Anthropology100 Second Notetaking
Anthropology100 Second Notetaking 100
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Anthropology 100 Robert Paynter 2nd set of notes for 2nd exam Discussion Questions 1 Compare Darwin39s model and the generalist39s model What are the problems of Darwin39s model problems with Darwin39s model A Bipedal took use and anterior dentition do no happen at the same time B Was there a lot of big game hunting going on 2 What is biological reductionism If we use this theory how will we explain the unbalanced development between different countries What are the problems of biological reductionism Biological reductionism is the cause of human culture variation can be used to human biological variation We can use this theory by the help of human culture Human culture eXplains how productive a country will be Countries are unbalanced because of the efficiency of people making decisions The problems of biological reductionism are that it has logical fuzzy definitions constants BR says differences between countries are due to differences between races Empirical problems and Biological theory problems 3 Descriptive Model of PlioPleistocene lowerPaleolithic Hominid Environmental Tropics East and South Africa Cultural Settlement pattern base camps Population Social organization Political organization Technology Oldowan hammer stones debitage Subsistence organization reciprocity Ideology no evidence 4 descriptive model of homo erectus middle Pleistocene lower Paleolithic Environmental Tropics and temperate zones of Europe Asia and Africa Cultural Settlement pattern huntingbase camps Population Social organization kin groups Political organization Technology Acheulian tradition Subsistence organization gatheringhunting gt cooking Economic organization coop hunting Ideology Not really much evidence for higher level symbolic learning LectureTextbook Study Guide 3 Chapter 5 1 What is biological reductionism Cause of human cultural variation can be reduced to human biological variation Criticism logical fuzzy definitions constants gtgtgt BR says differences between countries are due to differences between races Empirical problems and Biological theory problems 2 What somatic traits are added in the upper Pleistocene A reduced dentition B increased brain cc to at least 1000 cc C reduced brow 3 What is the extra somatic adaptation added in the middle of the Paleolithic which completes the huntergatherer way of life Society egalitariangt Ideology complicates the egalitarian way of life 4 Where are these people living in which ecozones Regions of Eastern Africa and Southwest Asia 5 What features distinguish the Mousterian technology from the preceding Acheulian and oldowan traditions A Levalloisian techniquetrend away from larger B cruder forms to smaller more carefully aked tools 6 What evidence is there for the ideological and ritual behavior in the middle Paleolithic Cave bear bones and burials 7 According to lecture and the book is the Neanderthal a distinct hominid species Homo sapiens since they coexisted with modern humans and possibly reproduced with them 8 What is a typological approach to understanding the world A populationist approach to understanding the world Typological Approach the concept that organisms of a species conform to a specific norm in this View variation is considered abnormal Populationist Approach opposite typological Variation is norm no such thing as a norm 1 When was the upper Paleolithic Where are humans found probably by the beginning and certainly by the end of this The upper Paleolithic era occurred 35000 years ago Humans were found from northern Asia Africa and Australia 2 What are blade technologies spear throwers and composite tools Blade technologies consisted of sharp edged rocksstone that would help humans of that time eat protect themselves and in general survive Spear thrower device that extended hunters arm enabling him to make a more powerful throw Composite tools implements fashioned from several pieces 3 What did folks at Mezhirich make their house from Mammoth bones 4 Where are upper Paleolithic cave paintings found Spain and France 5 What other forms of art objects are found in the upper Paleolithic A beads and other ornaments B incisions on bone C the use of pigments on artifacts D possible quotVenusquot figurines 6 When and from where did people first discover the Western Hemisphere Glaciers covered much of the world making the sea levels lower and exposing continental shelvescreated land bridges People emigrated from Asia to North America across the Bering strait land bridge or Beringia 7 What is a land bridge and what was the name of the bridge between Asia and North America The Bering strait land bridge or Beringia 8 When did humans first arrive in Australia 50000 years ago 9 Was there a Land Bridge between Australia and New Guinea Between the link to Australia New Guinea in South East Asia Australia was connected to New Guinea but there was no land bridge between those and Southeast Asia Chapter 8 What is broad spectrum collecting and what climatic and natural environmental changes were associated with the shift to broadspectrum collecting A subtle change to a focus on a wider subsistence base and a more intensive exploitation of localized resources the reshaping of the earth s environment prompted new patterns of technological development as large game became extinct in Europe and north America for example humans increasingly relied upon smaller game What are microlith39s and ground stone tools Take a look at the picture on page 169 to see a comp is it to all made of blades used to harvest wild grass Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic toolssmall akes of stone were used for a variety of purposes A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of int or chart and typically a centimeter or so in length and half a centimeter wide It is produced from either a small blade micro blade or a larger bladelike piece of int by abrupt or truncated retouching which leaves a very typical piece of waste called a microburin The microliths themselves are sufficiently worked so as to be distinguishable from workshop waste or accidents Where is the Fertile Crescent Tigre39s and your Euphrates Rivers The Fertile Crescent was the earliest evidence of food production barley wheat The Fertile Crescent extends along a curve from the red sea The Tigris River is north along the eastern edge of the Mediterranean sea And the Euphrates river is located southeast thru the zaggros mountains of Iran and Iraq down to the Persian gulf Roughly when did to gather Hunter way of life give way to domestication 10 000 years ago What is the Neolithic Cultivation Domestication Neolithic indicates the beginning of domestication Eastern Hemisphere 10000 years ago gt SW Asia NE Africa and soon thereafter in South SE AsiaWestern Hemisphere7000 years ago gt Mesoamerica and highland Peru Domestication of Plants and Animals systematic artificial selection of traits in plants and animals to make more useful to human beings glossary Scupin and Decorse Creation of Village life living year round in the same place in the sustenance buildings beginning of ranked cultures Cultivation the action of cultivating land or the state of being cultivated quotthe cultivation of crops or the process of trying to acquire or develop a quality or skill Domestication Biological process of changing the general and physical characteristics of plants and animals such that they become dependent on humans for reproductive success When did Early States develop Def of Early States stratified cultures with unequal access to strategic resources and fewer positions of prestige than people capable of filling them Social power based on force and legitimacy is monopolized by the institution called state Eastern hemisphere 5000 years ago SW Asia and NE Africa then South and SE Asia eX Mesopotamia Western Hemisphere 2000 years ago Mesoamerica and highland Peru eX Aztecs and Incas Features of Early States from Scupin and DeCorse 0 Urban centers 0 Ruling classes 0 Monumental architecture 0 Numbers and writing 0 Long distance trade 0 The state 0 Division of labor 0 Food surplus 0 Science What is arti cial selection is the intentional reproduction of individuals in a population that have desirable traits In organisms that reproduce sexually two adults that possess a desired trait such as two parent plants that are tall are bred together What is the Oasis s theory A Less rainfall at the end of pleistocine era B Southeast Asia becomes less arid C Plant communities concentrate around places of water oasis D Animals get attracted to oasis E Humans are also attracted due to abundant resources F Proximityfamiliarity to one another leads to domestication and farming The population theories Demographic Stress 1968 Lewis Binford population pressure prompted the development of agriculture Population growth 1977 Marc Cohen population pressures alone would not make people abandon hunting and gathering in favor of intensive agriculture The coevolution theory of tomato tobacco horse sheep wheat coffee chicken sugar tea The coevolution theory was the joint evolution of two or more systems that interact with each other Where and when and what is Stonehenge Where Wiltshire England When anywhere from 3000 BC to 2000 BC M Archaeological evidence found by the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2008 indicates that Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings8 The dating of cremated remains found on the site indicate that deposits contain human bone from as early as 3000 BC when the ditch and bank were first dug Such deposits continued at Stonehenge for at least another 500 years9 The site is a place of religious significance and pilgrimage in Neo Druidry Where is the Nile River SubSaharan Africa Mesoamerica The Nile River is in Egypt The SubSaharan is in the middle of Africa Mesoamerica refers to a geographical and cultural area which extends from central MeXico down through Central America including Guatemala Belize Honduras and El Salvador Many important ancient civilizations developed in this area including the Olmecs Zapotecs Teotihuacanos Mayas and Aztecs These cultures developed compleX societies reached high levels of technological evolution built monumental constructions and shared many cultural concepts When did the cultivation of maize and beans began to spread into North America Were these the domesticate in North America Were these the rst domesticates in North America 7000 years ago the cultivation of maize and bean began and began to gradually spread into North America What about agriculture makes population growth possible If there is agriculture present within a society then the dependence on it grows as they find it to be a very important way of survival If there is more food available for others civilizations will recognize that and see that it is sustainable for more people Therefore people s interest in having a bigger community or family will increase and there will be more people to work on the agriculture of food and be able to eat it to survive Agriculture transforms the landscape it also gives rise to increases in human populations by making food supplies more stable and reliable Agriculture yields more food per acre so it can support a large population Did people39s death and nutrition improve with agriculture Agriculture actually caused death and poor nutrition at this time period for it brought people closer together as they would work on the fields and grow crops making diseases and germs more easily spread upon a population Sometimes people would be dependent on a particular food item because of restrictions on other types of food making them not get all of the nutrients they need to survive What kinds of new items were included in technology that came along with the Neolithic Wheels to construct transportation chairs tables beds smoking pipes lamps and sculptures What kinds of cultures envolved in association with agriculture Paleolithic cultures evolved in association with agriculture but there was a clear trend toward greater social stratification all over the world for the Mesolithic and the Neolithic eras What does BC mean BCE BP Bob Paynter39s Years ago A D BC Before Christ Jesus Christ s birth BCE Before the CommonCurrentChristian Era an alternative to Before Christ abbreviated BC BP Before Present AD After death Jesus Christ Was agriculture invented first in one place and spread from there throughout the world in many places or was it independently invented in a number of places Agriculture started in Mesoamerica and then spreaded up to the North Americas From Lecture What are the modern countries that make up Southwest Asia Turkey Bahrain Iran Iraq Kuwait Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE and Yemen What plants and animals were found in the fertile crescent wild progenitors to emmer wheat einkorn barley aX chick pea pea lentil bitter vetch What inorganic materials were ancient people interested in and what are we today interested in from Southwest Asia Inorganic materials that ancient people were interested in were things such as copper and turquoise Now today we are interested in oil for machinery gas and production of goods What two processes are affecting this part of the world between 10000 and 8000 BCE Plant and animal domestication Egalitarian Cultures 0 Relativelyzaccess to strategic resources Energy ow how you produce it hunting and gathering and how you distribute it reciprocity Power exercise as many basis is no monopoly Organization escalating rituals of dispute resolution Example Kalahari Chapter 9 Testbook When did states rst appear on the planet 191 193 5500 years ago How do Scupin and DeCorse define a state 191 600 A form of political system with centralized bureaucratic institutions to establish power and authority over large populations in clearly defined territories How would you characterize early states in terms of social inequality basis for social power existence of bureaucracy lifestyles of rich and not rich use of religion by rich 192193 Characteristics in terms of social inequality Early states for typically characterized by a high degree of social inequality The creation of substantial food surpluses along with better food storage technologies lead to new forms of economic relations This new division of labor in uenced both rural and urban areas Farm laborers were not only involved in a central food production they also turned to crap39s production to supplement their incomefrom the textbook Basis of Social Power The power of rulers and agricultural states was often expressed in substituents put palaces monumental architecture and luxuriant lifestyles The opulent lifestyle of the leaders could be contrasted with that of the other classes It was in early states that slavery in the state sanctioned use of force to enforce laws became common the leaders of the state often sanctioned their positions through the manipulation of religious institutions and symbols The division between the supernatural and social institutions that we had knowledge today had little meeting in these cultural settings There were tribes and Chiefdoms Tribes are more complex societies with political institutions that unite larger groupings of people into a political system Tribes do not have centralized formal political institutions but they do have sodalitaries groups based on kinship age or gender that provide for more complex political organizationfrom textbook Chiefdoms political systems are more complex than tribal societies in that they are formalized and centralized Chiefdoms establish centralized authority over populations through a variety of economic social and religious institutions Despite their size and complexity however chieftains are still fundamentally organized by kinship principlesfrom textbook Existence of bureaucracy The state is structurally distinguished from other societies on the basis of and institutionalize bureaucracy or government States are political Systems with centralize bureaucratic institutions to establish power and authority over large populations in different territories While the ruler of the state may be an inherited position state systems are not based on kinship And a highly centralized agricultural society the state itself replaced can groups as the major integrating principal State bureaucracies govern society on behalf of ruin authorities through procedures that plan direct and coordinate highly political processesfrom textbook This classification system too is not without some of the problems faced in Childe39s definition of centralized nation political organizations form more of a continual him then for me divisions and some societies do not fit into an individual categoryfrom textbook Life styles of rich and poor written accounts and illustrations often depicting the wealth and power of rulers the disparities that existed between the rich and the poor in state societies The kind of housing clothing material goods people had access to was rigidly controlled Many of these distinctions are recognizable archaeologically in palace complexes exotic trade items and greater than average concentrations of wealth Important indications of status differences were also expressed in burials Through the study of skeletal remains in physical anthropologist are often able to determine the age sex and health of the individual Because early states for more complex and highly organized then prestate societies they could not rely solely on kinship to define different status positions Land ownership and occupation became more then kinship and organizing society from textbook Use of religion by rich The surplus of wealth high density populations an organization harnessed by states made monumental architecture one of the most striking legacies of state societies The great temples periods and palaces of ancient civilizations were the work of thousands of skilled artisans laborers and slaves who quarried and transported huge stones and sculpted numerous artworksfrom textbook The pyramid39s which are characteristic of the Egyptian old Kingdom our example of a very different type of monumental construction Based on beliefs of resurrection and the life and then after world the Egyptian pyramids constructed as a burial chambers for the Pharos contained many material items for use in the afterworld from textbook With this being said if you were wealthy you could afford great materialistic items and live a life of luxury during your lifetime Not only during your lifetime will you live a comfortable lifestyle but also in the afterlife which is based on their religious beliefs Chapter 9 What are six of the earliest states 193 Mexico 3OOBC Peru 300BC Indus River Valley India2500BC China 2500BC Mesopotamia 3500BC and Egyptian Old Kingdom 3500BC What were the uses of pyramids in Egypt and pyramids in Mesopotamia called ziggurats 194 Egypt They were used as burial chambers for pharos and was filled with materialistic things that they would need in the afterlife Mesopotamia Would use pyramids as more of a spiritual ground There was no worshiping or ceremonies taking place here They were homes for the gods and each city had its own patron god How is the life of a craft specialist different from that of a Paleolithic gathererhunter 195 Craft specialist were often concentrated in particular areas and many archaeology call sites bear evidence of specialized workshops or areas for craft production Different crafts often have their own distinctive technology and materials textbook HunterGatherer societies lived their life day by day and therefore spent the majority of their time simply looking for food and water in order to survive They did not need nor spend time accumulating possessions that did not aid in their survival Because HunterGatherer groups lived at the mercy of the natural world it is believed their relationship with nature was one of fear and respect They fully realized the concept of the circle of life appreciating that life was gained at the cost of another s life It is the one society where the microcosm the little pictureeveryday life and the macrocosm the big picturethe world around you the universe played an equal part in the lives of humans httppeopleumassedueduc613SevenGradeseventhreehtml What are integrationist and con ict theories about the origins of the state 198200 Integrationist theories of state formation assume that society as a whole benefited from state organization or in other words the state was a positive integrative response to conditions that a society faced the benefits that certain individuals or groups in a society may have obtained were balanced by the key organizational or managerial functions they performed which enabled the society to survive and prosper textbook Con ict theories emphasize domination and exploitation It is thought that state organization arose out of the ability of certain individuals or subgroups in society to monopolize or control resources State organization therefore has been advanced only to the dominant elite in a society and in general very costly to subordinate groups like the peasantry textbook Why did agricultural states collapse 206209 1 Conditions that interfered with or destroyed to society39s ability to produce agricultural surplus would have had serious consequences 2 Suggested that resource depletion may be the result of sudden catastrophe events such as earthquakes ball volcanic eruptions or oods that have an impact on agricultural lands as well as other resources 3 Conditions within societies have led to collapse Many of these theories stress the tension or con ict resulting from social stratification 4 Most researchers assumed that the decline in complexity associated with collapse is a catastrophe quotan end to the artistic and literary features of civilized nation and the umbrella of service and protection that in administration provides are seen as fearful of vents truly paradise lostquot Tainter 1990197 What are depletion theories Catastrophe theories Social tension theories Failure to respond theories Depletion Theory when the amount of resources decrease and survival is harder for the people within that environment Catastrophe Theory when natural causes effect agriculture negatively volcanic eruptions earthquakes etc Social Tension Theory when there is inequality among classes social tensions Failure To Respond Theory when people can t adjust to certain changes in characteristics in an environment What kind of theory explains the decline of the Moche 208 Catastrophe Theory when natural causes effect agriculture negatively volcanic eruptions earthquakes etc Lecture What is the modern country that was the location of ancient Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia is located the modern country of Iraq while Upper Mesopotamia is in Syria and Turkey What are the rivers where the early states known today as Mesopotamia were located When did these early states form Tigris and Euphrates River What was the basic ecosystem away from the rivers in Mesopotamia Marshes wetland What are some of the characteristics of early states Brilliantly painted pottery sculpture and other artwork elaborate watercolor paintings beautiful murals technically sophisticated metal objects How do changes in settlement patterns allow you to see the origins of states a Archeologists gather information on past settlements through ground surveys remote sensing techniques like aerial photography and excavation Without this information developments at a particular time cannot be evaluated b Drawing on these resources in the last bullet point archeologists can map the distribution of early settlements and chart changes in their size and distribution through time c Changes in settlement patterns all us to see Allow archeologists to infer the political organization of past societies is illustrated by the use of central place theory Also agriculture and culture help see the origins of the states as well d Central theory written by Walter Christaller 1933 hypothesized that given uniform topography resources and opportunities the distribution of sites in a region would be perfectly regular What did people write about in the earliest forms of writing A little later on Pictographic Writing pictographs was the one of the earliest forms of writing They wrote about religious texts and documented history and to keep records A little late on it developed into symbolic writing where the characters were articulated in sounds which was easier because there were less characteristics and there were syllables to pronounce Soon after alphabetic writing systems evolved which made it easier to communicate because each letter have a sound Lecture Study Guide 4 1 Define egalitarian society Name two egalitarian societies where they are located and what they produce as energy sources Egalitarian Society to have very small differences in wealth between people 2 Egalitarian societies Eskimohunt sea mammals and land animals located in Alaska Canada and Greenland and Australian aborigineAustralia 2 List three resources that are strategic in our society that you wish you had more access to Oil Clean water Clean air 3 How do most egalitarian societies produce energy 1 Some Hunter gatherers northwest coast native communities but most rely on to domestic plants and animals BUT mostly rely on domesticated plants and animals 2 What is the variation independence on domesticated plants and animals Pastoralists100 domesticated plants Mixed agriculturalists mixture of domesticated plants and animals Horticulturalists 100 domesticated plants Ranked 4 What is the balance of San energy production between hunting animals and gathering plants 10 11 12 men meat from hunting 2030 percent of the dietthey did not need to expend enormous amounts of energyspend between 23 days a week finding food women gathering nuts fruit melons and berries 6080 percent 12 days a week What is a Mongongo nut The eggshaped velvety fruits ripen and fall between March and May each year and contain a thin layer of edible esh around a thick hard pitted shell Inside this shell is a highly nutritious nut Are the San and other egalitarian people biologically spiritually andor technologically impoverished as common sense and some anthropological theories would suggest No Can we characterize the San as being af uent yes but also only af uent if we restrict the definition of work to the actual quest for food They have to spend time and energy making tools weapons and clothing etc How is their af uence different from that found in our society they do not value the accumulation of material goods in the same way we do life eXpectancy high not on the edge of starvation What is the global range of variation of energy production amongst egalitarian societies The variation of energy revolves around the concept of where people hunt and where people gather on this planet People near the equator gather because of the vegetation for crops and people near the poles of the earth north and south hunt for food What principle is the basis for energy distribution in egalitarian societies Reciprocity Is energy equally captured by all members of an egalitarian society No because for example babies can t go out and get their own food Men usually hunt and women usually gather Define reciprocity Reciprocity the widespread sharing of goods and services in a society Blance Social construct Parentchild Socia Construct Energies amp Theft 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Not specified When and what What is the range of variation in reciprocity Exemplify at least three points on this continuum Describe your last reciprocal exchange What kind of reciprocal exchange was it Generalized reciprocity based upon the assumptions that an immediate return is not expected and the value of the exchanges will balance out in the long run balanced reciprocitymore utilitarian and trade and barter like people calculate the value of exchanges which are expected to be equivalent negative reciprocityattempt to get something for nothing means no reciprocity at all ex bargaining gambling cheating theft In egalitarian societies how are reciprocal relations related to kinship to distance Close physical space among people with in a band refer back to macro and microband Characterize the San s settlement pattern What is a general characteristic of virtually all egalitarian society settlement patterns Each band had a recognized territory of 300 to 400 square miles selected for its resources of food plants the main part of the diet wetseason water holes used during the six to eight weeks when sufficient rainwater gathered in pools trees for shade shelter firewood and wood for making artifacts and areas of grazing to attract and sustain herds of game animals What is a macroband microband group of several usually related families who set up seasonal huntergatherer camps used as a model of prehistoric societies There can be more than one camp in the region exploited by each macroband which moves from one area to another in order to exploit seasonal food resources At some times of the year the macroband splits into microbands How many folks in each amongst the San What is the population density of the Dobe group San Of Amherst Do you have a base camp what is a base camp Why do egalitarian societies have few things De ne and diagram a nuclear family An extended family Oneparent domestic groups Who was in the family you lived in when you were 13 Nuclear Family a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children Extended Family a family that extends beyond the immediate family consisting of grandparents aunts uncles and cousins all living nearby or in the same household gt When I was 13 my immediate family was my father mother and my brother My extended family was my two grandmothers five aunts 7 uncles and 7 cousins Draw a kinship diagram of this family What kind of family was it De ne monogamy polygamy polygyny polyandry 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 monogamy pair polygamy promiscuity polygyny one male multi female polyandry one female multi male Where do you live after marriage Husband s family patrilocal Wife s family matrilocal What is the basis for the exercise of power in egalitarian societies Equality Escalating con ict resolution Individual personality Group Interactions Rituals Removals Get along Reverse Dominance and Talks and Songs Leave and Kill talking With no monopolization 0f the bases of power how are disputes resolved in egalitarian societies Decisions are made by community consensus but people who don39t agree with the consensus generally do not have to accept it This is how fissioning can occur Discuss the model of escalating dispute resolution How is this different from dispute resolution in our society Reverse dominance man chases after giraffe gets thorns in feet other hunters laughgt make sure no one gets a big head The San will use force if they have to stuck poison arrow in heart of man who kills people for no reason How did egalitarian societies change in the long ago past and today Are there any left If so where are they Most have been in uenced in some part by industrial societies And yes they are still around today They aren t popular but they are still around in areas such as Africa Asia and South America How have the geopolitics of Southern Africa affected the San Antiapartheid effects of globalization Botswana people want land to be reserved no hunting and gathering allowed because of tourists Ethnocentrism no isolation that makes them the way they are They want to be egalitarian 27 28 29 30 31 32 What is the archaeological evidence for contact with the stratified societies of the Islamic world system and its components in the Indian Ocean Glass beads and chain links What did the European missionaries and hunters and traders want from the Kalahari and what was the name of a famous missionary Europeans first entered the Kalahari early in the 19th century as travelers missionaries ivory hunters and traders David Livingstone 1849 Who were the Boer Trekkers and why were they in the Kalahari The Great Trek was a movement of Dutchspeaking colonists up into the interior of southern Africa in search of land where they could establish their own homeland independent of British rule The Great Trek caused a tremendous social upheaval in the interior of southern Africa rupturing the lives of hundreds of thousands of indigenous people What did the apartheid South African state want from the Kalahari They want to stop the smuggling of guns Has AIDS infected the San at the same rate that it has infected other communities in Botswana The incidence of the diseasebetween three and siX percent as compared with national averages of 20 to 35 percentis quite low among the J ul39hoansi HIV and Aids Prevalence Rates 2011 Botswana 234 Namibia 134 US 6 Dobe San O n People get aids by seX bodily uids and by drugs needles n Migrant workers are one of the reasons why it spreads driver goes to bar looks for girls for intimate relations and therefore it spreads n Egalitarian society women are equal to men And can refuse seX from their husbands n Egalitarian societies produce food and help others work together equality Why are San women less infected than Bantu women Jul39hoan women told us that the decision to have seX with a man is their own and not forced Other girls expressed caution about entering into any kind of liaison And the maintenance of strong kinship ties among the J ul39hoansi has meant that women are not forced by economic necessity into the transactional J ul39hoan women39s long noted sense of empowerment and high status relative to men has proven to be a valuable defense in the fight against AIDS The high status of J u women noted in the more quottraditionalquot past has proven crucial to their avoidance 33 34 35 36 37 38 What is the San s reaction to proposals to make game reserves and relocate the gatherer hunters Kick the San s off the land and therefore led the San s to protest against it Why are the San egalitarian We think they are isolated live in pristine little world if they were exposed to Three questions about the San and isolation a Have the San been isolated from the rest of the world until they were discovered by the anthropologists on the 1950 s Historically how have the San been involved with ranked and stratified societies c How is the San s egalitarian culture affecting their involvement in globalization Five Stages of san interaction with the rest of the world Five Stages of San interaction with the rest of the world 1 SanBantu ranked societies 2000 years ago 0 BCE Tsodilo archeological site has evidence of ceramics nonseeds in a kraal pattern 2 San and the Islamic world system world system Dates back to 7501000 CE archeological site has evidence of glass beads 3 SanEuro traders missionaries and Hunters 18001870 s Ivory 7 Shillingspound ostrich feathers 45 British pounds per pound 4 San Boer Trekkers and English 18701960 s 5 San and Recent global politics Antiapartheid struggle Globalization Lecture Study Guide 5 What is a de nition of a ranked society Name two ranked societies Where are they located Characterize energy production in ranked society What is the range of variation in production strategies What is the range of variation in ways ranked societies produce energy with domesticated plants and animals Why do ranked societies use fallow systems What is the problem with shortening the fallow cycle Trace an energy ow diagram from ranked societies in highland New Guinea What are the most important domesticated plants and animals Energy production in a ranked society 1 Some Hunter gatherers northwest coast native communities but most rely on to domestic plants and animals BUT mostly rely on domesticated plants and animals 2 What is the variation independence on domesticated plants and animals Pastoralists100 domesticated plants Mixed agriculturalists mixture of domesticated plants and animals Horticulturalists 100 domesticated plants The range of variation in production strategies Pastoralists100 domesticated plants Mixed agriculturalists mixture of domesticated plants and animals Horticulturalists 100 domesticated plants The range of variation in ways ranked societies produce energv with domesticated plants and animals Follow system leave some land unplanted to solve the problem that agriculture depletes soil fertility New Guinea 39 What are the two principles by which people in ranked societies distribute energy De ne reciprocity and redistribution Do we use redistribution in our society quotIn cultural anthropology reciprocity refers to the nonmarket exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter immediate exchange to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected delayed exchange as in the exchange of birthday gifts It is thus distinct from the true gift where no return is expected1 Reciprocity is said to be the basis of most nonmarket exchange David Graeber argues quotAs currently used 39reciprocity39 can mean almost anything It is very close to meaninglessquot quotIn cultural anthropology and sociology redistribution refers to a system of economic exchange involving the centralized collection of goods from members of a group followed by the revision of those goods among those members It is a form of reciprocity Redistribution differs from simple reciprocity which is a dyadic backandforth exchange between two parties Redistribution in contrast consists of pooling a system of reciprocities It is a within group relationship whereas reciprocity is a between relationship Pooling establishes a center whereas reciprocity inevitably establishes two distinct parties with their own interestsquot We do use redistribution in our society because that s how exportation and importation of goods createmanage a good economic society like we do today 40 What is the basis for the exercise of social power in ranked society What are two forms of the exercise of power in ranked society How is the exercise of power related to the ow of energy How do prestigious people come to be prestigious Maintain their position Lose it To whom are they likely to lose their position The basis for exercise of social power in a ranked society is prestigousness And people keep the position of prestigiousness by giving to others in order to gain pro t in both materials and other things such as folowers which would make them more of a leader They also keep position by keeping a good level of strategic resources at hand and accumulate wealth and power until the next person with more prestige comes along Long Fallow 25 years Forest Fallow Medium Fallow 10 or so years Bush Fallow Short Fallow 13 years Grass Fallow Seasonal Fallow Part of the year No Fallow Land always in production 41 Are kinship relations relations by marriage and descent biological relations Close in physical space refer to micro and macro bands 42 What is war Is the prevalence of war related to natural instincts to be aggressive Does warfare between ranked societies effectively check population growth by killing lots of people Prevalence of war related to natural instincts to be aggressive is normal because we are human and we are naturally aggressive War De nition quota state of armed con ict between different nations or states or different groups within a nation or statequot Warfare between ranked societies effectively checks population growth will not covered in lecture and will not be on exam 43 Know how warfare among the people of highland New Guinea and enemies serves to restore soil fertility provide for a consistent if variable supply of pig meat and give bigmen the opportunity to achieve positions of prestige Soil fertility is established by the fallows system There s war then ritual war then ritual and the pattern repeats People invade take over and then they plant Rumbim trees Ranked Ritual War Ritual society Ritual Warfare Cycle Rumbim time Kaiko then war Rumbim time 20 years A few months 20 years Don t Pig feasts amp Don t ghtdon t DodgeballEvic ghtdon t plant tion plant More pigs Fewer Pigs More Pigs We eat pigs when pigs die sick and war 44 What are the features within ranked society economy and politics that lead folks into the cycle of ritual and then warfare Who was Yali What are other ranked societies who engaged in ritualwarfare cycles like cargo cults Yali won t be covered nor on the exam 45 What is ideology De ne symbol Give an example of a word symbol that demonstrates the arbitrary quality of symbols Are words the only things that can be symbols Ideology is a systematic body of concepts especially about human life or culture a manner or the content of thinking characteristic of an individual group or culture the integrated assertions theories and aims that constitute a sociopolitical programquot online source quot system of ideas symbols that gives meaning to behaviorquot lecture Symbol is quotan action object event etc that expresses or represents a particular idea or qualityquot online source quotwords or things the meaning or value of which are bestowed on them by the people who use themquot lecture Words are not the only things that can be symbols for materialconcrete objects can be symbols as well Because symbols and ideologies are no xed in the word or thing they must be understood by studying their contexts 46 Who is Jessie Little Doe Of what tribe is she a member What are some of the primary sources she is using to reconstruct the Wampanoag language Who is the rst native speaker of Wampanoag in many years These questions will not be covered in lecture and will not be on the exam 47 What were the stages of European interaction with people of coastal New Guinea What are cargo cults How are the cargo cults of New Guinea related to a cycle of warfare and ritual Comparing Rank amp strati ed prestigious people in New Guinea Ranked prestigious Strati ed prestigious people Big men Missionaries soldier bureaucrats owners Monopolize same legitimacy by knowing Monopolize legitimacy and force how to have fests and fares Achieve their positions of prestige Achieve their position of prestige Keep by being generous Keep by accumulating wealth power and passing tests Give lots of surplus away Accumulate as much surplus as possible and give back as little as possible Ritual Warfare Cycle known as cargo cults Ritual Phase War Phase See Europeans as quotBig When quotStrati ed BigMenquot Revolt against the Menquot so follow the quotBig are not generous and try Europeans Strati ed Menquot to get to accumulate cargo they surplus known as cargo are considered to be BUt the Europeans bring immoral quotBigmenn overwhelming military force and suppress the revolts and back to Ritual Phrase Yali Australia wants him to help them defeat the Japanese up and coming big man big politician wants cargo Outline of the history of interactions between Europeans and New Guinea People Early 1800 s Traders and Slaves Late 1800 s German missionaries and soldiers 1910 s1945 German Colonists Australia Japan US and Australia 1975 Independence of Eastern half of New Guinea Strati ed Society Unequal access to strategic resources and fewer position of lling them Paleotechnic Societies energy production primarily based on foods for humans and other animals to do society s work 2 fundamental classes ElitesPeasants Neotechnic Societiesenergy production primarily based on fuels for machines that do society s work 2 fundamental classes Elitesworkers 3 major tensions ariase out of energy ow that characterize strati ed societies 1 Tensions between classes 2 Tensions between market elites and redistributive elites 3 Tensions arising out of Classes groups having difference and unreal access to strange resources Comparing Energy Production in Egalitarian Ranked and strati edsocieties Energypersonday Egalitarian 3000 Kcaday Ranked 12000 Kcalday Early Paleotechnic 26000 Kcalday PaleoNeo 77000 Kcalday Neotechnic 230000 Kcalday
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