Sixteenth-Century Art in Italy
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeleine Layton on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
PSYC 104 Exam 2 Study Guide LEARNING Classical conditioning 0 Learning an association 0 Often involves involuntary responses ie salivation withdrawal re ex Operant conditioning 0 Learning a behavior based on consequences 0 Often involves voluntary responses Systematic Desensitization o Counterconditioning 0 Experience feared stimuli repeatedly without feared outcome and m relaxed feelings Behavior Fear rating iihink about a spidon it Look all a photo of a spider 25 Look at a real spider in a closed box 50 Hold he box with the spider 60 Let a spider crawl on your dosla 70 Let a spider crawl on your shoe 80 Let a spider crawl on your pants leg 90 Let a spider crawl on your sleoye 95 Let a spider crawl on your bare arm lDD Operant Conditioning Learningmodifying a behavior based on its consequences Dead Man s Test If a dead man can do it it isn t behavior if a dead man can t do it then it is behavior Types of Operant Conditioning ntesedent Eehawaur Caneenema Positive Applies Stimulus Ii Rairifmsaularl Reinforcement Increases the frequency of desirable behavior Nega ve Removes Stimulus inni Negative Raini39ursament Punishment Decreases the frequency of undesirable behavior J Lu fax 3 v a Punishment N ega ve Punishment Does punishment work 0 Not as well as reinforcement 0 Several disadvantages o Tells what n0tto do doesn t tell what t0 do 0 Encourages subversive behavior To work must deliver consistently and immediately after behavior Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Reward behavior every time Most effective way to learn new behavior Schedules 1 Continuous reinforcement 2 Partial reinforcement A h 1 Partial reinforcement Reward behavior only sometimes More resistant to extinction Varies along two dimensions 1 Consistency of administering reinforcement xed or variable 2 Basis of administering reinforcement ratio or interval Response Patterns Uquot m U 1 39 3 r r c 39 g D Reinfol cars E 1 g m m I Reinforcera V Rennierears Remf merg Ill ll I ll ll I ll I ll ll Ill I ll ll ll ll I ll l Time Time Time Time a Fixed Patina lib Fixed interval at Variable rafie all Rialiabie interval Learning a change in our responses or behavior Through o repeated exposure 0 a powerful onetime exposure 0 consequences 0 observation 0 expedence o re ection MEMORY Memory involves acquisition encoding storage and retrieval We do not record memory We construct memory Stages of Memory Maintenance rehearsal Attention F Encoding Eenmr r rich Samurai awn quot 7 Lengr39tirm Input 3quot mamar1 fed mumIrma Retrieval h 1quot l quot 1 l l l pvt in Unattended Unrehearmzl Etame information ianozrrnat39itin iniorrnatitm is Inst 5 last may be host over time LONGTERM MEMORY How is memory stored Longterm potentiation If two cells talk a lot how they communicate changes 0 Greater ef ciency Resuksin 0 Chemical changes 0 Electrical changes 0 Physical changes quotConsoHdannquot Where is memory stored Hippocampus o Explicit memory 0 Encoding amp consoHdann Cerebellum o Implicit memory Amygdala o Emotional memory Wigwam b C O rt e X 39 Carebellum Hippocampus RETRIEVAL Primacy amp Recency Effects Probability of recall 1 Ci F3 m 55 on pr 55 Pl 3 I HI I 39J39E quot39i rA ff 39 C i FI39 I I I I l i l l l I I I I ll 2 4 E E i D i 2 i 4 1 6 18 2Q Beginning End Position in list Interference with Retrieval Retroactive interference I can t remember old information because new info is interfering Proactive interference I can t remember new information because old info is interfering Memory Research amp Study Skills Encoding Elaborative encoding Relationships among concepts Selfreference effect Relationship of concept to yourself Overlearning Keep studying even after you quotknow it Distributed practice No cramming Retrieving Contextdependent Learning amp testing environments match learning Statedependent learnihg Mood when learning amp testing matches Amnesia LDEI memries Past Preserved memories Retrograde Amnesia Anterpgrade Amnesia Case Studies H M Henry Molaison 19262008 0 The hippocampus is necessary for encoding memories 0 Memories are stored in multiple areas in the brain 0 There are different types of memory explicit vs implicit Types of Memory Explicit Memory Semantic Dictionary knowledge Episodic Personal history llmplicit Memory Procedural Muscle memory motor skills Priming Recent knowledge ideas concepts topics Classical Learning pairs conditioning Myth Our memory is a video tape recording our life 100 accurately Fact Our brains construct our memories amp perception of our environment Attentional Errors We cannot remember what is never encoded in the rst place Our memory will be inaccurate if our initial information acquisition is also inaccurate Sources of Error Memory 0 Misinformation effect l 0 Source monitoring 0 SaHence Cognitive biases O Overcon dence Con rmation bias 0 o FuncUonal 0 Re p rese ntative n e55 Falling Commute lllll More h e Ur StC l People Than Sh a Attacks 0 AVallablllty heur39SF39C quotFalling coconuts kill ISO 0 CO U nte rfa ctu a l th I n kl n g people worldwide each year ll times the number Information Processing Strategies 0 Schemas o Heuristics short cut problem solving 0 Fast exible assumptions amp interpretations 0 H Occasional errors or biases 0 Algorithms recipelike problem solving 0 Always the correct answer o H Slow recipe doesn t always exist 0 Memory is NOT infallible At each stage amp process there is a possibility of error 0 Perception o Rehearsal o Encoding o Retrieval 0 Errors occur as a result of dramatic things like injury and disease but also everyday thinking patterns INTELLIGENCE History of IQ Testing 1905 1St IQ test schools 1913 Ellis Island testing 1917 Army Alpha amp Army Beta testing 1927 Eugenics amp forced sterilizations 1939 now Wechsler instruments academic De nitions APA The global capacity to pro t from experience and to go beyond given information about the environment Anastasi Intelligence is not a single unitary ability but rather a composite of several functions The term denotes that combination of abilities required for survival and advancement within a particular culture jensen Intelligence is a general factor that runs through all types of performance Wechsler A global concept that involves an individual s ability to act purposefully think rationally and deal effectively with the environment E Boring Intelligence is what is measured by intelligence tests Visual representation of intelligence mm Spearman39s g E gmr we ablll39tllr general intelligence eg full scale ID Email LEIII39I harm EHE ah lilltiee Fllluid Eryslralllised Visual Ebertterm star and Pmeessiing hud telry F M Elm E m reasoning knewlledge pmcessirlg l l39lEl il39ll f jlquot mml w speed pmeessing amdlernin achievement Cf GE GIfl 55m 4er 395 5 5131 Shawn I Narrew ElIE abilities Bell Curve Special quotgrading scalequot for intelligence tests Normal curve 0 100 average 0 gt 100 above average 0 lt 100 below average Allows us to know a lot of things very quickly 0 Consistent facts about normal curves that do not change from situation to situation IQ amp Normal Curve 3L1 perts eat ltl Lessthan 2 lei peeple fell in this range thisrange M r 95 e a 115e ere ee 5 135 see LEEii than 2 tit peeple fell in Abeut atii tit peeple fall in this re rage withn E 15 points tit i g About 95 tif pE plE 15 Fall in this range within a J E g a 55 Til ES WEI i ii 13 in llin Wei hasler intelligence EEGI E Theories of Intelligence General intelligence 9 Speci c intelligences Fluid amp Crystallized o Triarchic analytical creative practical o SocialEmotional intelligence 0 Gardner s intelligences Linguistic Logicomathematical Sanal Musical Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Spiritual tentative Existential tentative Fluid amp Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized 0 Knowledge amp skills accumulated over a lifetime 0 Spelling tests VOca b Crystallized intelligence 0 Increases with age 0 Ability to reason amp make sense of abstract info 0 Problem solving puzzles o Decreases in old age Magnitude of effect Fluid intelligence Infancy Childhood Young Middle age Old age aduhhood Entity vs incremental intelligence Gender differences in IO 0 Same average IQ 0 Higher ratio of men with intellectual disability than women 0 Genetics hormones Racial ethnic differences in IO 0 Stereotype threat Achievement 0 Class exams o Wechser Individual Achievement Test WATlll o Woodcockjohnson Test of Achie vement Wj ll Ach Aptitude 0 ACT SAT GRE LSAT MCAT o quotIQ testsquot WASlVetc Personnel Intelligence Testing How do we accurately measure intelligence 0 Reliability consistency o Validity quotaccuracyquot Can you have a reliable measure that is not valid YES eg a clock that is always 5 minutes fast Can you have a valid measure that is not reliable NO eg if a clock is sometimes 2 min slow sometimes 3 min fast sometimes 30 sec off it cannot be accurate ie valid 0 Norms o Standardization
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