Popular in Biology: Form, Function, and Ecology
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Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dolan on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO1114 at Ohio State University taught by Robin Taylor in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Biology: Form, Function, and Ecology in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Biology 1114 Form Function and Ecology Lecture 3 0 Recap from last lecture 0 Process Evolution 0 Mechanism Sexual arti cial natural and artifactual selection 0 Agents humans preferences predation elements environment females and climate 0 Strategy 0 The various traits that organisms manifest that contribute to their survival and reproductionnot goal oriented seems active and directed because agents exert pressure selectively but is not 0 The agents themselves are mindless and operate on mutations that occur at random 0 Famous Scientists of Evolution 0 Alfred Wallace wrote to Darwin he had done exactly what Darwin was in the process of doing looking at changes in fossils and organisms o Linnaeus Came up with the nomenclature of classi cation so that all organisms had one name Lyeil studied modern geology and showed how old the earth was 0 Thomas Malthus an economist who wrote the Principle of Population Originally devised the idea that nature only supplies ample resources sparingly so it controls population sizes and makes resources a necessity to ght for O 0 Darwin 0 Observations Animals produce as many offspring as possible originally stated by Malthus Competition means that some organisms will live and some will die originally stated by Malthus Every individual varies from other individuals Some variations are a result of offspring from favorable parents 0 lnferences Offspring are more likely to survive if they have favorable traits from favorable inheritances These favorable inheritances occur over many generations 0 What is a theory 0 The culmination of many tested and accepted hypothesis that support one another and that together come to the same conclusion What makes a theory correct 0 There could be evidence that falsi es it but it has never been found Different types of Selection graphically represented 0 Stabilization the typical allele is selected for o Directional the allele that is selected for shifts from one extreme to the other 0 Disruptive the two extremes are both selected for Genotype vs Phenotype 0 Every organism possesses a genotype genetic traits that manifest in its phenotype what shows 0 Selection operates on the individual but only the population evolves 0 Selection can only operate on the phenotype but the population s genotype changes Other Means of Evolution 0 Genetic Drift the bottleneck and founder s effect Bottleneck effect a natural disaster occurs and leaves a depleted gene pool Founder effect one founder creates a new population and the alleles are similar to that of only the founder and not the original population Gregor Mendel o Heritable Factors studied pea plants to come up with the idea of genech Two levels of Evolution 0 Microevolution a change in allelic makeup at the population level 0 Macroevolution a change in species from one into another or from one into two Macroevolution 0 First novel organismal traits arise by chance and the interaction of all abiotic factors determines which organisms survives 0 Then the interaction of proximal organisms determines what survives 0 Two types of macroevolution Allopatrick two populations differentiate in two separate geographical areas Sympatrick two populations differentiate in the same geographical area Steps of Speciation 0 Separation by geography 0 Separation by reproductive isolation 0 Genetic divergence by accumulation of changes
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