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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Uplinger on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by McDuffie in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Chem 4 Notes Periodic Table Mendeleev periodic law elements arranged increasing mass sets of properties recur now arranged in order of increasing atomic number rows periods equal to highest principal quantum number columns groups family same group similar properties group numbernumber of valence electrons Format Main group elements properties predicted based on position in periodic table labeled by a number and A Transition elements inner transition metals aka transition metals properties less predictable labeled by a number and letter B Electron Configuration quantummechanical theory electron behavior electrons exist in orbitals electron configuration description of orbitals occupied by electrons Electron Spin spin fundamental property since all have same amount orientation quantized up or down by spin quantum number ms value of plus minus 12 2 electrons in orbital must have opposite spins pauli Exclusion Principle no 2 electrons have same set of 4 quantum numbers so no orbital may have more than 2 electrons amp need opposite spins Sublevel Energy splitting orbitals with same energydegenerate sublevels of hydrogen have same energy energies of sublevel split in multielectron atoms due to interaction shielding penetration lower value of l quantum number less energy sublevel has Coulomb s Law attractionrepulsion between like charges like charges potential energy is positivedecrease as particle get farther apart as r increase opposite charges E negate and gets more negate as r down strength of interaction up with up charge sixe E 14pi e q1q2r Shielding electrons attract to nucleus and repuled by other electrons repulsions shield electron from nucleus effective nuclear charge amount of attraction electron feels for nucleus closer electron to nucleus more attraction outer electron better at penetrating through cloud more attraction penetration related to orbital s radial distribution function 2s orbital penetrates more than 1s or 2p ie greater attractive force penetration means energies of sub levels in same principal level not degenerate Aufbau Principle energy levelssublevels fill lowest to highest orbitals in same sublevel have the same energy Hund s Rule place one electron per orbital before completing pairs Electron types valence highest principal energy shell way atom behaves chemicallyphysically is number of valence electrons core lower energy shells Magnetic Properties of ionsatoms electrons left unpaired results in magnetic field paramagnetism attract to magnetic field paired diamagnetism repelled by magnetic field Elemental Properties noble gas 8 valence nonreactive stable Alkali Metals one valence electron first column loose one electron in reaction Alkaline Earth Metals 2 valence second column loose two electrons form cation with 2 charge TransitionInner Transition lose electrons from s and then d to form cations p block metals p block area and lose electrons to form cations Metalloids d block sittin gon steps can be metallicnonmetallic behavior either lose electrons from s and p or gain electrons in p Nonmetals upper right hand side in p block gain electrons to form anions Halogens nonmetals one fewer electron than next noble gas 7A share electrons with nonmetal to attain noble gas Periodic Trends Atomic Radii van der waals nonbonding covalent radius bonding atomic radius average radius based on measuring elements and compounds decreases across period L to R adding electrons means valence shell held closer increases down group valence shell further from nucleus cation radius smaller larger effective nuclear charge anions larger less effective nuclear charge Effective Nuclear charge net positive charge that attracts particular electron core electrons shield valance from nuclear charge Z nuclear charge 8 number of core electrons Z effective ZS stronger attraction valence electrons have closer average distance will be across period up nuclear charge smaller radius lons same group same charge size up down column cations smaller anions larger larger positive charge smaller cation larger negative charge larger anion for isoelectronic same electron configuration species Ionization Energy min energy to remove electron form atom in gas phase endothermic process input energy first ionization energy remove electron from neutral atom 2nd IE energy to remove from 1 ion etc larger ENC more energy it takes farther distance electron from nucleus less energy it takes to remove lE decreases down group lE increases across period effective nuclear charge increase exceptions are 2A to 3A and 5A to 6A due to type of orbital shielding ability and repulsion factors Group 1A can t have successive ionization potentials only one valence electron Group 2A can have 2nd but not 3rd Electron Affinities energy associated with addition of electron in the gas phase exothermic but may need endothermic to begin alkali earth metals and all noble gases electron affinities endothermic more energy released larger the electron affinity more negative number large EA EA increases across period Halogens have highest EA For groups no definite trend 1A metals electron affinity more positive down column less exothermic so decrease electron affinity down column irregular increasee in EA from second period to third 5A lower than expected since extra electron must pair 2A and 8A ver low because would make it higher energy levelsublevel Metals and Nonmetals Metals Mellable and ductil shiny conduct heatelectricity oxides basic and ionic form cations lose elctrons oxidized smaller first ionization energies Nonmetals brittle dull electricthermal insulators oxides acidic and molecular form anions and polyatomic anions gain electrons reduced larger electron affinities Metallic character how close element properties match ideal metal more malleable better conductor easier ionize decreases left to right across period atomic radius increased down column melting point decreases down column MP low for metals density decreases down column increases down column nonmetals top of middle main group elements metals bottom Metallic Elements ionization energy decreases down column very low ionization energies good reducing agents easy to oxidize very reactive form salts w nonmetals soluble in water electron affinity decreases down group
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