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Biology 102 Notes, Week 12

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 12 BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Notes Week 12
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These are the notes for the week of 4/5-4/7, covering chordates.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102, Chordates
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.

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Date Created: 04/10/16
Biology 102, Week 12 Chordates - - Characteristics o 2 invertebrate groups and the vertebrates o 4 defining traits – always in embryo if not in adults § Tail beyond anus § Dorsal notochord • Firm rod of tissue • Muscle and skeletal support • Vertebrates: becomes vertebral column § Dorsal nerve chord • Bundle of nerves for message transmission • Allows for increased cephalization, head and sensory organ development • Vertebrates: spinal chord § Pharynx with gill slits • Folds in the throat of the embryo • Terrestrial vertebrates o Auditory tubes o Tonsils o Thymus - Invertebrate chordates o 1) Tunicates or sea squirts § Sessile filter feeder o 2) Lancelets § Shallow marine waters § Filter feeders o 4 chordate characteristics, nerve chord, notochord, tail, gill slits - Chordates o Craniate chordate § Have a braincase, a cartilaginous cap over their brain o Hagfishes § Scavengers § Jawless, not a filter feeder - Vertebrates o Key innovations § Evolutionary trends toward more active lifestyle o Vertebrae and endoskeleton § Greater mobility o Greater cephalization § Large head, eyes, ears, nose o Lungs o Paired appendages/limbs o Encased eggs - Jawless vertebrates o Lampreys § Parasitic § Sucker mouth - Jawed vertebrates o All other chordates o Evolved from gill slit support rods § Hox gene duplication o Effects: increased brain size and sensory development - Chondrichthyes: paired appendages o Cartilaginous fishes: sharks, rays, skates o Exposed gills o Scales composed of bone and dentin o Keen senses § Smell, nose cups § Hearing, lateral line system o Internal fertilization - Osteichthyes: swim bladder or lungs o Bony fishes – largest vertebrate class o Two lineages o Ray-finned fishes § Fins directly attached § Scales form of bone § Swim bladder: gas filled sac • Used for buoyancy and position § Spawn: external fertilization o Lobe-finned fishes § Fins attach to fleshy lobes § Coelacanth (living fossil) o Lungfishes § Tropical freshwater § Lungs and gills § Aestivate - The origin of tetrapods (lobe-finned fish -> early amphibians) o Amphibians – the first tetrapods, “two lives” o Adults are terrestrial, land based o Larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic § Metamorphosis o External fertilization o Salamanders, toads, frogs § Smooth, non-scaly skin with mucous glans that’s fragile § Live in moist environments o Adults respire through skin and lungs o Ectothermic, cold blooded, rely on environment for body temp and metabolism o Physical adaptations for amphibians § 3 chambered heart § Eyelids § Improved ears - Amniotes o Have adapted to live entirely on land o Include reptiles (birds) and mammals o Means “amniotic egg” § Self-contained pond § Requires internal fertilization § Shelled or internalized § Protection from predators and dehydration o - Modern reptiles o Turtles, lizards, snakes, tuatara, crocodiles o Evolved adaptations for living out of water: § Thick scales of keratin § Lungs are more developed § Ectothermic • Require less food per body weight § Internal fertilization • Eggs with leathery shells • Cloaca – copulatory organ § Well developed excretory system (kidneys) for water conservation o Turtles – 305 species o Lizards – 4,700 species o Crocodilians – 12 species o Snakes – 3,000 species


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