Davis Hist 334 Note Feb 4, 2015
Davis Hist 334 Note Feb 4, 2015 HIST334-01
Popular in Renaissance
One Day of Notes
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This 14 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Rachel Davis on Monday February 9, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to HIST334-01 at St. Mary's College (CA) taught by Dr. Rodriguez in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Renaissance in History at St. Mary's College (CA).
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Renaissance Feb 4 2015 Key terms Fairs of Champagne Mongols Hanseatic League Commenda Trade and Commerce Economy extended throughout Eurasia and Africa Increasing signs of being capitalistic Eurasia O Europe39s geographical isolation peninsula on larger landmass after 476 fall political instability gt trade and productivity detrimental gt relatively small scale and local trade gt producing nothing outside world wanted or needed 11th century begins to recover or early 12th gt Fairs of Champagne massive markets set up throughout year in french county of champagne counts realized they were in geo advantageous area between flanders and italy which were the most economically advanced areas for several centuries o france was fragmented and trade from flanders to italy was slow bc so many polities to pass from taxation high to trade through each 0 counts bring everyone to champagne by setting up fairs each town in county hosts throughout the year counts charge sales tax and out money to polities to not charge tariff for visitors to fairs become more wealthy than the king of trance and others begin to follow all throughout europe 0 regional local national fairs champagne is international gt Crusades are critical development that bring Europe to western asia 1100 euros estabilshed four principalities in holy Land 0 military expeditions muslims and other christians o merchants can launch into asia gt marco polo 1204 crusaders conquer Constantinople and setting up catholic empire 0 access to black sea 0 italian trading posts spirit of crusading is evident beyond holy land 0 eastern europe Teutonic Knights german capture large areas to expand christianity gt Russians and Mongols advancing contact 0 Spain gt trying to drive out Moslem kings gt capture Gibraltar controls access to Mediterranean sea 0 currents force everyone to pass thru Gibraltar to get out of Mediterranean Sea friendly port for christians Mongols 0 world power under leadership of Ghengis Khan d 1227 gt military force incredible mobility strategic tactics gt Batu Khan conquered Mongolia China sacked Kiev and Moscow Poland Hungary and inroads to Middle East 1258 destroyed Baghdad gt Terror and chaos but great contribution brought peace by eliminating all enemies o ancient trade routes that were out of circulation for centuries like the Silk Road are brought back into use Pax Mongolica o mercantile roads kept safe by safe posts 0 journey from East europe to West asia becomes more common gt Tremendousinterconnection Venetians use fairs of champagne to buy cloth from england to make clothing and sell in jerusalem grains sold from all over sugar moved from south to north 0 euros not familiar with cane sugar until crusades gt syria gt cypress crete etc begin plantations quotslaves of faithquot and used as labs for eventual atlantic world slavery Wine trade 0 regions begin to be famous for different types of wine North to south salt 0 critical in premodern times for flavor and preservative Copper iron lumber Hanseatic League begins to control trade 0 commercial alliance of north euro cities and towns conglomeration of guilds o hundreds of Holy Roman Empire towns o privliges favored in cities better pricing 0 expansion brought advanced mercantile practices to many parts of europe Russia and London etc Hansa and Mongols interconnect world trade mid 13th century international trade market 0 eastern goods are big profits gt persian and chinese silks indian cotton cloth blown glass from india and burma precious stones Lapis Lazuli for blue dye for manuscripts from Afghanistan and spices for flavor and medicinal properties white and black pepper saffron from egypt cinnamon nutmeg cloves etc o Marked impact on culinary tastes and on art Capitalistic tendencies O O accumulation of wealth and becoming a money economy currency silver not best means of transaction bc not that O valuable for spices etc so european states begin to mint gold coinsno native gold supplies so brought from subsaharan africa gt Florence is first to mint Gold Florin followed by Venetian Ducat limitations to economy gt Churches attitude to usury lending money at interest was illegal in europe bc making money based on time interest and time belongs to God so you are stealing from Him 0 brings in Jewish money lenders so alleviates to a point then start saying that they are making money on risk and not on time or begin to charge fees after an inordinately short amount of time usury is not absolute so you can have usurious interest rates that are limited at 25 and anything below that is fine to loan at 0 leads to extension of banking gt Venice Genoa Rome Florence gt 1401 Barcelona opens first municipal bank backed by the power of the state gt advanced technique in book keeping doubleentry book keeping 0 when you purchase something the purchase has to be reflected in two different accounts debit and asset accounts 500 bushels as asset and 50 Florins in debit Europeans have access to investments 0 new class 0 Commenda is type of commercial partnership gt investment into commenda was limited to how much money you have pool resources to accomplish something and everyone will get back what they put in intially early 401 K program Increased capital in the market to build infrastructure technology etc gt Economic success by 1300 Key Terms Malthusian Limit Great Famine The Great Famine Urban more than rural population was growing dramatically europe is becoming safer states are becoming stronger living in Great Warming Period from mid12th c 0 mild winters good rainfall great climate conducive to food production 0 population growth 10501250 population doubled gt severe strain on european resources gt Thomas Malthus 17661834 Malthusian Limit posits 0 Human population will continue to grow until it stretches resources to their maximum 0 when this limit is reached nature or God reacts by bringing down the population levels 0 famine plagues and war are three of the mechanisms by which population is brought down 0 many counterarguments now gt famines are a crisis of distribution not production gt premodern world this may fit somewhat gt 1300 the limit is manifesting itself new lands are being fit for cultivation in 12th c there was plenty of land and best lands are used more crowding means marginal lands are being put into cultivation animal pasture used for cultivation limiting the number of cows and sheep and consequently the amount of fertilizer 0 problems contributing to low crop yields above 0 Crop yield is how many bushels you get back for what you plant gt 11 leads to starvation generally was 10151 in medieval europe at 51 you break even 0 artificial limiting cows and sheep makes ratio go down more by this time there was not much room for error bc it was around 51 gt 1315 warming period comes to an end Little Ice Age constant rain from spring to fall and harshest winters in memory for 7 years dendrochronolgy evidence in ice cores and sheep wool from market reports the size of wool is larger than average which gtWa means its colder than usual impact on N European leads to hunger disease and death Great Famine Rain made planting tending and harvesting more difficult Significant soil erosion damaged the marginal lands they had expanded to o 25 years for top soil to recover Plant diseases 0 fungi Hail storms in the fall damaged to wheat and crop yields become 11 or 151 Fatal animal diseases cows sheep oxen 0 food supply meat and milk core of economic cloth productivity plows etc o Anthrax and rinderpest gt rapid putrefaction slow death no economic benefit from it complete death of animal population Drying salt is unable to happen so no production 0 can39t preserve the dying herds meat milk rfare English French Flemish and HRE are engaged in wars and supplies all go to military first 0 Royal Purveyors collect everything available price crisis disrupts traditional trade patterns warring armies destroy crops slash and burn Merchants jack up prices gt kings and authorities attempt to fix prices leads to black market and b O prices go way up due to risk factor b Bakers take advantage of this begin using inedible substance to make the bread 0 impossible to keep up demands gt monasteries attempt to help but run out of resources gt Psychological spiral o Punishment from God gt No longer capable of being charitable taken away mechanism to become right again in God39s eyes 0 People begin to eat whatever they can find gt moldy grain grass bark leather cloth diseased animals vermin cannibal moldy grain likely to have Ergot Fungus o Ergotism or St Anthony39s Fire 0 attacks nervous system and leads to painful spasms circulation cut off and get gangrene Typhus cholera etc people dont die much from starvation bc its incredibly slow so death comes from inedible stuff 0 Lack of food effects population differently gt men need more calories than women gt more labor needed for fieldwork during weather issues and cant work less able to put off diseases and starvation suffered the most effects are the young 5 and under require extraordinary calories to fuel growth lasting impact on growth and mental development and poor immune systems Famine Children form backbone of N European society and are in 30s when Black Death hits Famine sets up plague fatality arguably Famine likely to have wiped out 10 of population drove many to bankruptcy put europe in cycle of sin and redemption bc they thought God was punishing them affected popular memory 0 Key Terms The Bl The Black Death Flagellants ack Death not the black plague 1346 word reached from mid east that paralleled Biblical plague story 0 India was depopulated Syria Armenia etc covered with dead bodies Gabrielle de Mussis chronicle of how it came to Europe 0 Trading post in Caffa 1346 beseiged by Mongols Mongols struck by fatal disease and couldn t conquer city so catapulted dead bodies into city and residents began to die so with reduced numbers they got on ships and came back to Europe because couldnt stand against mongols Made way to Genoa in 1347 most of crew was dead ship pushed away and made its way to numerous in mediterranean ports depositing deadly cargo advanced into Europe Affects 0 00000 gangrenous pustules and lymph nodes called Bubos skin blotches turns black from bleeding nervous system and brain fail involuntary spasms death or recovery Bubonic Septicemic or Pneumonic ways of getting it Yersinia Pestis or Pasterella Pestis 0 identified in 1894 by Russo Franco scientist Alexander Yersin Cycle gt Flea drinks rat blood that carries the bacteria to bacteria multiply in flea39s gut to gut clogged with bacteria to flea bites human regurgitates blood into open wound to human infected and the cycle begins again recent research argues that this theory is bogus gt Samuel Cohn argues against Of hundreds of chroniclers none of them mentions massive rat die off Data from mediterranean cities exceptional records from black death reveals that the epidemic39s high point of death rate is in August in the midst of Summer which is a problem bc fleas are more active in temperate temperatures Lymph nodes in medieval evidence are swelling in the wrong place typical flea bites are in the leg which means the crotch lymph nodes should be swelling but the evidence taks most about the nodes under the neck or under the armpits plague now does not confer immunity first outbreak has higher death rates and goes down over time bc immunity went up gt some suggest it was flu a host of diseases moving through problematic bc odds are against or anthrax gt Montpellier in France extracted tooth DNA found plague in grave site in two cases but that isn t conclusive that 1348 was plague gt plauge disease epidemic Plague Yerisina Pes s gt Determining how disease moved where it came from prepare against future outbreak it would help to know what the pathogen was Sicily Genoa England France Italy Marseilles etc devastated within months Death gets its due A lot of prayer and pope secluded himself when he realized that no one was getting better believed that fire would keep it at bay bc brought by Miasma killing fog Paris 18 months Hotel Dieu chronicle talks about how the religious houses took care of the dying Spain was sometimes worse more cases of quick 24 deaths Alfonso Xl died only King to die England arrives late 1348 strikes cities first and migrates to countrysides 0 London created lethal set of circumstances gt overcrowded filthy human waste in canals civic authorities lost battle gt chaos from epidemic caused civil breakdown sanitation workers died and fled dead body caretakers same not enough living to bury the dead Seemed unstoppable and no one knew how to care for it 0 some dr refused to see people 0 best remedy was to flee 0 suggest to stay away from swamps cities or contaminated air astronomical event led to Miasma o Aromatheraphy pocketful of posies wards off miasma sanitation workers were surviving in large numbers people would sit around latrines Religious community at a loss 0 organize processions mass prayers bad ideas 0 Flagellants b whips with multiple tails and metal spikes so embedded that they have to be taken out with pliers God is mad so they punish themselves and could steal God39s wrath Begins in Germany Many follow columns of flagellants travel from village to village and beat themselves until they pass out Argue that the Black Death afflicts Europe bc sins of nobility and the faithlessness of the Church they are dispersed after they cause chaos 0 Some believed the Jews were the culprit b b accusations based on interrogations of Jews that confessed under torture that there was a plot to overthrow Christian Europe under the King of Granada and they were dropping poison bags throughout Europe something to the idea that the disease was waterborne gt persecution Feb 1349 2000 Straussburg Jews executed entire population in Frankfurt and then Meinz and Cologne gt by 1351 over 60 Jewish communities had been extinguished 4070 estimated loss 120 million dying in 3 years Survivors began to remarry and repopulate in 1361 it returns and targets children because they have no immunity build up Every 1520 years epidemic struck until early 18th century 1704