Week 11 Notes
Popular in Life 103- Biology of Organisms
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at Colorado State University taught by Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Life 103- Biology of Organisms in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
Week 11 Notes Mammal characteristics -3 bones responsible for sound (malleus, incus, and stapes). Reptiles only have 1 ear bone -the dentary makes up the lower jaw -Majority of mammals, rely on sound and smell rather than sight. Primates tend to use sight more than sound and smell. -have hair and mammary glands Mammal Evolution -mammals evolved from synapsid reptiles -Plesiosaurs evolution of homoeothermy -was around before dinosaurs -able to maintain body temperature Thermoregulation Endotherm generates metablic heat Ectotherm uses environmental heat Homeotherm constant temperature Poikilotherm variable temperature Trends of mammals -increase in brain size -increase in muscle mass and muscle number -Nocturnal habits -metabolically expensive -need more food for brain and muscle development -These trends help lead to a more efficient predator for getting and consuming food Heterodonty modified teeth that increase the efficieny in processing food Secondary palate -breathe and eat at the same time -most other vertebrates, besides crocodiles, can’t do this Mammals are endothermic homeotherms -mammals that hibernate can be poikilotherm The most diverse animal phyla have colonized terrestrial habitats. Most animal phyla are found in marine habitats Amniotes have reduced their reliance on water in their reproductive cycle Body Structure and Function Natural selection acts on heritable variation to favor the most successful solutions to these challenges An adaptation may show its function. Example variety of beak shapes and sizes on birds determine their diet. Embryonic tissue develops into 4 main types of tissue 1. Connective tissue 2. Nervous tissue 3. Muscle tissue 4. Epithelial tissue Cell structure endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus Hydrodynamics is a physical constraint of the environment. Therefore, organisms that have little to know relation have similar body types, such as dolphins and sharks. This is also known as convergence evolution. Phylum Review Metazoa -multi-cellular -digestive heterotrophs Eumetazoa -true tissues Bilateria -cephalization -bilateral symmetry -tripoblastic Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa, and Deuterostomia are all made up of phyla that share molecular characteristics Form and Function continued Vertebrates and flight -evolved four times: insects, pterosaurs, birds, bats -Physical constraints -flight membranes -hollow bones -small bodies Pterodactyl elongate single digit Birdfuse distal bony elements and feathers Batelongate four digits Locomotion -Adaptations for locomotion work off of the tetrapod body plan 2 patterns for form and function -Body size and surface area -homeostasis Body size and Surface area If you’re large, you need more food, take longer to mature, lose heat and water more slowly, and reproduce slowly If you’re small, you need less food, short time to mature, loose heat and water quickly, and reproduce quickly Metabolic Rate -oxygen consumption per unit time measures metabolic activity -metabolic rates vary with activity -a mouse would need more to eat than a horse for metabolic rate Body mass and life expectancy -small animals liver shorter and large animals live longer -Exceptions bats and naked mole rats As volume increases, surface area decreases Increase surface area by… 1. Flattening 2. Folding 3. Branching Salmon hatchlings oxygen exchange occurs across skin and gills. When they get older and bigger, they no longer exchange oxygen across skin Gills -increase surface area -interstitial fluid cover cells Regulating Internal Environments: Homeostasis and Thermoregulation Conformers when the environmental temperature changes, so does the body temperature Regulators- as environmental temperature changes, the body temperature stays the same Homeostasis maintain internal temperature independent of external environment Thermoconformers do not operate equally at all temperatures, they still have an optimal range of metabolic activity that is influenced by the external environment Acclimation -organisms can adjust to gradual environmental changes Homeostasis is maintained by -set point -stimulus -sensor/control center -response Negative feed back response is to minimize effect maintain homeostasis Positive feed back amplify effect not used in homeostasis Circadian rhythm temperature varies daily Homeotherm and ectotherm environment does not vary deep sea fish Poikilotherm and ectotherm amphibians, turtles, spiders Endotherm and homeotherm mice and birds Endotherm and Poikilotherm fish and bees Mechanisms for heat exchange Conduction: direct contact between solids Ex snakes sun bathing on rocks Convection: direct contact between gas or liquid Ex A dessert hare has big ears that have lots of blood vessels Radiation: No direct contact Ex Cormorant open wings to soak up sun Evaporation: high heat of vaporation Ex dogs pant and people sweat Heat flows from areas of high heat to low heat Generate and Retain heat 1. Insulation. Seen mostly in aquatic animals and endothermic homeotherms 2. Behavioral heat absorption bask in sun and sunbathe on rocks 3. Circulation system Circulatory Vasodilation and vasoconstriction move blood to surface to either be heated or cooled Countercurrent heat exchange -keep core of body warm by letting surface body become cold -Arteries and veins are located near each other -Warm blood leaves the core of body, and when it comes to extremities it becomes cold. But since arteries and veins are near each other, when the blood returns to the body it warms back up Heat production -Shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis -non-shivering relies on brown fat tissue, which gets burned for heat -some ectotherms, like snakes and bees, use shivering to generate heat Thermoregulation and Energy Conservation -Torpor: decreased physiological activity -tend to be small endotherms, such as birds and mammals that are active with high metabolic rates Hibernation: physiological activity decreases seasonally Aestivation: summer hibernation that’s often facultative -set point decreases accompanied by periodic arousals Adaptive heterothermy: endothermic animals’ body temperature changes due to environmental stress (like hibernation, aestivation, torpor etc) All mammals are endothermic, most homeothermics, and some heterothermic Diet and Digestion All animals are ingestive heterotrophs Amino acids: protein synthesis Fatty acids: fatty acid synthesis Vitamins: Organic compounds Minerals: inorganic compounds 3 Classes of Organic molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids
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