PSYC2014: Lecture Notes Week of 2/3
PSYC2014: Lecture Notes Week of 2/3 PSYC2014
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Grassie on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2014 at George Washington University taught by Myeong-Ho Sohn in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Cognitive Control 2915 1033 AM For something like the Stroop test 0 For the incongruent condition dif color than word the response time is slower than congruent o More cognitive resources needed in the incongruent condition in order to prevent you from saying the distracter o Interference doesn t always been slowing down as long as your response is influenced by the distracter then there s interferences o If you re told to focus on color and not attend to arrow direction then it s late selection If we only use early selection then there would be no observable difference in the response 0 Congruent is more like automatic processing 0 When you have incongruent you need extra cognitive effort for higher level of cognitive control We can either keep the cognitive control level very high all the time then you won t be distracted even when there s no conflict a Your response time would be consistently high and on a graph would be a straight line high up on the yaxis 0 Cognitive control comes mostly from prefrontal cortex but something else needs to tell the cortex when to impliment control or not Article 0 ACC is the monitoring system for the conflict and the environment 0 I have some dimension to tell me to press the left key and another to press the right keyquot this response conflict will be caught by the ACC detected then the resolving of the cortex is related to the prefrontal cortex 0 Indicates when to increase control Too much or too little control 0 Conflict monitoring With distracting information Role of DLPFC and ACC 0 Previous research showed a slightly different pattern of activation in DLPFC and ACC 0 They found single dissociation DLPFC is more activated system is internally preparing to perform Q 0 Task difficulty 0 Increases activity in both areas 0 Possible dissociation o DLPFC more active with cuerelated maintenance 0 ACC more active with incongruent stimuli 0 Previous research showed DLPFC is responsible for mainting information and ACC for responding Hypothesis 0 DLPFC 0 Maintenance of attentional demands task goal etc 0 When this is highly activated then your response should be less effected by the interference 0 Should reflect level of internal preparation process 0 Evaluative process monitoring the errors response conflict etc o If greater activation in this area then there should also be high conflict 0 ACC should be observed during task performance 0 Double dissociation 0 Different variables affect one process but not the other 0 Then two processes are independent Research design method 0 12 participants given something similar to Stroop Paradigm they were given instructions task instructions to either read a word or name the color 2 tasks followed by the actual stimulus o for 5 scans 75 seconds you re preparing for the task then stimuli presented 0 2 intervals 0 preparation intervals told verbal instructions before the participants entered the fmri then while in the fmri they are flashed a stimulus either word or color then they wait 5 scans each scan 1500milliseconds to see the preparation brain processes DLPFC 0 performance intervals Resuks instruction related results 0 activity in ACC wasn t as distinct between color and word instructions 0 activity in DLPFC is greater for color tasks than for word tasks DLPFC knows I need to increase my cognitive control 0 Colornaming responserelated fMRI 0 ACC is greater activated for incongruent information o DLPFC has fairly similar levels of activation for both congruent andincongruent Correlation analysis 0 Negative correlation between DLPFC and conflict effect DLPFC activation during instruction period was correlated with Stroop effect during task performance 0 For each participant they calculated the response time difference conflict effect and also measured how much the DLPFC for each individual was activated during the instruction pe od If DLPFC is really responsible for cognitive control then high activity in this area means people should be less effected by the interferences 0 High DLPFC low stroop effect 0 Low DLPFC high stroop effect 0 High activity in ACC then high conflict 0 Positive correlation marginally significant 0 Greater amount of conflict to resolve Chapter 4 2915 1033 AM First photomosiac image 0 Cow Perception is the very first window you interact with your external world and you use the activation in your long term memory to match the image to something you ve already seen Bottom up or top down 0 You see the green traffic light turn to yellow as you approach the intersection 0 Bottom up because the stimulus produces the experience 0 You see a text written vertically and assume it is a language from Asia 0 Top down because you re using your knowledge about what asian writing should look like 0 You remember ABCDEF more easily than DBACFE 0 Top down because you have the knowledge of the alphabetical order 0 You are startled by the sound of thunder 0 Bottom up because you re responding to stimulus and weren t expec ngit 0 You hear keys at the door and assume that your roommate has come home 0 Keys at the door is bottom up but assuming it top down because you re connecting that sound with the knowledge of your roommate 0 You spot a white duck swimming with several brown ducks 0 Bottom up because its based on a stimulus The cat runs to his food bowl when he hears the can opener being used 0 Top down because he s using previous knowledge about the previous sound Gestalt principles 0 Law of common fate 0 Elements that move together will be grouped together First thing to do in perception is grouping figure out which element goes with which other element to form any sensible object 0 Law of proximity 0 Elements that are close together will be grouped together 0 Law of similarity 0 Elements that are similar will be grouped together 0 Law of closure 0 Elements will be grouped so as to form closed contours People have the tendency to perceive complete objects 0 Illusory contours An enclosed form is experienced without such a form being on the retina of the eye Bottom up processing 0 To identify an object the visual system extracts features from visual inputs and compares the patterns of features with patterns stored for different objects in long term memory 0 What features are available and how they re related to each other 0 Look for enough evidence in the features to identify the object color shape size of fruit to figure out it s a banana 0 We can carry out bottom up and top down processes at the same time Topdown To identity an object the visual system brings in previous knowledge to identify it Bottom up processes 0 Recognition by components 0 Object segmented into 3D subobjects 0 Each subobject classified as exemplar of one of 36 geons basic categories of subobjects 36 possible geons geometric ions 0 based on the type of geons you can identify the way they are connected and you identify the object 0 Template matching 0 To identify object visual system matches object s image against stored images templates for known objects For every encounter with the external object visual or auditory people have this template which is duplicated after every same experience and whenever you are perceiving something you match between the stimulus and your template a Does it match with template A B C n The more experience you have the more templates you have 0 You have to have a template of everything in the environment in order to match it 0 Prototype matching 0 To identify an object the visual system matches object s images against prototypes representations of typical or average versions of known objects Requires less cognitive resources and templates Just perceive the object and see the similarity between the stimulus and the average prototype Storagewise it s less demanding The prototype doesn t need to exist in the external world just in your mind Topdown processes 0 Word superiority effect 0 S can more accurately identify letters if they are presented in context of words than if they are presented alone or in context of nonwords Single letter condition word condition nonword condition flashed briefly at you a Task is to figure out what the underlined letter is K 0 WORK 0 WORK I If its just feature based the single letter should be easier but if its context based the word condition is easier Single letter you only have to process 1 letter but you only have one source of K and its harder to process In word condition you have two sources word and letter of evidence so you can be more accurate faster
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