Pols-Y375 Week 4 Day 1
Pols-Y375 Week 4 Day 1 POLS-Y375
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by M. Stevens on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS-Y375 at a university taught by Karen Rasler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 160 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
PolsY375 Week 4 Day 1 5 minute video on the rise of ISIS httpallthatisinterestingcomisisiraqexplained Highly decentralized organization with Al Qaeda at the core Operate locally however they want under different branches Al Qaeda demands affiliates preapprove attacks against western targets 0 Provides training funding etc for all affiliates 0 Al Qaeda likes to go after public transportation infrastructure and large governmental buildings attacks are not after specific ethnic group more towards police officials military I One reason ISIS has broken off they target specific ethnic groups Al Qaeda s core in uence has declined since 2011 o Affiliate s in uence is increasing I Map shown demonstrating territorial reign Financial Times 2014 Countries where alQaeda and its affiliates are activequot The Islamic State s Claimed Caliphate Map of 68 Million residents in ISIS controlled area 0 Institute for the Study of War Kings College London 12 2014 0 About the size of Great Britain Raqqa is the capital where ISIS mainly operates in Syria How ISIS Challenges al Qaeda Both have very different objectives ISIS wants a caliphate now 0 Baghdadi ISIS has declared himself quotEmirquot the leader of Muslims everywhere Global Iihadist Movement I Short term plan to get Western support of corrupt governments out of their countries to these governments collapse I Not just the leader of the caliphate but all Muslims o AlQaeda targets the West as part of long term strategy I Get the West to spend lots of money to deplete these countries in the long run ISIS aims for an quotarchipelagoquot island strategy 0 Has network of affiliates in 11 countries 0 Pakistan Egypt Algeria Philippines Gaza Libya Lebanon Jordan and Indonesia I Trying to get other groups from all over the world to join with them and locally destabilize all of these different governments then take over the region I ISIS perpetuates a campaign to disassemble the governments supporting these local affiliates 0 Future Islamic Caliphate Map Extremely ambitious in the area they want to consume very quickly Libya Last week small scale terrorist attack by ISIS affiliate at hotel that killed civilians o Worry is that Libya is already devolving into Civil War 0 Defense Department very unhappy with Hilary Clinton because US intervened in 2011 to disassemble Gaddafi regime to prevent large civilian massacre I Defense Department now arguing there was no threat of massacre Clinton got involved for no reason Ultimately a threat to US access to Oil Opened Pandora s Boxquot of instability in the region ISIS is the richest global jihadist organization 0 Total assets 2 billion makes 3 million a day I Selling Oil stolen fields on black market everyday I Significantly richer than AlQaeda I ISIS taxes people within the areas they control State building simultaneously ISIS is very transparent Goals and ambitions easily accessible on the internet Sources of ISIS Financial Assets Wealthy donors from Gulf States and Saudi Arabia 0 Why To demolish Asad regime in Syria I Battle for power over various areas 0 Donor money represents a small fraction of ISIS assets 0 Note US supports Saudi Arabia financially Saudi Arabia funnels money constantly to terrorist groups like ISIS seeking foreign power over surrounding areas I US indirectly yet knowingly funds these terrorist groups Looting from banks and military installations 0 Banks unprepared for rapid expansion left money sitting in banks all stolen by ISIS and affiliates Taxes and smuggling of antiquities see earlier Oil from Syrian oil fields that is traded on black market Kidnapping and human trafficking Participation Question According to Mia Bloom insurgents use suicide terrorism to gain the attention of witnesses potential recruits and donors from abroad Goodwin Selective vs Categorical Terrorism Selective Terrorism Targeting of civilians due to their identities or roles Examples Politicians State Officials Security Police ISIS engages in Selective Terrorism as the first path to dismantling local governments Categorical Terrorism Targeting of anonymous civilians who share a collective identity non combatants Individuals targeted not for the role they play but because of their identity Can be ethnic cleansingquot or due to religious affiliation religious cleansing Examples Ethnicity Religion Social Class ie Shiite Mosque in Pakistan recently targeted 5080 people killed supposedly a Sunni attack Groups using Selective Terrorism African National Congress Sandinista Liberation Front ETA Basques in No Spain Irish Republican Army IRA FMLN El Salvador Groups using both Selective amp Categorical Terrorism AlQaeda affiliates ISIS ISIL Chechen Separatists Hamas PLO LTTE Tamil Tigers All of these groups were or are now engages in guerilla warfare Remember that all these groups are fundamentally insurgent organizations fighting for political purpose Participation Question Selective Terrorism targets military soldiers while Categorical Terrorism targets ethnic groups Why do insurgents use Categorical Terrorism Insurgents target complicitous civiliansquot 0 You re complicit when you are held responsible for what your government does 0 ie If you don t support drone wars executed by Obama but you still voted for Obama You voted for Obama so you are responsible for his decisions and tactics O O O I Complicitous Civilians Those directly or indirectly held responsible for government s decisions Civilians support the government that insurgents oppose Civilians benefit from government policies and resources The idea is that civilians have the ability to in uence the government one way or the other Many quotstrategicquot motives for suck attacks 0 O O OO Seize or recover territory from the government Boost recruitment particularly among ethnic groups with tension Revenge I Insurgents draw on histories between groups Undermine peace efforts Provoke government over reaction
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