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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Croman on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY290 at University of Arizona taught by Dr.Narter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Research Methods in Psychology January 21 2015 Chapter 1 Psychology is a Way of Thinking 1 Four Scienti c Cycles A The theorydata cycle Harlow s research basic B The basicapplied research cycle C The peerreview cycle D journaltojournalism cycle B BasicApplied Cycle 0 Basic research goal is to increase the knowledge base 0 Applied research goal is to nd a solution to a particular real world problem Translational research serves as the bridge between basic amp applied research C Peerreview cycle 0 From manuscript to journal article ojournals are periodicals that only publish articles that are peerreviewed by other scientists in the speci c eld o Editors send to experts in the eld anonymously o Experts report back on proscons amp then editor decides whether to publish or not rejection revision or acceptance multiple rounds possible D lournaltolournalism cycle Think quotTelephone gamequot 0 Different audience different authors scientists vs journalist Technical terms vs lay person s terms 0 Ways to improve report on important ndings report accurately First Test February 13 January 23 2015 Chapter 2 Sources of Information Evaluating Finding and Reading Information The Research Versus Your Experience A Compared to what B Experience is confounded C Controlled research is better than experience A Compared to what Experience doesn t have a comparison group Ex Dr Rush never compared the bleeding cure to no treatment not falsi able and didn t have a systematic comparison group B Experience is confounded When we evaluate our own experience we are not able to control for multiple cooccuring effects on our moods or behaviors Confounds potential alternative explanations C Research compared to experience Researchers include a comparison group control for confounds and strive to evaluate information without bias Can isolate variables that we think are causing the changes Sometimes experience contradicts research ndings doesn t undermine ndings because it is quotprobabilisticquot or based on probability II The Research Versus Your Intuition A Thinking the Easy Way B Thinking what we want to think A Thinking the Easy Way Some ideas are easier to believe than other ideas o The good story we accept a conclusion just because it makes sense 0 Sometimes empirical evidence contradicts this may have to adjust your thinking accordingly 0 The presentpresent bias we focus on positive instances more than negative ones 0 Easy to notice what is there than things that are quotnot therequot 0 Ex People wearing hats vs people not wearing hats in a large class 0 The popup principle availability heuristic more commonly things that come easily to mind to guide our thinking 0 After an event takes place Charlie Hebdo shooting people are more likely to think that the chances of something like that happen are higher it is on people s minds B Thinking what we want to think Cherrypicking the evidence 0 We seek and accept only the evidence that supports what we already think and disregard the evidence that goes against what we think 0 EX Blindly supporting a political candidate Asking biased questions We ask questions that are more likely to give the desired answers EX You think your friend is depressed so you ask have you been getting less sleep Eating less Being overcon dent lll Trusting Authorities on the Subject Example What kind of reasoning is this a quotI m positive my cousin has an eating disorder I hardly ever see her eat anything other than diet barsquot Availability heuristic overcon dence intuitive reasoning b A friend asks you quotDid you hear about the study conducted by RAND It showed that the more sexually explicit TV a teenage girl watches the greater her risk of teen pregnancyquot Supported by empirical evidence c quotIt s so clear that my favorite candidate won that debate Did you hear all the zingers he deliveredquot cherry picking the evidence d quotI read online that many cases of autism are caused by the MMR vaccine children get when they are 2 evaluate the source IV Finding and Reading the Research A Consulting Scienti c Sources Types of research information written for a scienti c audience Journal articles both scholarly Empirical journal articles reporting a study for the rst time Review journal articles summarizes all the studies in particular area Edited books Fuength books B Finding Scienti c Sources PsyclNFO amp Google Scholar C Reading Scienti c Sources Guiding questions What s the argument What s the evidence Sec ons 0 Abstract 120 word summary of the article hypotheses method ampresuts 0 Intro First section of regular text on the topic of the study theoretical amp empirical background these are the research goals etc starts arge ends narrow 0 Methods How the researchers conducted their studies Resu s Discussion 00
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