Sociology 101 lecture notes
Sociology 101 lecture notes 101
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Popular in Sociology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendra Morscheck on Sunday February 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at Washington State University taught by Michael Lengfeld in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Sociology in Sociology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/15
Soc 101 12214 Sociological Theory and the History of Sociology Western Society blames themselves for their failures and mistakes individualism 0 History biography and social structure A theory is quotLogical model specifying relationships among variables as an explanation for the way things arequot Our goal as sociologist to achieve a theoretical understanding of social things A theoretical understanding involves being able to 0 De ne 0 Describe 0 Explain A de nition is what a concept means a concept pinpoints or isolates features of the world which are import to the scientist Describing is selecting and summarizing ALL of the relecant and crucial facts about the phenomenon in question allowing the scientist to make abstractions Explaining involves evaluation an argument based on INFORMED JUDGEMENT Scienti c explanations are NOT based in OPINION Sociological questions do not ask good or bad they see how it affects society Evaluating the Validity and Adequacy of an Argument 0 Is the evidence given true 0 Is any relevant evidence left out 0 Does the argument lead to the conclusion The Historical Roots of sociology Technology Urbanization and Social Upheaval 1776 the American Declaration of Independence 0 First social revolution 1789 French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 0 Peasants over threw the elite Industrialization and Urbanization in the First Modern Societies 0 Poverty 0 No labor rights Minimum wage child labor laws working hours sick leave 0 Very high death rates This was an issue of society to solve and study these social problems Europe Britain France Germany France 0 1892 Augustus Comte founds sociology o 1893 Emile Durkheim o SOCIAL FACTS consist of manners of acting thinking and feeling external to the individual which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him or her Actions manners that in uence us that we may not understand Being in a classroom and acting like a student because you know that is how you are supposed to act COLLECTIVE CONSCIENCE the shared ideas values and goals of humans in similar circumstances and under the same social arrangements Different communities have different thoughts of rights and wrong and what is important Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Mechanical solidarity through likeness low division of labour strong collective consciousness repressive law Omish people Organic solidarity through difference high division of labour weak collective consciousness restitutive law Our society individualism Germany 0 O O O 1887 Ferdinand Tonnies p 16 CC Gemeinschaft intimate association a lot like mechanical solidarity of Durkehim Gesellscheaft impersonal association a lot like organic solidarity of Durkehim Karl Marx 1848 Modes of Production and Distribution of Goods Economy Bourgeoisie 1 of the occupy movement Proletariat 99 the majority of the people quotReligion is the opiate of the massesquot and exists only to mask the inequalities and injuries of the economic system 0 Related to the capitalist system Max Weber 18641920 perhaps the most important Sociologist quotDebate with the ghost of Karl Marxquot Rationality and nonrationality Society becomes over rationalized Nonrationality is something we just do for pleasure not to just survive sense of self with nature Bureaucracies and Formal organizations Bureaucracies of the state president vice secretary ect Top has more power than the next position down Herbert Spencer 1852 Spencer39s work on evolution published 7 years before Darwin39s Social Darwinism and quotSurvival of the Fittestquot The dangers of this principle of Social Darwinism The idea that you could divide people up into groups and say who has more power than another 0 United States 0 O O O The Chicago School 1892 jane Addams was the First Sociologist to win the Nobel Prize and worked at the Chicago School University of Harvard Cambridge Massachusetts WE B Dubois First person of African American descent to receive a PhD from Harvard University Exposed the injustice of the race system in the United States Founding member of the NAACP The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 16381870 was published as No 1 in the Harvard historical Series and has yet to be surpassed Source NAACPorg January 24 2014 Lecture Notes The History of Sociology and the Vocabulary of Science Fears raised by Sociology O 0 Challenges to skepticism Religious political and economic power arrangements Statement of fact One that can be con rmed or discon rmed by examining empirical evidence Empirical means that we can actually measure it study by our senses What is an Inconvenient Fact Is something that goes against what you believe or changes your ways of living Facts that although they face the opposite of what we believe in society society has actually structural implications for all of us where we live how healthy we are who we marry who dies who suffers the most opposite of individualistic Empirical evidence information gathered through the use of the sense not ESP On the test he will ask what the empirical evidence of certain things What you can39t see or measure doesn39t make it less important Deductive reasoning is when we have a bunch of data and make an assumptiontheory from it Inductive reasoning is when we come up with a theory then get data to prove it theory driven What sociologists cannot answer these are NOT empirical questions Which religion is more moral Which is better communism or capitalism These are opinion questions you cannot support that with evidence What questions sociologists can answer What are the differences among religious deities What are the differences in how people live under Communism and Democracy The goal To achieve a theoretical understanding of the empirical social world Building blocks to achieve this goal 0 1 Concepts ranging from concrete to abstract 0 A naming concepts 0 B variables and operationalization 2 Statements 0 A existence 0 B relational Concepts 0 Concrete to abstract actual apple photograph of apple line drawing of apple core ASL sign for apple word quotapplequot 0 You can t measure something if you don39t know what its de nition is o A Naming Concepts 0 Just give it a name 0 B A variable is o 1 Something that varies o 2 A thing that is thought to in uence or be in uenced by another thing 0 3 A logical grouping of attributes An attribute is a characteristic that describes a thing Attributes can have varying levels of precision For example if the variable is HEIGHT short medium and tall are attributes More speci c attributes like number of feetinches are preferable o Operationalize to de ne a variable so that it can be observed and measured this is often accomplished by listing the variable39s attributes Describe how you are going to measure it Variable is sex 2 operationalization is male or female Variable is age operationalization is age years Variable is eye color operationalization is color green blue brown 0 Statements 0 Existence statement a concept identi ed by a term is applied to some object or phenomenon 0 Ex a chimpanzee exists in a case with a gun There is no correlation between the chimpanzee and the gun O Relational statement describes a relationship between two or more variables If X the Y X many of hours of studying Y high GPA THIS IS NOT A CAUSE It is an association Sociologists are look for a cause and effect correlation relationship not an association Ex There is a strong association between the number of re trucks and the amount of property damage 0 Does this mean that having more re trucks causes more property damage Of course not 0 quotAll causal statements involve an association but not all associational statements involve a causequot Most importantly asking sociological questions requires using a Sociological Imagination o 3 dimensions of Sociological Imagination are biography history and social structure 00000 0 January 27 2014 The Logic of Social Inquiry Sociology is the quotscientific study interactions and relationships among humans in societyquot Na39ive Observers are steeped in quotconventional wisdomquot o The things that we assume in life to be true Be skeptical Errors of Na39ive Inquiry o Flawed Logic fallacies o Flawed logic leads to flawed conclusions Sources of information o rsthand or secondhand Ho We trust secondhand information about things with which we have little or no experience but trust our own experience when we can quotThe exception proves the rulequot 0 The exception establishes the limits of the rule Ex All bears are black or brown 0 The fact is that some bears are not black or brown proves that all bears are black or brown Logic How we make sense of what we observe Science and Fuzzy Objects o Heisenberg39s Uncertainty Principle quotIt is impossible to measure predict or know both the position and momentum simultaneously of a particle with unlimited precision in both quantitiesquot 0 Some physical sciences simply ignore this principle in point of fact a great deal of scienti c progress can be made treating phenomena as predictable o quotIt appears that not only does God play 0 Chaos Theory The quotButter y Effectquot sensitive dependence to the initial conditions 0 Understanding phenomena as predictable within a range of certainty and not absolute does not undermine the credibility of sociological research 0 Social mobility is the ability to move to a different class Most people stat in the same social class or move down over their lifetime Fallacies of Presumption assuming you know something based on what you have heard or what you know from experience 0 1 Hasty Generalization Arriving at a conclusion based on too little information Using come Ex a sororities are crazy 0 2 False Bifurcation only give you two choices eitheror Treating a complex issue as if involves only two choices Ex Would you rather buy a cheap car or a good car This is a false bifurcation because you can buy a cheap car that is good Channels people s thinking into polar opposites Ex If you care about your children vote YES on gun control Ex quotBiology not economics explains male dominance in societyquot If an argument suggest it39s only this or that be skeptical There are always more than two answers for everything except true and false questions 0 3 False Cause aka quotspurious associationquot Lacking one of the 3 criteria needed to establish cause Timing cause must precede effect Association cause must be related to effect Nonspurious no other factor is the cause of the effect you must rule out other causes Ex the number of crimes committed by young adults started to increase just as the number of kids going to college started to rise 0 No time order 0 Its population growth more kids more kids committing crime Ex Sleeping with shoes on is associated with waking up with a headache It39s the hangover that gave you a headache and you falling asleep with your shoes on not sleeping with your shoes Ex Strong association between ice cream sales and drowning rates o It has to do with summer and it being hot leads to more ice cream sales and hot weather is more swimming which increases drowning rates as well Relevance Fallacies relying on an quotirrelevantquot authority 0 Appeal to one quotIt39s the soda that Michael Jordan drinksquot 0 Appeal to many quotBut Mom everyone else is doing itquot 0 Appeal to select few quotThese boots are just for special peoplequot quotOnly of people with high class can drive a really nice carquot 0 Appeal to tradition quotIt39s the way we39ve always done itquot 0 Ex The research shows that most people drive safely when they aren39t talking on their cell phones quotI don39t believe that because my aunt can talk on her phone and she drives safelyquot Hasty generalization Wrong level Fallacies studying something with the group as the unit of analysis then making inferences about individuals quotEcological faHacyquot Wrong level Fallacies Studying something with the individual as the unit of analysis then making inferences about groups quotReductionistic fallacyquot o 2 types Ecological fallacy and Reductionistic fallacy Juries Musicians Basketball Units of Analysis Individuals Groups 0 WS Robinson 1950 Moving back and forth between different units of analysis leads to logical fallacies Just because one person on a team is good doesn39t mean the whole team is good 0 You can t change your unit of analysis Hint how to discover fallacies of the wrong level 0 1 Identify the unit of analysis of the data 0 2 Identify the unit of analysis of the conclusion OOOO o 3 If they don39t match there may be a fallacy of the wrong level
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