Pathogenic Bacteria BISC 3450
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Aguilo-Seara on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 3450 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Lipscomb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Pathogenic Bacteria Lecture in Biology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Public Housing Tuesday February 102015 1115 AM PruittIgeoSt Louis In 1974 st Iouis demolishes pruittioe Critics on the left and right called it a vertical prison and concrete slum Liberals example of mistreatment of the poor by an indifferent govt Conservativesquot example of big govt failure Public housing One of the most important urban landscapes in the us Yet the projects are perhaps most stigmatized Nearly invisible in pop culture or media Exception good times and the wire 13 million households thatlive in public housing 45 million people In 19905 910 most distressed neighborhoods in uspublic housing projects Also a landscape currently in a period of massive change Broader questions What responsibility does society have to provide affordable housing to its poorest members What are the best approaches to affordable housing Eg public housing Rent control Vouchers Tax incentives for proactive builders etc Why did city officials build highrise public housingin the 505 and 605 What have been the problems and successes of postwar public housing Why are cities today demolishing projects like the robert taylor homes What are they replacing them with Timeline from tenement to taylor homes to today 1880s1920s preogressive reformers begin to regulate private tenements Reformers horrified in conditions in industrial cities Just tried to put as many people as possible Result First zoning regulations Fire safety standards Light and air requirements eg min of windows toilets doors No public housingyet But a few private philanthropists and labor unions experiment with building model tenements DC Reformers battle alleyway dwellings 1930snewdealgtgovt public housing program Emerges out of complete collapse of housing market Great depression U nemployment shantytowns homelessness Stock market crash 1929gtreformers lose faith in private market Housing reformers call for public intervention Govt should build housing Provide construction jobs Opponents warn of socialism Compromise resultgt us two tiered housing program Subsidized mortgages for middle class Public housingfor poor Fed govt and state govts create public authorities to build and manage public housingtoday over 3000 First public housing complexes small scale low rise well Eg first houses in nyc DC In 1934 congress creates alley dwelling authority to deal with dc39s alley dwelling problem Alley dwellings demolished Residents moved to public housing In 1943 renamed national capital housing authority 1950s60s high rise public housing In the 50s cities turned to massive scaled public housing Part ofthe broader urban renewal program Large scale slum clearance High rise towers May projects started as mixed income Quickly became segregated nonwhite and extremely poor Eg chicago39s robert tayor homes opened in 1962 Massive complex Twon ms Rows of 28 buildings 16 stories each Bordered by expressways on both sides Why high rise public housing Mix of good intentions and bad intentions Good intentions A faith in science and technological solutions to social inequality A faith in modernist architecture a kind of architectural determinism fresh air open space superblocks universal design Influenced by le corbusier influential modernist architecture A faith in govt planning and limits of private real estate market A faith in thinking big Economy of scalethe larger you produce something the more efficiently you can do it because you have the infrastructure ready bigger and replicable Badinten ons Warehousing of residents displaced by city development projects Racial segregation Politically difficult to build scattered site housing in white neighborhoods Sparks resistance of flight to suburbs Building vertically avoids integrating surrounding neighborhoods City machine politics Black and white politicians want to hold loyal constituents in thekNards Thursday Piihlir hniicino rpcir lpnfc in 7012 I VIMIIVIIVVIUIIIDIVUIVIVIIBU III hvd U 50 white 45 african american 24 latino 32 are elderly 36 are disabled In 1990sapprox30 PHhigh rise elevator buildings Rest garden apartments lowrese walkups townhouses Majority of public housing authorities PHAs are small Manage less than 100 units But only 6 of national total 10 big city PHA account for 30 of national total Nyc alone has 15 ofusa public housing What are the difficulties with highrise public housing Larger economic forces Notjust about the projects also about the context Deindustrialization unemployment etc City decline affected robert taylor homes PH wasn39tthe problemthe city was the problem Thinking pruittigoe was going to save St Louis that39s a little much Poor management Pha39s where really hit or miss depending on the city and the political culture of the city NYC had good professional management Chicago with machine became a patronage position DC in 1995 was ranked the second worst authority in the country Fed govt had to put in receivership NOLA and Newark Chicago taken over by feds in 1992 Experiments see reading with women who lived there running the community Income ceilings exclude the upwardly mobile Wanted to make sure it was for the people that could not afford to buy in the public market Did not want socialist housing to compete with the private market Underfunding Hard to find a viable source that works for an extended period of time fyou have inflation you want to raise rentgtnot easy when on fixed income and people not getting raises U nderfunded from the very start Design trying to use economies of scale trying to make as efficient as possible Had to cut corners shallow closet with no doors elevators that would skip floors no lobbies cinderblock walls and maintenance costs expensive Elevators started breaking down Poordeggn Architectural problems of public housing Jane jacobs was one ofthe first critiques Separation from the city separation from the ground New generation of critics say modernist towers in the park with maximum open space do not work Oscar newman39s 1972 theory of defensible space No natural eyes on the street Janejacobs 1961 natural way that the community watches each other that doesn t happen in a highrise Poor location Separated from other parts of the city by highways New directions Hope vinew philosophy new strategy new questions Toady called choice neighborhoods nyc hasn39tdemolished ph Some tenants get vouchers Some tenants consolidate elsewhere in more successful existing ph Others moveinto new hope VI ph In the place ofdemolishing high rise hope builds mixed use mixed income projects 13 units reserved for low income 13 for moderate income 13 sold at market rate Better design no more le corbusier Principles ofjanejacobs and new urbanism Architectural diversity mix of building types town homes small apartments etc Traditional architecture that fits into surrounding context Walkability More private spacebalconies backyards rather than huge parking lots I ll II A I J V IX or nomeowners and renters creative approaches to funding Eg market rate condos help fund poorer units But what happens to those moved out of high rise ph A 2002 study 19living in revitalized hope vi 29 living in other ph properties 33 were renting units using housing vouchers 18 had left assisted housing altogether
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