HIST 100 week 10 Notes
HIST 100 week 10 Notes HIST 100
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at Colorado State University taught by Kristin Heineman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Pre Mod in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
START OF FINAL!! 03/22/2016 ▯ ▯ Jesus of Nazareth “historical Jesus”/ “biblical Jesus” baptism and crucifixion o accusation of blasphemy led to development of Christianity one of the greatest spiritual legacies of western civilization eventually became the official religion of roman empire “pagans” Jesus was Jewish! John the Baptist “the Plunger” ▯ Ages of Early Christianity Apostolic age o From resurrection of Jesus o Until death of the last apostle, John o Acts = major source for the period Ante- Nicene Period o 1 century – council of Nicaea o least studied period of early Christianity first seven ecumenical councils o from first council of Nicaea to the 7 council of Nicaea ▯ New Testament 4 gospels (Mathew, Mark, Luke, John) a narrative of the apostles’ activities right after Jesus’ death 7 authentic epistles by Saint Paul 7 more epistles that tradition attributes to Paul but that he almost certainly didn’t write 7 more epistles falsely accredited to 4 of the original 12 apostles a densely symbolic dream vision of the end of the world How Christianity Would Have Looked to a Roman poor people o slaves, women, non citizens lack of other gods o disregard for ROMAN GODS Dead god o Convicted criminal who is then worshiped o Who you eat, and drink his blood ▯ Paul Originally Saul of Tarsus o Prosecuted followers of Jesus o Then, Converted Began spread of Christianity to non Jews o Significant contribution The point of the tetrarchy is to stabilize boarders!!! Constantine Legalized Christianity Pagan o Means rustic Demolished the tetrarchy Solidified eastern an western empire o Seemed to have restored the empire ▯ Byzantium Istanbul, once Constantinople New capital city of roman empire Western empire was in sever decline Western side faring far better ▯ ▯ ▯ Christianity No two groups of people believed the same thing o Jesus of Nazareth as biblical messiah o Son of god o Died on the cross and rose from the dead o Physically present in the bread and wine of the Eucharist Constantine summoned a council to sort it out ▯ Arianism Controversy over the trinity Arius- priest in Alexandria o Teachings emphasized the father’s divinity over the son o Son was created by the father and therefore subordinate Heresy- opposing teaching of universal beliefs of the church ▯ “Paganism” in the face of Christianity paganism = derogatory word used by Christians roman polytheism was still thriving in 1 and 3 centuryrd o temples repaired o often rededicated to deified emperors adoption of cults of Isis and Mithras in Rome ▯ Goths East Germanic tribes Invaded by the Huns Forced Goths to seek refuge in Roman Empire o Under leader Fritigern Famine, harsh treatment by romans, revolt Battle of Adrianople o Beginning of the end of the Roman Empire o Emperor Valens and 40,000 troops defeated Killed along with 2/3 of army Settlement of Goths o Those ‘federated’ by new Emperor Theodosius = Visigoths o Ostrogoths joined the Huns Visigoths Under the leadership of Alaric o Lead his soldiers into Italy looking for payment Rome refused, sieged city, Rome finally agrees He asks for parts of N. Italy to settle o Rome refused Alaric and Goths sack Rome for 3 days Visigoths leave Italy, settle in Spain and Gaul as allies Ironically, they were the keepers of Romany legacy ▯ Vandals Another Eastern Germanic tribe Around 400, they started moving into Empire o Settle in N. Africa They sack Rome Odoacer dispose W. Roman Emperor o End of roman empire ▯ Ostragothic Kingdom Emperor Zeno upset with Odoacer Maintains Roman Law and administration With Theodoric’s death, end of kingdom ▯ Lombards From Scandinavia o Encountered and defeated the Gepids Invaded Italy o Largely unopposed, depopulated after Gothic War Most “barbarian Frankish Kingdom One of the Germanic tribes that continued Established by Clovis o Merovingian Dynasty o Catholic Christian Intertwined with Roman Culture o Difference in law = wergild o Fine paid by a wrongdoer to the family that had been killed o Hammurabi Anglo Saxons Germanic tribes Migrated to Britain Roman troops left UK in 410 ▯ Dark Ages or Late Antiquity Population reduced to subsistence farming 50% Children died before 5 50% of women who made it to marriageable age died at 25 homeless, poverty, raids, ghost towns trade and manufacture basically stopped o except slave trade only Latin in the west remains o education only in Christian monasteries ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Justinian I Byzantine emperor o Last to speak Latin as a first language o Reconquest of western empire o Re-established roman law o Built the Hagia Sophia “The last Roman” ▯ Plague of Justinian Pandemic of bubonic plague o First recorded instance of this disease o Necrosis of the hands Justinian contracted the disease, but survived 5,000 people per day in Constantinople at the peak 25 million people worldwide ¼ of eastern European population ▯ Byzantine empire things to know Widely Christian Outlived western empire ▯ Islam Sophisticated culture founded on faith o Interwoven with western culture Reclaimed Greek wisdom after it was lost Sowed the seeds of the renaissance 600 years before De Vinci Numbers Medicine and health care Art and architecture Voluntary submission to God “Age of Ignorance” ▯ Muhammad Hashim clan within Quraysh tribe o Long associated with Mecca, overseers of Ka’ba o Born into a turbulent time and tribal faction o Also born into poverty Married Khadija o Older, wealthy widow Received first revelation o Summoned to role as the final prophet of God o Message was the Qur’an ▯ Qur’an “recital” o god Gabriel Muhammad uncertainty as to when it was written o originally oral, but soon after, it was composed one true god regarded as his miracle “people of the Book” o tolerance of Judaism/ Christianity o not so much polytheism ▯ People of the Book “there is no compulsion in religion” o Allah’s desire is for genuine conversion pact of Umar ▯ Preacher to Conqueror Meccans drove Muhammad from the city Journeyed to medina o Year 1 in Muslim calendar o More receptive, within 2 years, under his command Tonal shift in spreading of Islam More revelations in Medina o Activist and determined tone 5 years of battles, Mecca and Medina in his hands o Arabian peninsula by his death in 632 ▯ Islamic Factions Death of Muhammad Caliph o Successor of Muhammad o Leader of the Islamic state Sunni o Accepted Abdul Bakr as the first Caliph Father in law of the Prophet o Caliph should be chosen by community consensus/election Shi’a o Accepted Ali Son in law and cousin of the prophet o Caliph chosen by appointment from God ▯ Five Pillars of Islam Shahadah: declaring there is no god except God, and Muhammad is God’s Messenger Salat: ritual prayer five times a day Sawm: fasting and self- control during the blessed month of Ramadan Zakat: giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the poor and needy Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if he/she is able to do ▯ Islamic Legacy Syrian Christian monks began to translate Greek/Roman writings o Math, astrology, medicine = immediate value o Philosophy and theater = anathema Math o Decimal place and decimal fractions o Linear and quadratic equations o Wrestled with irrational numbers o Relationship between algebra and geometry o 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0 ISAMIC GAVE TO WESTERN: medicine, math system ▯ Muhammad ibn….. Mathematician, astronomer and geographer ▯ House of wisdom Major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age in Baghdad Islamic and Christian scholars in divers fields o Math, astronomy, medicine, alchemy and chemistry, zoology, and geography and cartography Compilations as well as original research o Drawing on Greek, Persian, and Indian texts, Destroyed during the Mongol Siege of Baghdad ▯ Islamic Doctors Some tools and techniques used up until WWI Anatomy and physiology o Mandible is one piece, not two as Galen thought Pharmacology o Sabur wrote the first text on pharmacy Surgery o Cauterization o Washing hands before surgery o Many hospitals were built Carolingians Ousted Merovingians o Papal support Pepin the Short Last died o Crowned king of the franks From Latin Carolus o “descendent of Charles” Charles “The Hammer” Martel founding father of the middle ages o development of feudalism and knighthood Umayyad Arab invasion o Mooth from Spain led by Abdul Rahman al Ghafiqi o 5 largest empire the world has seen battle of tours o prevented Islamic spread into Europe o ‘hammered’ his opponents Reconquista series of struggles over control of Spanish peninsula o Visigoths, Islamic Empire, Christian states o Charles Martel and Islamic Hispaniola o Until Fall of Grenada ▯ Feudalism Decentralized Europe Lords (landlord) o Land owners, nobility, money bags Vassals (renter) o People under mutual contract o Pay in money, military service Fiefs (apartment) o Also called Manors o Inherited land or estate ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Reinvention of Europe Splintering of Islamic empire o Increased trade, not tied to region or politics o Islamic trading posts in Rome, Sicily, Marseilles Carolingians o So sever and complete that Europe re-invented itself o Feudal system, neural network Crop surplus, trade surplus, wealth increases No centralized government o Power and influence is in control o Milites bind together = feudal bonds ▯ Rise of the Mediterranean City Different trajectory than the countryside Short lived success of Carolingians allowed for increase in craft and trade o Long enough to stabilize the cities Economy begins to pick up again o A proto banking system Reinvention of the Church Corrupted by the Milites/ secular warlords Simony o Taking money from the church o Plundered and ran off with spoils o Established their own clients in clergy positions Gave them power, influence, and a cut of annual revenues Pornacracy o Papacy was bought and sold numerous times o Educated Carolingian renaissance questioned authority o Dark ages of church General overview Europe largely settled Barbarian invasions cease Art, architecture and literature increase Spread of scholasticism and philosophy Catholic church reforms and reaches height of power ▯ Peace of god Grassroots movement for reform Assemblies and individual demonstrations o Multiplied, everyone had the same complaint First mass, movement in western history o Leaders came from bishops Christian warfare Just cause o Expansion of Islamic empire o Persecutions of pilgrims o Destruction of holy sepulcher in Jerusalem o Islamic reforms in Spain and north Africa Almohoads and almoravids Fought justly Declared by just authority o Pope urban II o Council of Clermont Crusades Large scale military campaigns To “win back” holy land o Had been under Muslim control Only wars formally sanctioned by church Justification of warfare and development of idea o Truce of god ▯ Christian Military Orders Knights Templar Knights hospitaller Teutonic knights Elite standing army of crusader states Became so powerful they became the bank of western Europe o Development of checks ▯ Impact of Crusades Increased wealth of Italian states Decline of feudalism Interest in travel and geography Revival of trade First widespread attacks on Jewish population Intellectual interaction Ask what effects from crusades o Decline of feudalism o And wealth ▯ Gothic Originally meant ‘barbarian’ o After collapse of classical society Roman empire of classical clashes Germanic and French artistic movement Fresco, stained glass, the illuminated manuscript, and panel painting Architecture Religious inspirations Italy largely maintained classical architecture Gothic architecture much more pointy and many more stained glasses ▯ Literature Song of Roland o French epic Beowulf o Germanic epic ▯ ▯ What are cool inventions happened in middle ages? Trebuchet Spinning wheel o Brought to Europe from asia Magnetic compass Eye glasses Cannon Cross bow ▯ Norman Invasion Invasion and occupation of England o By Normans William the conqueror o Battle of Hastings ▯ Henry I William the Conqueror’s son Codified England’s government system o Exchequer o Royal law courts Attempts at controlling the church Ongoing growth of king’s power Magna Carta Regulated the relationship between king and feudal lords Law is not arbitrary o Common law o Statutory law Influences o US constitution o British government ▯ Guilds Association or artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town o Exclusive rights o Authority over local economy o For protection of common interests To learn trade = apprentice then master craftsman Universities Community of teachers and scholars learned theology, law, philosophy, and sciences two different models o northern European teachers were guilds governed themselves set up own rules and tuition fees liberal arts, theology, art, medicine o decides what teacher gets hired or fired o how much teacher gets paid o Latin was a big language ▯ ▯ ▯ FOURTEENTH CENTURY ▯ ▯ Mongols Genghis Khan o Starts to carve out an empire for himself Ogedei Khan o Invaded Poland, Russia, Hungary ▯ Mongolian Expansion Started to push into Europe Melee o “Drunken brawl” o useless against Mongols superior in numbers nomadic lifestyle psychological warfare weapons o bow can ride a horse a shoot an arrow at the same time o Chinese gunpowder ▯ Gunpowder Mix of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate Mongols credited with introduction to Europe o Battle of Moki China originally used it for fireworks Europe finds it and uses it as a weapon ▯ What Stopped the European Invasion of Mongolians? Densely populated German principalities Weather o Affected the glue and sinew of their bows Mongol Successor o Return of Karakorum once the Khan dies o Religious ceremony to choose next Khan WHAT TO REMEMBER o Very good at war th o Get all the way into Europe during crisis of 13 century o Don’t take over all of Europe because khan died and have to go back to Mongolian capitol 100 Years’ War War that lasted 116 years England vs. France Norman conquest of England o English Kings = Duke of Normandy Power struggle o English kings gained the upper hand by marriage French have most of upper hand throughout war But England starts to regain territory ▯ Treaty of Troyes French King o Mentally ill for most of his reign Designated English king as his heir o French throne will pass to England o Even though Charles had a legit heir Looks like England might win France English continued to defeat France Inventions from 100 years’ war Crossbow bphv0v ▯ ▯ Black Death ▯ ▯ Great Schism
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