Week 4 Notes - Music 121
Week 4 Notes - Music 121 MUS121
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS121 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Allison Kelsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see MUS 121 – 005 Introduction to Listening in Music at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Music 121 12915 Week 4 Cantata amp Oratorio Only sacred and primarily used to teach stories out of the Bible preformed without any costumes or staging were written in the vernacular and contained recitative aria and arioso Oratorios were preformed on a much larger scale than cantatas they were much longer up to a few hours and used much larger choruses Oratorios that tell the story of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ were called and were usually named for the gospel writer whose text was used Passions could use only text from the Bible or additional nonBiblical texts No staging like Opera All passions are oratorios but not all oratorios are passions JS Bach St Matthew Passion aria amp recitative Oratorio Passion Baroque Opera Began in Italy with the Florentine o Sought to recapture the spirit of Greek Drama although scholars have since proven that roles were not sung in Greek drama Used a single prevailing voice over accompaniment called Used recitative aria arioso and choruses Often composed in the vernacular Was originally an art form for the aristocracy and nobility but with the advent of public opera houses became a popular form of entertainment for the middle classes was the first composer to embrace the operatic form and is considered the father of modern opera 0 Member of Florentine Camerata Peri wrote the first opera Monteverdi wrote the second Monteverdi did it so much better than Peri swept Peri s under the rug Dido and Aeneas by Purcell Thy Hand Belindaquot 0 Similar to opera s in opera houses costuming props set changes 0 Sounds similar to JS Bach s St Matthew Passion 0 Biggest difference between Opera amp CantataOratorio is the staging Music 121 12915 Week 4 Baroque Opera The Baroque saw a huge increase in the popularity of instrumental music 0 Prior to the Baroque instrumental music was used primarily for vocal accompaniment Antonio Vivaldi 16781741 Born in and spend most of life in Venice Italy wrote over 500 concertos One of if not the most prolific composers of his time Trained and worked as a priest and violin instructor in addition to being a composer Was dismissed from his position as a priest for misconduct and died in 1741 as a pauper 0 Not good at managing money died broke Most of his concertos were solo concertos most of these were for violin but he also wrote for bassoon cello oboe flute viola d amore recorder and mandolin Almost all of his concertos follow the standard three movement fast slow fast Baroque form 0 Established the standard for the concerto for the next 3 centuries o Ritornellos for full orchestra alternate with episodes from the soloist return 0 Opening ritornello is usually short 24 measures and can be repeated verbatim or slightly varied Ritornellos are usually not repeated in their entirety The solo episodes are characterized by virtuosic idiomatic playing and may sometimes present elements taken from the ritornello very good written that works well with that particular instrument Groso big group of soloists Vivaldi concerto in A Minor Itzhak Perlman Violin Concerto in A Minor Ritornello Music 121 12915 Week 4 Johann Sebastian Bach 16851750 0 Born lived worked and died in Germany 0 Came from a large musical family 0 Was a virtuoso organist and keyboard player 0 Also played violin most likely taught by his father 0 He had 7 children with his first wife Maria Barbara Bach his cousin and 13 children with his second wife Anna Magdelena Wilke 7 died in infancy Many of Bach s children followed in their father s footsteps the most famous being Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Johann Christian Bach Bach s last two years were plagued with illness probably diabetes poor vision and severe eye pain died of a stroke in 1750 o Bach didn t consider himself a great composer just someone who tried to do his job at the best of his ability 0 Inspired by and studied the composers of his day most notably Vivaldi and Telemann Held positions with the church the aristocracy and civic positions 0 When hired as concertmaster for the city of Cothen his current patron the Duke of Weimar imprisoned him for a month before allowing him to leave 0 Composed mainly for the positions he held Wrote in all of the major styles except opera 0 Was considered the master of the fugue in his time Baroque Fugue term for a piece that treats one theme in continuous imitative counterpoint Begins with a statement of the the main theme and then continues with an restatement of the subject in a different but closely related key in all voices 0 Most fugues from this era were written in four voices but could be written in 2 or more voices 0 Sometimes periods of free composition called are inserted between statements of the subject 0 The first section of a fugue is called the which ends when all of the voices have stated the subject Music 121 12915 Week 4 0 Sometimes fugues were introduced by a piece for keyboard that resembles improvisation and sometimes serves as a prelude to a fugue
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