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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Monica Stert on Sunday April 6, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 144 views.
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Date Created: 04/06/14
Psych 3 Biopsychology Lecture Notes 41 43 4 1 None 43 I Neuroanatomy A A Brief history of biopsychology 1 Ancient Egyptians 1300 BC mummification a preserve important organs to be alongside body liver lungs stomach intestines the heart was important for all of cognition brain discarded 2 Aristotle 300 BC Heart a Heart thought to be seat of intelligence and soul but said brain was important as a cooling system for blood for proper circulation 3 Leonardo Davinci early 1500s Ventricular system a Fluid filled chambers within the brain ventricles and shaped them thought soul and intellect came from fluid in chambers 4 Rene Descartes 1600s Dualism a Notion that mind and body are separate entities body and brain have only material interactions mind is spiritual agreeable with Catholic Church 5 Paul Broca 1800s Brain Localization a Correlation between brain damage and behavioral change b Localization specific regions of the brain are responsible for various types of experiences behaviors and psychological processes c Investigated damaged parts of the brain left inferior frontal gyres Broca s area was one region consistently damaged d Led to idea of specialization e Phineas Gage case 1848 railroad spike through prefrontal cortex after accident he was bad at planning changed to a more aggressive temperament this showed personality could be a feature of the brain 6 Franz Joseph Gall 19th century phrenology a Brain organized into 35 specific functions and size of each brain region depended on how much you used those ares b Bumps in the skull could measure specific superior ability 7 Ramon y Cajal 1800s 1900s Neuron Doctrine a Hypothesis that the brain is composed of separate cells that are distinct structurally metabolically and functionally priorly thought of as a tube system b Used Golgi staining method to show brain was t all inter connected c Made of neurons and small gaps between individual cells 8 Cognitive neuroscience today due to technology we don t have to wait for people to die 9 The future of biopsychology a use fMRl to read minds of individuals b Use brain signals to move prosthetic limbs c Optogenetics use light to stimulate or inhibit particular neurons d Using a fleet of nanoprobes to measure functional brain activity B Neuroanatomy 1 Nervous system a Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal chord b Peripheral Nervous System everything else 2 Navigation Horizontal plane Sagittal plane dorsal omml up 394 D I lorixunlal E detr w Rostral Caudal l 3 anterior posterior front back Coronal plane dorsai lK Sagittal Up ventral down 3 Development of human brain and five brain areas CNS Brain Forebrain Telencephalon lsocortex Higher functioning Basal Ganglia and C09niTi0n Limbic System A Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus More Midbrain Mesenoephalon gfg fjes Hindbrain Metencephalon Cerebellum Pons Myelenoephalon Spinal Chord Enefepmg body 4 Major structures a Basal view 1 Brain stem midbrain medulla pons regulates reflex activities that are crucial for survival such as heart rate and respiration 2 Cerebellum little brain motor coordination and balance 3 Pituitary gland hormone secretion site controlled by hypothalamus 4 Olfactory bulb receptors for smell 5 Optic chiasm point at which 2 optic nerves meet b Medial view 1 Pineal gland source of melatonin release includes sleep habits 2 Thalamus a relay site for sensory processes relay station 3 Corpus Callosum connects the hemispheres bundles of axons transmits communication 4 Hypothalamus implicated in hunger thirst temperature regulation reproductive behavior aggression the four Fs pituitary gland 5 Cingulate gyrus association cortex involved in decision making monitoring behavior and directing attention c Lateral view 1 Occipital lobe visual processing 2 Parietal lobe somatosensory spatial attention 3 Temporal lobe motor control reasoning language production inhibitory control working memory developing prefrontal cortex shows some lack of control in teens 5 Brain systems a Basal ganglia and limbic system voluntary movement amygdala motor control substantia nigra dopamanergic neurons b Limbic system emotion fear in amygdala and memory hippocampus 6 Gray matter and white matter a Gray cell bodies axons broken down into 6 layers that collect and send info and have columnar organization
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