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Date Created: 04/04/14
Ch pter 13 textbook notes y I I V 131 Types of chemical bonds Bond energy energy required to break the bond Ionic bonding ionic substances are formed when an atom that loses electrons relatively easily reacts with an atom with high electron affinity Ionic compound metal nonmetal Coulomb39s Law determines energy of interaction between a pair of ions negative sign attractive force ion pair has lower energy than the separated ions Bond length distance at which the energy is minimum also known as the equilibrium nuclear distance nature has a tendency to achieve the lowest possible energy ex Saying that quota bond is formed between the hydrogen atomsquot means that the H2 molecule is more stable than the two separated hydrogen atoms by the bond energy Covalent bond electrons are shared equally by 2 identical atoms this results from mutual attraction of the 2 nuclei for the shared electrons ex H2 2 amp Ionic bond one or more electrons are transferred to form oppositely charged ions K A O M 5 this results from electrostatic interactions among the resulting ions ex NaC Polar covalent bond intermediate case in which atoms are different enough so that unequal sharing occurs eectron bonds are not shared equally ex HF 65 132 Electronegativity Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself Expected H X bond energy H H bond energyX X bond energyquot12 Difference between the actual and measured bond energies Delta H Xactua H Xexpected eectronegativities can be assigned from the Delta values Electronegativity difference in the bonding atoms Bond type Zero Covalent Intermediate Polar covalent Large Ionic New Section 1 Page 1 Increasing Electronegativity N 21 cT T 10 16 quotiquotaa l00 13 I V l C U V 500 10 12 1 1 II lo 0911 1 R In 39 390quot 1391 hacfullcnerg39lcel don39t need electrons Fluorine is the most electronegatiienol co Dv on PM can to cc to or no u 1 vb Lu J to It To oa133914151e g A l ro 1 u A In g2ol22 Inert Gases E390 FDA II 23130 we 7 Do U Q Ho NI Cm In U Is Im MO 1 No 133 Bond polarity and dipole moments Dipole moment has a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge gives information about a moecue39s bonding and electron distribution discrepancies between polarity and the dipole moment of a molecule can be due to the presence of lone pairs L 7 7 Q l O Opposed polarities cancel each other outtherefore no dipole moment as seen in the illustration below of a carbon dioxide molecule dfgg 5 2 t Polar molecules usually do have a dipole moment however CO2 does notas seen above an example of this is water which can be seen in the illustration below 6 439 Z fl Li 20 quot O A few examples of polar molecules with no dipole moments W a l New Section 1 Page 2
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