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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Caitlin Gibson on Saturday April 5, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 197 views.
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Date Created: 04/05/14
Week 1 HPHY37 1 Week 1 Assignments and Notes 1 Static vs Dynamic Static muscle exertion and exercise without movement of the joint eg lateral shoulder raise held in the same position for a period of time Dynamic muscle exertion and exercise while moving the joint corresponding to the muscles being activated eg a bicep curl 2 Aerobic vs Anaerobic Aerobic endurancebased or an exercise performed for a longer period of time to increase endurance and stamina that does not initially trigger lactic acid formation eg a 3 mile run Anaerobic an exercise lasting from a couple of second to a couple of minutes that emphasizes strength and speed for a short period of time and triggers lactic acid formation eg heavyweight squat 3 Cross Sectional Study multiple people for a similar characteristic over a single time period Longitudinal Study the same people over a long period of time and multiple time periods Both Observational studies Both have disadvantages due to length of study or possible bias due to lack of other information Notes from Lecture 1 Aerobic energy needs can e matched by oxidative metabolism dynamic rhythmic large muscleass exercise sustained for more than a few minutes Anaerobic energy demands are not fulfilled by oxidative metabolism glycolytic metabolism must be used large musclemass movement only sustained by a couple of minutes maximum Small musclemass uses portion of body s muscle mass limited by characteristic of muscle not by cardiovascular responses Large musclemass limited by cardiovascular responses Relative workloads based on amount of workload normally able to complete Bob usually can lift more weight than Fred so Fred will become fatigued faster Absolute workload based on exact weight that is lifted Bob and Fred lift the same amount of weight Crosssectional different people over same period of time Bob vs Fred on same day testing strength Longitudinal same people over longer period of time Bob vs Bob at different times Measurements Force Power and Work Foodstuff oxygen 9 ATP CO2 H20 HPHY 371 Notes 43 Equations Theoretical based on theoretical analysis true to the extent that is applies to the case under study unbreakable relationships between variables with no wiggle room Empirical based on collected data May not be generally true Sensitive to other conditions Inherent variability Open to error when compared with theoretical theoretical does not have room for error Definitions Work force acting on an object to cause displacement Joules Work and Energy have the same units Joules Work Force x Distance Extemal work mechanical lntemal work mechanical chemical and transport work performed within the body no measurable extemal displacement intemal mechanical diaphragm or digestion or heart pumping blood intemal chemical Amino Acids to proteins intemal transport molecule against a gradient NaK pump Assigned work extemal work that we ask someone to perform Extraneous work additional extemal work that someone does in the process of performing the assigned work Extemal assigned work product of force and distance Power work over time WorkTime more work in less time is more power Js Watt W can be talked about as a rate or an output or energy expenditure Question 80kg man steps up and down on a bench that is 05m tall at a rate of 35 steps per minute for 1 minute How much work is he doing How much power output A 0 J 0 W B 785 J 12 W C 13706 J 228 W D 13734 J 229 W Answer D Formulas Work Force x distance Power Worktime Use gravity as acceleration Question If a woman pedals at 65 revolutions per minute on a Monark cycle ergometer for 1 minute against resistance of 35 N How much work is she doing What is the power output A 0 J 0 W B 2275 J 38 W C 13650 J 228 W D 52920 J 88 W Answer C Have to include the 6m distance of every pedal revolution standard for Monark cycle Work resistance N X distancerevolution X revolution No way of applying work and power output on a horizontal treadmill due to unknown variables but we can have an incline on the treadmill and that would give the distance variable Don t need to know equation for tilted treadmill Power output and energy expenditure Direct calorimetry measure of heat production in order to estimate energy expenditure Foodstuff oxygen 9 work heat use highly insulated room and closed system but hard to establish these rooms measuring heat instead of oxygen Indirect calorimetry measure of oxygen consumption VO2 in order to extimate energy expenditure foodstuff oxygen 9 work heat measuring oxygen in VO2 max test Linear relationships power output and energy expenditure power output and V02 power output and heat production Running vs Walking More extraneous work when running more vertical displacement when running than when walking Reference slide 23 graph lines are different and not one single line because of the extraneous work done while running due to the vertical displacement difference when running compared to walking Efficiency how much work is accomplished relative to how much energy is used Efficiency total worktotal energy Measures how well we can transfer energy into work Problems with calculating efficiency in someone exercising a lot of intemal work being done as well while performing the extemal work there is no way of measuring the intemal work in humans no way of getting total work for humans Net efficiency rate of change in assigned power output to the additional energy expenditure Net efficiency change in assigned power output change in energy expenditure results in a percentage Reference slide 26 steeper slope means higher net efficiency Reference slide 27 endurance athlete vs sedentary individual net efficiency for endurance athlete is the same for both groups but endurance athletes can obtain a higher power output or energy expenditure Energy expenditure related to power output is similar in both groups as well NET EFFICIENCY IS THE SAME FOR EVERYONE oxygen uptake is linearly related to work rate training status of individual has no clear effect Economical if someone performs a lot of extraneous work vs someone who uses less extraneous work in the same activity to achieve the same goal but the person that performs a lot of extraneous work is less economical because they waste their energy on not being productive and moving in the proper fashion More economical is less extraneous work performed Economy relates an indirect work index to energy used because we cannot directly measure the exact work performed Indirect work index examples V02 or miles per gallon lower V02 is more economical Assignment 12 12 ASSIGNMENT FOR THE SECOND LECTURE THURSDAY Work power energy Here are items to prepare before the second lecture Reading Chapter 6 gets you most of this information 1 A definition in your own words for work power and energy Work force x distance the amount of energy needed to carry out a specific action Power worktime the amount of work done over a period of time measure of the rate of work being done Energy variable describing amount of kilocalories used to perform a task 2 An explanation in your own words for the concept behind measurement of energy expenditure using direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry Direct calorimetry measurement of energy expenditure using heat as the unit measured One way of doing this an experimental chamber in which changes in heat while someone is exercising Indirect calorimetry measure of energy expenditure using oxygen as the unit measured This measurement is easier to accomplish and can be done by assessing V02 max testing etc 2 An explanation in your own words for the concept behind opencircuit spirometry and measurement of V02 Open circuit spirometry is the most common technique used to measure V02 max The device is hooked up to the person or animal and the amount of inspired air is measured by an instrument that measures gas volume The amount of expired air is directed through a channel that can analyze the amount of CO2 and O2 and the results are sent to a digital computer that displays the resulting values NOTE For questions 4 and 5 please use 981 N as the force it takes to hold 1 kg of mass against the pull of gravity The book misleadingly has 9 79 N in some places but uses 981 in others 3 Calculate the following For the Harvard Step Test if an 80 kg man steps up and down on a bench that is 05 m tall at a rate of 35 steps per minute for 1 full minute how much work does he complete in joules What is his power output in watts Question 80kg man steps up and down on a bench that is 05m tall at a rate of 35 steps per minute for 1 minute How much work is he doing How much power output A 0 J 0 W B 785 J 12 W C 13706 J 228 W D 13734 J 229 W Answer D Formulas Work Force X distance Power Worktime Use gravity as acceleration 4 Calculate the following For a cycle ergometer if a women pedals at 65 revolutions per minute on a Monark cycle ergometer for 1 minute against a resistance of 35 N how much work does she complete in joules What is her power output in watts Question If a woman pedals at 65 revolutions per minute on a Monark cycle ergometer for 1 minute against resistance of 35 N How much work is she doing What is the power output A 0 J 0 W B 2275 J 38 W C 13650 J 228 W D 52920 J 88 W Answer C Have to include the 6m distance of every pedal revolution standard for Monark cycle Work resistance N X distancerevolution X revolution 5 Graph the relationship between power output independent variable and V02 dependent variable V0 ml kg min 100 I50 Walkingrunning speed m min
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