significant because Kaiser Wilhelm I was coroneted there at the end of the Franco-‐Prussian War) -‐ The treaty assigned Germany sole blame for the war (war guilt clause), forced it to pay reparations, and gave its colonies to the victorious powers to be administered as “mandates” (Germany gets penalties – kickstarts global depression) -‐ The Big 3 1. Woodrow Wilson 2. George Clemenceau 3. David Lloyd George -‐ The Fourteen Points -‐ The League of Nations -‐ American President Woodrow Wilson had hoped for a more harmonious and peaceful settlement -‐ Japan is treated poorly and Russia if left out completely in the Treaty of Versailles -‐ The map of Europe is redrawn, but the map of the world is not, meaning everyone still had their colonies
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