Week 4 Notes - Nutrition 101
Week 4 Notes - Nutrition 101 Nutrition 101
Popular in Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 248 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Chapter 4 Week 4 24152615 The Carbohydrate Family 0 Single sugars Simple carbohydrates Three Monosaccharides W O 0 Energy source for all cells 0 One of the 2 sugars OH monosaccharides In every HO OH disaccharide OH o PolysaccharIdes are made of glucose HOCH o Mild sweet flavor 2 CH20H 6sided ring 0 I0 I O I o Intenser sweet flavor o Occurs naturally in fruit and honey 0 o 5sided ring CH OH 0 Does not have a sweet flavor 2 O 6SIded ring Ho Position of the hydroxyl group OH differs from glucose 0 Part of every disaccharide 39 C6H12O6 OH Each differs in their arrangement of the atoms 0 Pairs of monosaccharides 2 attached together Simple carbohydrates Three disaccharides o Glucose Glucose o Produced whenever starch breaks down 0 Glucose Fructose o Sweetest Chapter 4 Week 4 24152615 o Glucose Galactose o Carbohydrate in milk ie milk sugar 0 Contributes half of energy in milk 0 Chemical reaction breaks a disaccharide into 2 monosaccharides 0 Molecule of water H20 splits to provide hydrogen and OH 0 Commonly occurs during digestion 0 Chemical reaction that links monosaccharides Hydroxyl group OH and hydrogen atom combine to form water 0 Large Chains of monosaccharides Complex carbohydrates Long chains of glucose Three polysaccharides 0 Storage form of energy in the body 13 stored in the liver 23 stored in muscle cells 0 Built of Glucose units Branched chains 0 Food is not a good source of glycogen 0 Storage form of energy in plants 0 Built of glucose units Branched and unbranched chains 0 Grains are the best source of starch Rice corn rye barley oats legumes and starchy vegetables 0 Provides structure in stems trunks roots leaves and skins of plants thus found in all plant foods Vegetables fruits whole grains legumes o Built of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives Chapter 4 Week 4 24152615 Bonds between fibers monosaccharides cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes 0 Pass through the body undigested o Dissolve in water viscous form gels and fermentable digested by bacteria in the colon Oats barley legumes citrus fruits Research shows they reduce cholesterol and glucose levels 0 Do not dissolve in water nonviscous and less readily fermentable Bran and vegetables Promote bowel movements and alleviate constipation o Mouth salivary enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch into smaller molecules shorter polysaccharides or maltose o Stomach no new enzymes are introduced to break down CHO Salivary amylase diminishes as stomach acid and protein digesting enzymes break it down Fiber may promote satiety 0 Small Intestine pancreatic amylase continues breaking down polysaccharides final digestion takes place on outer membranes of intestinal cells mostly glucose molecules remain Maltase breaks maltose into 2 glucose molecules Sucrase breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose Lactase breaks lactose into glucose and Galactose 0 Large Intestine fibers remain and attract water bacteria in GI tract ferment some fibers mainly soluble Generates water and gas Fibers do contribute a small amount of energy for the colon 2kcalg o Primarily takes place in the small intestine Chapter 4 Week 4 24152615 Glucose and Galactose Fructose Fructose and Galactose are metabolized by the liver Glucose sent to body s cells for energy 0 Only about 30 of adults have enough lactase o Lactose Intolerance Symptoms Lactose remains undigested in intestine and attracts water 0 Causes bloating abdominal discomfort and diarrhea Lactose also becomes food for intestinal bacteria Bacteria multiply and produce irritating acid and gas 0 Causes further abdominal discomfort and diarrhea o Lactose Intolerance Causes Lactase declines with age Intestinal villi are damaged by disease medications prolonged diarrhea 0 Total elimination of milk products in usually not necessary Most can consume a small amount 6 grams of lactose 0 Managing lactose intolerance Experiment with milk products with a gradual increase Consume milk products with other foods Spread them throughout the day Consume fermented milk products 0 Kefir and yogurt Cheese is often well tolerated Use milk products treated with an enzyme that breaks down lactose lactaid 0 Primary energy source for cells 0 Blood glucose rises after a meal 0 Excess glucose molecules are combined by condensation to form glycogen 0 When blood glucose falls the liver cells break down glycogen by hydrolysis Single glucose molecules are released into the blood stream Chapter 4 Week 4 24152615 0 Muscle cells hold onto to most of their glycogen to use during exercise 0 Body can only store a small amount of glycogen What if we do not provide our body with adequate carbs 0 Proteins can be used to make glucose but not easily the making of new glucose Adequate dietary CHO is needed to prevent gluconeogenesis o Ketone bodies are formed when fat fragments combine Ketones provides fuel during starvation When production is higher than the use ketones accumulate in the blood Ketones bodies are acidic distributing the acidbase balance Body needs at least 50100 g of CHO per day 0 If too much 0 Glucose to fat liver will break down glucose and store as fat o Steady stream of blood moves past cells to deliver glucose 0 Fast blood sugar between 7099 mgdl 0 Blood glucose is regulated by insulin and glucagon Both secreted by the pancreas Insulin Blood glucose rises 9 insulin released 9 glucose goes into cells 9 blood glucose returns to normal Glucagon 0 Blood glucose falls between meals 9 glucagon released 9 signals liver to breakdown glycogen stores 9 blood glucose returns to normal 0 Blood glucose remains above normal after a meal due to inadequate or ineffective insulin 0 Type 1 pancreas does not produce any or enough insulin typically diagnosed in childhood 0 Type 2 cells do not respond to insulin typically occurs due to obesty o Hypoglycemia rare in healthy people Symptoms weakness rapid heartbeat sweating anxiety hunger Chapter 4 Week4 24152615 Replace refined CHO with fiberrich CH0 and eat small frequent meals 0 Glycemic response extent to which food raises blood glucose and elicits an insulin response Slow absorption or response Fast absorption or response Le a crash 0 Glycemic Index method to classify foods according to their potential to raise blood glucose Compare 100g of a food to 100g of a reference food typically glucose or white bread Low legumes milk products Moderate whole grains fruits High processed foods bread carrots 0 Sugar intake is excessive in the US 0 Recommended 30tsp 120 grams per day 0 Major sources sugarsweetened beverages desserts candy 0 Americans who drink sugarsweetened beverages have a higher energy intake Weigh more with high intake of added sugar 0 Sugars displace more nutrient dense foods 0 May make it hard to meet vitamin and mineral recommendations 0 2010 Dietary Guidelines 0 O O Caution that added sugars may increase the risk of chronic diseases Reduce intake of kcal from added sugars Discretionary kcal 100300 kcalday Practice good oral hygiene and consume added sugars less frequently to prevent dental caries According to the DRI s sugar should make up no more than 25 of your kcal Reducing Sugar Intake 000 Use table sugar less often Use sugar to sweeten nutrient dense foods ex oatmeal Drink fewer sugarsweetened beverages Choose fruit for dessert Chapter 4 o Read Identifyin Week4 24152615 ingredient and nutrient facts label g Sugar on Nutrition Facts Label 0 Not easy for consumers to identify added sugars 0 Label lists natural and added sugars in grams Corn syrup solids dextrose fructose high fructose corn syrup honey lactose malt syrup nectars raw sugar sucrose 0 Natural sugars vs concentrated sugars o Suga r has many names sucrose corn sugar corn syrups high fructose corn syrup honey nonnutritive sweeteners 0 High intensity sweetener o 7 approved as safe by the FDA Acesulfame K Sunnett and Sweet One Aspartame NutraSweet Lou Han Gou FruitMonk Fruit Neotame NutraSweet Saccharin Sweet n Low Stevia Truvia Sucralose Splenda Health and StarchFibers o Diets rich in whole grains legumes vegetables and fruit may Protect against heart disease Helps prevent Type 2 Diabetes Assists individuals in managing their blood sugar Enhance health of the large intestine Prevent constipation Prevent Diverticulitis Protect against colon cancer 0 Blind and remove potential cancercausing agents from the colon 0 Recommended Starch and Fiber Intake Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR 4565 of kcal from CHO 25 grams or more for women Chapter 4 Week 4 24152615 35 grams or more for men 0 Actual intake averages at 1112 grams per day 0 Real Life Recommendations At least half of grains should be whole grains 0 Look for 3 grams of fiber or more on the label Eat more fruits and vegetables Consume lowfat milk products Consume more legumerich meals Reduce intake of added sugars
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