Ch 2 Handouts-2 (358)
Ch 2 Handouts-2 (358) zPY358
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Models of Abnormality Chapter 2 FwnSaWmis of Abnormal Psychology Slides 81 Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines PhD Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e Models of Abnormality In science the perspectives used to explain events are known as models or paradigms Each model spells out scientist basic assumption and sets guidelines for investigation Models in uence what investigators observe the questions they ask the information they seek and how they interpret this information Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 2 Models of Abnormality Until recently clinical scientists of a given place and time tended to agree on a single model of abnormality a model greatly in uenced by demonological model Today several models are used to explain and treat abnormal functioning Sometimes in con ict each model focuses on one aspect of human functioning and no single model can explain all aspects of abnormality Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 3 The Biological Model Adopts a medical perspective Psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunction parts of organisms Typically point to problems in brain anatomy or brain chemistry Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 4 How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain anatomy The brain is made up of 1oo billion nerve cells called neurons and thousands of billions of support cells called glia Within the brain large groups of neurons form distinct areas called brain regions Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 5 How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain anatomy and abnormal behavior Clinical researchers have discovered connections between certain psychological disorders and problems in speci c brain areas Example Huntington s disease and basal ganglia and cortex Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 6 How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain chemistry Impulse travel from one neuron to one or more others An impulse is rst received by a neuron s dendrite travels down the axon and is transmitted through the nerve ending to other DEUFODS Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 7 llecep or sites on lecelvlng Neuron Cell body 0 0 V 13 o 39 gmx Dendrltes 4 Nerve ending 1 0 3 r 39 0 Neurotransmitters El 39 l39 l ectrlca Impu se Release of neurotransmitters Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 8 How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain chemistry Neurons do not actuall touch each other they are separated by a space t e synapse across which a message moves When an electrical impulse reaches a nerve endin the ending is stimulated to release a chemical cal ed a neurotransmitter NT that travels across the syna tic space to receptors on the dendrites of neig boring neurons Some NTs tell receiving neurons to requot other NTs tell receiving neurons to stop ring Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 9 How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior Researchers have identi ed dozens of NTs Examples Studies indicate that abnormal activity in certain NTs can lead to speci c mental disorders For example depression linked to low activity of the neurotransmitters Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 10 How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior Additionally researchers have learned that mental disorders are sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system Endocrine glands release hormones which propel body organs into action Abnormal secretions have been linked to psychological disorders Example abnormal secretions release is related to anxiety and mood disorders Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 1 1 Sources of Biological Abnormalities Genetics Abnormalities in brain anatomy or chemistry are sometimes the result of genetic inheritance Each cell in the human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes each with numerous genes that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits Studies suggest that inherence plays a part in mood disorders schizophrenia and other mental disorders Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 12 Sources of Biological Abnormalities Genetics Genes that contribute to mental disorders are typically Viewed as unfortunate occurrences May be mutation abnormal form of a gene May be problematic gene after a mutation in the family line May be the result of normal evolutionary principles Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 13 Sources of Biological Abnormalities Evolution Evolutionary theorists argue that human reactions and the genes responsible for them have sulvived over the course of time because they have helped individuals thrive and adapt Example The fear response In today s world however those genes and reactions may not be so adapative Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 14 Sources of Biological Abnormalities Evolution This model has been criticized and remains controversial yet it receives considerable attention Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 15 Sources of Biological Abnormalities Viral Infections Another possible source of abnormal brain structure or biochemical dysfunction is Viral infections Example Schizophrenia and prenatal Viral exposure Interest in Viral explanations of psychological disorders has been growing in the past decade Example Anxiety and mood disorders Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 16 Biological Treatments Biological practitioners attempt to pinpoint the physical sources of dysfunction to determine the biological course of treatment Three types of biological treatment Drug therapy Electronvulsive therapy ECT Psychosurgery Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 17 Biological Treatments Drug therapy 1950s advent of psychotropic medications Greatly changed outlook for a number of mental disorders Four major drug groups AntianXiety drugs anxiolytics minor tranquilizers Antidepressant drugs Antibipolar drugs mood stabilizers Antipsychotic drugs Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 18 Biological Treatments Electroconvulsive therapy ECT Used primarily for depression particularly when drugs and other therapies have failed This treatment is used on tens of thousands of depressed persons annually Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 19 Biological Treatments Psychosurgery or neurosurgery Historical roots in Portuguese 1930s rst lobotomy Much more precise today than in the past Considered experimental and used only in extreme cases Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 20 Assessing the Biological Model Strengths Weaknesses Enjoys considerable Can limit rather than respect in the eld enhance our Constantly produces understandmg valuable new View can be limited rather information than enhance understanding Brings great relief when other things Treatments produce failed signi cant undesirable effects Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 2 1 The Psychodynamic Model Oldest and most famous psychological model Based on belief that a person s behavior whether normal or abnormal is determined largely by underlying psychological psychological forces dynamic interact with one another Abnormal symptoms are the result of con ict among these forces Father of psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic therapy Freud 18561939 Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 22 How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning Shaped by three central forces 1 Id guided by the pleasure Principle Instinctual needs drives and impulses Sexual fueled by libido sexual energy 2 Ego guided by the reality Principle Seeks grati cation but guides us to know when we can and cannot express our wishes Ego defense mechanisms protect us from anxiety Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 23 table 21 The Defense Never Rests Defense Mechanisms to the Rescue Defense Repression Denial Projection Rationalization Displacement Intellectualization Regression Operation Person avoids anxiety by simply not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious Person simply refuses to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety Person attributes own unacceptable impulses motives or desires to other individuals Person creates a socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unacceptable motives Person displaces hostility away from a dangerous obiect and onto a safer substitute Person represses emotional reactions in favor of overly logical response to a problem Person retreats from an upsetting conflict to an early developmental stage at which no one is expected to ehave maturely or responsibly Example An executive s desire to run amok and attack his boss and colleagues at a board meeting is denied access to his awareness You are not prepared for tomorrow39s final exam but you tell yourself that it s not actually an important exam and t at there39s no good reason not to go to a movie tonight The executive who repressed his destructive desires may proiect his anger onto his boss and claim that it is actually the boss who is hostile A student explains away poor grades by citing the importance of the quottotal experience of going to college and claiming that too much emphasis on grades would actually interfere with a wellrounded education After a perfect parking spot is taken by a person who cuts in front of your car you release your pentup anger by starting an argument with your roommate A woman who has been beaten and raped gives a detached methodical description of the effects that such attacks may have on victims A boy who cannot cope with the anger he feels toward his rejecting mother regresses to infantile behavior soiling his clothes and no longer taking care of his basic needs Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 24 How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning Caused by three UNCONSCIOUS forces 3 Superego guided by the conscience Principle Conscience unconsciously adopted from our parents These 3 parts of the personality are often in some degree of con ict A healthy personality is one in which an effective working relationship exists among the three forces If the id ego and superego are in excessive con ict the person s behavior may show signs of dysfunction Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 25 How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning Developmental stages Freud proposed that at each stage of development new events and pressures require adjustment in the id ego and superego If successful gt lead to personal growth If unsuccessful gt person becomes xated stuck at an early developmental stage leading to psychological abnormality Because parents are the key gures in early life they are often seen as the cause of improper development Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 26 How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning Developmental stages Oral o to 18 months of age Anal 18 months to 3 years of age Phallic 3 to 5 years of age Latency 5 to 12 years of age Genital 12 years of age to adulthood Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 27 How Do Other Psychodynamic Explanations Differ from Freud s Although newer theories depart from Freud s ideas in important ways each retains the belief that human functioning is shaped by dynamic interacting forces Ego theorists Emphasize the role of the ego consider it independent and powerful Self theorists Emphasize the uni ed personality Object relations theorists Emphasize the human need for relationships especially between children and caregivers Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 28 Psychodynamic Therapies Range from Freudian psychoanalysis to modern therapies All seek to uncover past traumas and inner con icts 7 Therapist acts as a translator of dreams Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 29 Psychodynamic Therapies Utilize various techniques Free association patient describes thoughts and feelings or image that comes to mind Therapist interpretation Resistance unconscious refusal to participate Transference treating the therapist like they are someone close to you in your life Dream interpretation Catharsis reliving the past Working throughFmpeax E mining issus over and syc oogy 7e 30 nvnr fn 12111 nlamfv Psychodynamic Therapies Current trends Short term psychodynamic therapies Relational psychoanalytic therapy Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 3 1 Assessing the Psychodynamic Model Strengths Saw abnormal functioning as rooted in the same processes as normal functioning First to apply theory and techniques systematically to treatment monumental impact on the eld First to recognize importance of psychological and Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e Weaknesses Unsupported ideas hard to research Non observable Inaccessible to human subject unconscious 32 The Behavioral Model Behavioral theorists believe that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life Concentrates wholly on behaviors and environmental factors Bases explanations and treatments on principles of learning The model began in laboratories where conditioning studies were conducted Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 33 How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning There are several forms of conditioning which may produce abmnormal or normal behavior classical conditioning Modeling Operant conditioning learning to behave a certain way yo receive a reward conditioned Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 34 How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Modeling Individuals learn responses by pbserVing and repeating behavior Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 35 How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Classical conditioning Learning by repeated behavior When two events repeatedly occur close together in time they become fused in a person s mind before long the person responds in the same way to both events Father of classical conditioning Pavlvo 1849 1936 Classic study using dogs and meat powder Explains many familiar behaviors both normal and abnormal Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 36 Classical Conditioning US ii Meat V Salivate U5 1 UR l Meat Tone Salivate g 3 cR Tone Salivate Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 37 How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Operant conditioning Humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving a reward whenever they do so Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 38 Behavioral Therapies Aim to identify the behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with more appropriate ones May use classical conditioning operant conditioning or modeling Therapist is teacher rather than healer Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 39 Behavioral Therapies Classical conditioning treatments may be used to change abnormal reactions to particular stimuli Example systematic desentization for phobia Step by step procedure Learn relaxation skills Construct a fear hierarchy Confront feared situations Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 40 Assessing the Behavioral Model Strengths Weaknesses Powerful force in the 39 N0 EVidenCE that eld symptoms are ordinarily ac uired Can be tested in the through con itioning laboratory Behavior therapy is Can be observed and 11m1t d measured Too simplistic New focus on self ef cacy and cognitive behavioral theories Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 4 1 The Cognitive Model This model proposes that we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking to cognition the center of behaviors thoughts and emotions Argues that clinicians must ask questions about assumptions attitudes and thoughts of a client Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 42 How Do Cognitive Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Abnormal functioning can result from several kinds of cognitive problems Faulty assumptions and attitudes Illogical thinking processes Example overgeneralization catastrophizing Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 43 Cognitive Therapies People can overcome their problems by developing new more functional ways of thinking Main model Beck 5 Cognitive Therapy The goal of therapy is to help clients recognize and reconstruct their thinking Therapists also guide clients to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts try out new interpretations and apply new ways of thinking in their daily lives Widely used in treating depression Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 44 Assessing the Cognitive Model Strengths Very broad appeal Clinically useful and effective Focuses on a uniquely human process Theories lend themselves to research Therapies effective in treating several disorders Weaknesses PI EClSe role of cognition in abnormality has yet to be determined Therapies do not help everyone Some changes may not be possible to achieve In response a new wave of therapies has emerged including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 45 The HumanisticExistential Combination model The humanist view Emphasis on people as friendly cooperative and constructive focus on drive to self actualize through honest recognition of strengths and weaknesses The existentialist view Emphasis on self determination choice and individual responsibility focus on authenticity Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 46 Rogers Humanistic Theory and Therapy Believes in the basic human need for positive regard from important people in our lives parents If received leads to unconditional self regard If not leads to conditions of worthquot Incapable of self actualization because of distortion do not know what they really need etc Rogers humanistic therapy Therapist creates a supportive climate Unconditional positive regard Accurate empathy Genuineness Little research support but positive impact on clinical practice Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 47 Gestalt Theory and Therapy Humanistic approach Developed by Fritz Perls Goal is to guide clients toward self recignition through challenge and frustration Techniques Skillful frustration Role playing Rules including Here and Nowquot and 1 language Little research support Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 48 Spiritual Views and Interventions For most of the twentieth century clinical scientists Viewed religion as a negative or at best neutral factor in mental health This historical alienation between the clinical scientist and religion seems to be ending Researchers have learned that spirituality does in fact often correlate with psychological health Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 49 Existential Theories and Therapy Foundation belief that psychological dysfunction is caused by self deception People hide from life s responsibilities and fail to recognize that it is up to them to give meaning to their lives In thera y people are encouraged to accept persona responsibility for their problems Goals more important than technique Great emphasis placed on client therapist relationship Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 50 Existential Theories and Therapy Existential therapists do not believe that experimental methods can adequately test the effectiveness of their treatments As a result very little controlled research has been conducted Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 5 1 Assessing the Humanistic Existential Model Strengths Weaknesses Taps into domains Humanistic existential missing from other focus on abstract issues models of human ful llment gives to rise a major problem from a scienti c point of View Emphasizes the individual We make our own Dif cult to research dec1s1ons Weakened by Emphas1zes health Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Beginning to Change Psychology 7e 52 The Sociocultural Models Argue that abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the broad forces that in uence an individual Address norms and roles in society Comprised of two major perspectives Family Social perspective Multicultural perspective Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 53 How Do FamilySocial Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Proponents of this model argue that theorists should concentrate on forces that operate directly on an individual including Social labels and roles Diagnostic labels example Rosenhan study Social connections and supports Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 54 How Do FamilySocial Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Focus on Family structure and communication Family systems theory argues that abnormal functioning within a family leads to abnormal behavior insane behavior becomes sane in an insane environment Examples enmeshed disengaged structures Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 55 FamilySocial Treatments This perspective has helped spur the growth of several treatment approaches including Group therapy Family therapy Couple therapy Community treatment Includes prevention work Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 56 How Do Multicultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning Culture refers to the set of values attitudes beliefs history and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to the next The multicultural or culturally diverse perspective has emerged as a growing eld of study Multicultural psychologists seek to understand how culture race ethnicity gender and similar factors affect behavior and thought as well as how people of different cultures races and genders differ psychologically Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 57 How Do Multicultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning The model holds that an individual s behavior is best understood when examined in the light of that individual s unique cultural context They also have noticed that the prejudice and discrimination faced by many minority groups may contribute to various forms of abnormal functioning Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 58 Multicultural Treatments Studies have found that members of ethnic and racial minority groups tend to show less improvement in clinical treatment than members of majority groups Two features of treatment can increase a therapist s effectiveness with minority clients Greater sensitivity to cultural issues Inclusion of cultural in treatment especially in therapies for children and adolescents Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 59 Multicultural Treatments Given such ndings some clinicians have developed culture sensitive therapies as well as gender sensitive or feminist therapies Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 60 Assessing the Sociocultural Models Strengths Weaknesses Added greatly to the Research is dif cult to clinical understanding and interpret treatment od abnormality Correlat10n causat1on Increased awareness of family cultural social 39 MOdEI unable t0 and societal issues predict abnormality in Clinically successful spec1 c 1nd1V1duals when other treatments have failed Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 6 1 Integration of the Models Today s leading models vary widely and none of the models has proved consistently superior Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 62 Comparing the Models table 23 Comparing the Models Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic Cause of Biological Underlying Maladaptive Maladaptive Selfcleceit dysfunction malfunction conflicts learning thinking Research Strong Modest Strong Strong Weak support Consumer Patient Patient Client Client Patient or designation client Therapist Doctor Interpreter Teacher Persuader Observer role Key therapist Biological Free association Conditioning Reasoning Reflection tec nique intervention and interpretation Therapy Biological Broad Functional Adaptive Self goal repair psychological behaviors thinking actualization change Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e Existential Avoidance of responsibility Weak Patient or client Collaborator Varied Authentic life Family Socra Family or socia stress Moderate Client Famil sociaf facilitator Famil sociaf intervention Effective family or social system Multicultural External pressures or cultural conflicts Moderate Client Cultural advocate teacher Culture sensitive intervention Cultural awareness and comfort 63 Integration of the Models A growing number of clinicians favor explanations of abnormal behavior that consider more then one cause at a time These are sometimes called biopsychosocial theories Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic biological developmental emotional behavioral cognitive social and societal in uences Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 64 Integration of the Models Some biopsychosocial theorists favor a diathesis stress approach Diathesis predisposition bio psycho or social Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 65 Integration of the Models Integrative therapists are often called eclectic taking the strengths from each model and using them in combination Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 66 Theoretical Orientations of Today s Clinical Psychologists Behavioral 10 Other 8 Psychodynamic 15 0 Interpersonal 4 Family systems 3 f Clientcentered 1 Existential 1 Gestalt 1 Eclectic 29 Cognitive 28 Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 7e 67