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Chapter 13

by: Marie Markoff

Chapter 13 PSYC 1010

Marie Markoff

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About this Document

These notes cover all material in chapter 13
Introductory Psychology
Melinda Cannon
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Cannon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 04/10/16
Chapter 13 ­ Personality   Ways of looking at the self:   Personality   ● A person’s individual characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors   ● Persisting over time and across situations   Freud   ● He “discovered” the unconscious   ● People came to him with problems like a numb hand, and he attributed it to the  unconscious mind.   ● Free association ­ if he had someone freely talk, he would find a hint of the subconscious  ● the “problem” was that you had sexual tensions   ● His name for his theory and his treatment technique: psychoanalysis   ● “Freudian slips” ­ “hello my beheaded, I mean, my beloved”   Freud’s Personality Iceberg   ● Personality arises from conflict between impulse and restraint   ○ Id (pleasure)   ○ Ego (reality)   ○ Superego (our moral compass)   ○ The ego is the mediator   Freud’s theory of Psychosexual Stages   ● The id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones, sensitive areas of the body   ● People can get fixated at one stage   ● Stages:   ○ Oral (0­18 months) ­ pleasure centers on the mouth   ○ If you did not make it through this stage, you always need a cigarette in your  mouth    Male development issues   ● “The Oedipus complex” ­ boys in the phallic stage develop unconscious sexual  desires for their mothers and view their fathers as a rival.   ● Resolution: boys identify with their fathers rather than seeing them as a rival    Defense Mechanisms (Freud)   ● We are anxious about our unacceptable impulses, so the ego represses this anxiety with  the help of defense mechanisms (unconsciously distort reality)   Assessing the unconscious:   ● Freud tried to get unconscious themes to be projected into the conscious world through  free association and dream analysis   ● Dream analysis   ○ Skyscraper = penis    ● Projective tests   ○ Ambiguous prompts should reveal the inner workings of your mind   ○ Ie. thematic apperception test: view ambiguous pictures and make up stories  about them    ○ Rorschach test: “what do you see in these ink blots?”   ○ Problem: results don’t link well to traits and different raters get different results  (low validity and low reliability)  Evidence has updated Freud’s ideas:   ● Development is life long   ● Peers have more influence on personality   ● Dreams as well as “Freudian slips” don’t reveal deep unconscious conflicts and wishes   ● Traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered, not repressed   ● Few objective observations, few testable hypotheses   ● Gender and sexual orientation seems to be more a function of genetics   Humanistic theories of Personality   ● The “third force” in psychology   ● 1st force ­ freud   ● 2nd force ­ behaviorism (no free will, you are a product of your environment)   ● 3rd force:   ○ They studied healthy people and the conditions that support healthy lifesty es  ● Maslow: the self actualizing person   ○ People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs   ○ self ­ transcendence   ● Carl Rogers   ● 3 conditions that facilitate growth and fulfillment   ● If our self­concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively   ● The 3 conditions:   ○ genuineness, acceptance, and empathy   Critiquing the Humanist Perspective   ● Encouraging self­indulgence, self centeredness   ● The human capacity for evil   ● Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait   ● Humanist response: self­acceptance is not the end; it then allows us to move on and do  good in the world and loving and caring for others.   Trait theory of personality   ● Trait   ○ A characteristic pattern of behavior or a predisposition to feel and act a certain  way. Ie honest, shy, hard working   ● Trait theory of personality   ○ We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured,  traits that differ from person to person    ● Factor analysis and the Eysencks’ personality dimensions    ○ Compass of stable, unstable, extraverted, and introverted    ○ Identify statistically correlated clusters of behavior    ● Traits; rooted in biology?   ●  Brain:  ○  extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low   ○ Introverts have too much brain arousal so they seek less stimulation  ● Body    ○ The trait of shyness appears to be related to high autonomic system reactivity (an  easily triggered alarm system)   ● Genes   ○ Selective breeding of animals, can select for traits (shyness, sociability, etc.)  suggesting genetic roots for these traits.   The big 5 personality dimensions:   ● Conscientiousness   ● Agreeableness   ● Openness   ● Extraversion   ● Neuroticism   Questions about traits   ● Stability   ○ Change over the lifespan; not much. With time, personality traits become more  stable    ○ Everyone in adulthood becomes more conscientious and agreeable   ○ Genes account for 50% of the variation for most traits   Predictive value: do traits predict behavior?   ● Conscientiousness­ grades, healthy lifestyle behaviors   ● Extraversion ­ a lot of time spent in social activities   ● happiness ­ low neuroticism, high extraversion, agreeableness   ● Marital satisfaction   The person­situation controversy   ● Are your behaviors due to situations or stable traits?   ● Specific behaviors can vary in different situations   ● We change interests, careers relationships   ● Averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits   ● Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce          


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