A &P Chura notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lizzy Bank on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Anatomy amp Physiology Chura February 24 superior middle and inferior nasal conchae protrude from the lateral walls increase mucosal surface area enhance air turbulence few particles larger than 6 mm make it past nasal cavity function of the nasal mucosa and conchae during inhalation the conchae and nasal mucosa filter heat and moisten air during exhalation these structures reclaim heat and moisture funnel shaped structure connecting the nasal cavity and mouth consists of muscular tube and different mucosa cells divided into 3 regions superior to inferior nasopharynx is only an air passageway during swallowing the soft palate and uvula closes off the nasopharynx preventing food from entering the nasal cavity auditory tubes enter lateral walls and are important for draining the middle ear and equalizes pressure in the middle ear oropharynx extends inferiorly from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis both swallowed food and inhaled air pass through house the tonsils laryngopharynx passage way for food and air during swallowing food has priority over air voice box extends between the 3rd and 6th cervical vertebra it attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx has 3 functions provide a patent airway switching mechanism to route air and food into proper channels voice production larynx anatomy intricate arrangement of 9 cartilages connected by membranes and ligaments thyroid cartilage laryngeal prominence or adams apple bigger in men ring shaped cricoid cartilage paired arytenoid cuneiform and corniculate cartilages arytenoid anchor vocal cords epiglottis all have hyaline except epiglottis elastic epiglottis spoon shaped elastic cartilage covered with taste buds projects upward when only air is entering the larynx during swallowing larynx is pulled superiorly and the epiglottis tips to cover the laryngeal inlet anything other than air entering the larynx initiates the cough reflex Guardian of the airways laryngitis is inflammation of the vocal cords which interferes with vibrations sometimes it is hard to speak louder than whisper under some conditions the larynx acts as a sphincter and prevents air from moving pooping contract against a closed glottis trachea aka windpipe larynx to the mediastinum very flexible and mobile in the mediastinum the trachea ends via dividing into the 2 main bronchi at midthorax by the time incoming air reaches the end of the trachea it is warm cleansed of most impurities saturated with water vapor trachea obstruction is life threatening wall composed of three layers 1 mucosa ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells a have ciliated that continuously propel debris laden mucus toward pharynx 2submucosa connective tissue with seromucous glands 3 advnetitia outermost layer made of connective tissue that encases the c shaped rings of hyaline cartilage this outermost layer adventitia has hyaline cartilage reinforcement that prevents the trachea from collapsing although the trachea will move and recoil and stretch etc when the muscles of the trachea contract it pushes air upwards very quickly we can move mucus when we cough at speeds up to 100 mph bronchi and subdivisions air passages undergo 23 orders of branching branching pattern called the bronchial respiratory tree conducting zone structures r and l primary bronchi form as trachea divides around T7 each bronchi runs obliquely in the mediastinum before connecting to the lung hilum r bronchus is wider shorter and more vertical than the l susceptible to food once in the lungs each bronchi subdivides into secondary bronchi lobar 3 R and 2 L supplying the lobes these branch into tertiary bronchi branch again passages smaller than 1 mm diameter bronchioles passages less than 5 mm terminal bronchioles
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