Popular in Cultural Anthropology
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ida Malone on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2202 at Ohio State University taught by Critcher in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Lecture 1 Economics Economics Subsistence Productivity Yield per person per unit of land How much one person can get from one unit of land Ef ciency How much food can be produced per person per unit of time A Types of Subsistence Systems a Foraging i People nding naturally occurring resources No modi cation production etc They39re nomadic and move to where the food IS i Historically the most important But not widely popular today just important milestone along the evolutionary line 1 Hunting animals that are available in the local environment you can stay in the same place you must move with the animals a This is typically the role of men in societies that use this system 1 Gathering requires less travel you gather plants in speci c areas there are lots of options in comparison to hunting It39s safer you can stay closer to the group Provides more calories but not the same kind of prestige that hunting gets i Foraging Groups 1 Small Group size a Smaller amount of mouths to feed a Breast feed until 4 or 5 years of age It natural birthcontrol 1 Flexible group structure a Not tied to land vote with feet means leave 1 Little inequality a Everyone gets a say there39s no real hierarchy Things that have a small effect sex age skills 1 Little Specialization a Means that everyone has about the same skills No one has quotspecialquot skills that are extremely different from the others i Why does foraging persist 1 6 days of work for 25ish hours to gain the food they need to survive 1 Typically exists where agriculture does not exist 1 Lands are constantly take from foragers Thus the numbers are dwindling i Modern example is the Kung Means tongue click 1 Live in Kalahari 1 More diverse diet than we do a Horticulture i Planting and harvesting of crops using simple technology i Slash and Burn 1 Burning the plants sends everything back into the primary state and returns it to a fertile state Only works so many times Lecture 2 Social and Political Organization I Economy system of industry consumption use production distribution of resources How members of society ful ll needs and wants Needs what you require to survive Want what we desire but don39t need Currency is required to get those things some societies don39t use currency trading bartering 1 Economic Anthropology a Branch of cultural a 2 Basic questions i How is economy organized i What motivates people to produce goods a Two Components of Economic Systems i Modes of Production how production is organized and controlled i Means of production what resources utilized in production 1 Land 1 Labor 1 Technology i Industrialized societies quotbuyquot labor work for a wage i Non industrialized Societies sense of personal responsibility i Land 1 Foragers kinshipfriendship gatherers plants women hunters animals men 1 Food Producers a Land claims are much tighter a Produce surplus i Labor 1 Non Industrial depends on kinship due to sense of personal responsibility 1 Industrial They convince with wage incentive i Technology 1 Non Industrial everyone has similar skills 1 Industrialized Heavier in specialization a Basic Economic Principles i The ways products are distributed throughout a society 1 Reciprocity exchange of goods between individuals of equal status a Reciprocating goods people who have resources that others can bene t from are expected to contribute a Generalized Reciprocity Giving something goods etc without expecting anything in return parentchild no quotaccount keepingquot i Common in foraging societies increases your status there Balanced Reciprocitv sort of like bartering product is not expected in returnimmediatey Failure can lead to social sancUons i Example birthday gifts Negative Reciprocity One party wants to get something for nothing i For material advantage robbing Unrelated 1 Redistribution a a a Good collected in centralized location and redistributed i Example taxes i Reinforces nationalism and reliance on the elite Drawbacks what you put in is not always put back out Advantages Everyone can get what they need access to healthcare food whatever goodservice in question 1 Market Exchange a a a Products are purchased with currency Law of supply and demand Self Regulating system invisible hand 1 Capitalism a QJQJQJQJQJ a Most markets function on the principles of capitalism People work for wages sometimes goods Land and products are privately owned Personal wealth can be accumulated in nitely in theory Class system Three Features of Capitalism i Means of production controlled by a few i Most individuals sell labor i Labor invested is worth more than wages provided Principles of Exchange i Industrialized nations tend to use all three basic economic principles 1 The Effects of Increasing Technology a Individuals know 1 skill very well industrialized 1 Specialization a a Advantages quality of goods increases it39s the individual does so they know it well Disadvantages Not being able to support yourself due to lack of skillsexperience Rely on others for essentially everything i Economic Anthropology in Action 1 Kula Ring a Trobriand Islanders 1 About system of exchange why would men risk life and limb to give away worthless trinkets a Gain prestige you would be challenged ridiculed a Prestige is not for one individual everyone shares a Potlatch Native American gift giving ceremony that is a redistribution of wealth paci c coast only Lecture 3 Social and Political Organization ll Social and Political Organization Politics and Leadership A Types of Social groups a Egalitarian little in equality no hierarchy easiest to pull off in small group of people a Ranked socieities individuals attain social status there are appointed leaders but mostly everybody still gets what they need a Stratified layers of society the minority is in power much more social inequality and economic inequality huge gaps Some individuals at the bottom may not have access to the resources they need to survive A Evolution of Political Organization a Egalitarian until 10 thousand years ago a Subsistence shift shifted from foraging to large scale farming surplus allows more people to be sustained More people yield greater social and government complexity a Increased pop and complexity A Evolutionary Trend a Specialization focusing on speci c areas jobs The more complexity the greater the specialization in society a Increasingly centralized power and authority a Position of power have been restricted to smaller subsets of society A Where does Sociopolitical power come from a Social Power the ability to force one39s will on others for personal interest a Authority the legitimacy an individual has as a result of their social position A Types of Organization a Bands small groups related egalitarian 70100 people Easy to keep people in line Avoid warfare no formal laws nomadic exible social units i Simple Bands 1 Composed of single family group 25 people who are all related i Composite Bonds 1 Multiple family groups united by marriage ties 1 More prone to division 1 Leadership is more structured the more people you add the stronger authority you need a Tribes larger groups descent mostly egalitarian horticulturalists and pastoralists Not a large scale set up but it39s more complex than bands Not a whole lot of surplus i Sodalities nonkin groups They don39t have to be related to each other 1 Age set individuals of similar age or sex that form a group 1 Age grade you pass into it by ritual stuff i No centralized authority i Big man village head the big man will get their way by suggesting They must persuade i Tribes are frequently involved in warfare increasing population more con icts and more people to ght with a Chiefdoms i Large populations 1 Thousands related through ancestry or marriage but not always i Horticulture agriculture 1 Sedentism with lasting architecture i Ranked societies 1 Status is primarily from kinship 1 Chief39s authority most important generally based on religion 1 Everyone viewed as kin i Permanent political institutions i Redistribution i Justice carried out by chief 1 He has power to suppress internal violence 1 Have powers 1 There is such thing as a crime the worst of which are the crimes against the chief a States i Strati ed they are layered societies generally more than 2 layers 1 Because they are strati ed not everyone has access to everything that they need i Membership based on citizenship 1 Not based on kinship at all De ning characteristic a lot more bureaucracy Much larger Agriculture and industrialization production main subsistence Extreme specialization Population is typically controlled Keep track census immigration Provides scal support for the central government by means of taxation i Formalized laws i Law enforced through bureaucracies 1 Internal police 1 External military i Social Boundaries and physical boundaries i Can mobilize a huge labor force A ControversialTerminology a Each society has its own history a Not all t into these categories because all societies are different and developed differently over time A Trends in Social and Political Evolution a Food production a Membership shifts i Kinship based then changed to membership based on citizenship Lecture 4 Social Strati cation 1 Social Strati cation a Classi cation i Males females i Age i Tall short i Rich poor a Power and Prestige differences i Socioeconomical i General inequities i Power make things different because they want to i Prestige respect for contribution but no real power a 4 Principles of Strati cation Societal not individual Can carry over through generations though things Can change Variable Inequality and ideology a Characteristics of strati ed societies i Common Characteristic how rankings are applied to individuals 1 Individuals don39t need to have anything else in common accept this one characteristic 1 Races etc but the big one is money i Experience is category dependent 1 You get experiences that may be better or worse than others based on your category i Ranks of categories can change 1 The way these categories are de ned can change over time now low class means those who don39t have what they need but may not necessarily have quotnothingquot a Social Strati cation i Status 1 Wealth and Power 1 Ascribed you inherited it born with it oldest etc You didn39t work for anything 1 Achieved status that is earned by individuals what you choose to do or earn in your life time i Caste vs Class 1 Caste a Intro to the Caste system a Impact of the caste system on women 1 Class a THG a Tammy39s Story Lecture 5 Kinship 1 Kinship Non biological culturally de ned relationship Blood marriage friendship etc a Consanguine blood relationship a Affinal marriage Why Study a Activities power history development Local Level of Kinship a Social learning you learn how to function in society a Who you can rely on when you need help a Loyalties and social responsibilities were they lie Kinship in the West a Smaller kin groups to count on foragers can have 2040 people in a group i This is because foragers rely on land and move together Western Societies split up and go where the jobs are Types of family a Nuclear i Parents and children i Two kinds 1 Orientation the family you are born into 1 Procreation the family you choose to make a Expanded Family i Families that include non nuclear relatives i Types of Expanded 1 Extended family 1 Collateral parents siblings and their own spouses and children more common now due to economic issues 1 Descent Groups a Lineage trace ancestry generation to generation a Clan group identi es based on one individual you all come from a common ancestor a Phratry unilineal descent group split into two or more clans a Moiety Unilineal Descent groups trace on mother or father a Use father clear easy to follow name a Bilateral when individuals record descent from both sides and both sides are equal a Ambilineal choosing to af liate with one side achieved status you chose it Can Change Double Descent rare Yako Eastern Nigeria a Determines descent over farmland rituals Dad39s a Wealth comes from mom39s side Calculating kinship a This is a social construction a Fictive Kinship Kinship Terminology a Variable a Ego The focal individual a Kinship diagram Principles a Generation Relative age Lineality collaterality Sex ConsanguinityAffinality Side of Family QJQJQJQJQJ Lecture 6 Marriage 1 What is marriage a There is no universal de nition how different societies de ne and understand mating and it39s consequences a Anthropologically 1 Cross cultural Comparison a Formal unions a lawful bond a Affects status of children social legitimacy a Rights and responsibilities between spouses and between children Assets Make medical decisions House work Childcare Providing 1 Marriage and Group Expectations a Endogamy belief that you should marry in a certain group religions especially a Exogamy marry outside a group who you should not marry family a Hypergamy applies mostly to females age You marry someone your age or older your height or taller 1 Reasons for marriage a Economic a Love 1 Agency ability to do something and choose a Independent Choice a Arranged Marriage 1 Types of marriage a Monogamy a Polygamy Polygyny 1 Mormon Polygyny 1 Sister Wives i Polyandry 1 Tibet 1 Economic Issues a Dowry resource drain i Transfer of wealth from woman39s family to her husband39s a Bridewealth resource oss i Groom39s family pays the wife39s family 1 Rede ning Marriage a a a a Tied to laws Must be publicly sanctioned How are we rede ning marriage i Cultural Relativism and ethnocentrism How can we understand this shift from an anthropological perspective i AAA Statement of marriage 1 Homosexual relationships can still contribute to a humane society so why don39t they receive the same rights Reach across the aisle so to speak Lecture 7 Gender Sex biological sex XXXY Gender cult construct Ancestry biological heritage Ethnicity language community and culture you grew up in nothing to do with ancestry but it can relate Race a sub species there are no sub species of humans there is really only 1 race A Media OED De nition a The mains means of mass communication reported by individuals working for organizations A Propaganda a The systematic dissemination of information in a biased or misleading way to promote political cause or point of view a 7 Techniques Bandwagon pump up value ofjoining the party Card Stacking Build a highly biased case for your position Glittering Generalities Use power words to evoke emotions Name Calling Denigrating opponents Plan Folks Making the leader seem ordinary increases trust and credibility Testimony The testimony of an independent person is seen as more trustworthy Transfer Associate the leader with trusted others a Handout Logical Fallacies A Ancient Early Mediums Religious Literature a Witch Craze a Declaration a Thomas Paine Rights of Man Common Sense a Academic Discourse i a WWI Claude LeviStrauss Lewis Henry Morgan Marx and Engels a WWII Lecture 8 Race Race phenotypic traits Ethnicity more genetic genotypic 1 Historical Views of Race a a a a Egyp ans i White to the North i Black to the South i Yellow to the East i Red in the middle Greeks i All dark skinned people were Ethiopians i Everyone else was either Greek or Barbarian Europeans i Tried to scienti cally classify races i Used it to justify imperialism i Linnaeus Systema Naturae 1 Americans red easily irritated and ruled by habit 1 European white ruled by tradition 1 Asian melancholy stiff ruled by opinion 1 African caprice unpredictable Blumenbach Criteria cranial shape Ranked classi cation system Morton 1830s 1 Why did they classify a Europeans seeing world for rst time i Discovery of New World i Severe religious crises i Link physical characteristic to morals abilities etc i Aided in colonialism i Racial quotholy grailquot i Justi cation for campaigns of oppression and forced sterilization a Ernest Hooten 3 ranked racial froups Monogloid Causcasoid Negroid a Check box for race forms surveys census What do we mean by race a How biologically meaningful is race i Use non concordant traits i Trait choice creates different categories Building Blocks of Ethnicity Ethnic Identity a Language religion historical experience geographic isolation kinship etc a May include collective name belief in common descent etc SocioEconomic Status a Life chances Where you live How you are treated Access to wealth power and prestige Access to education housing and other valued resources a Life expectancy Society and First Nation Health a 569 homes were considered adequate a 336 of First Nation communities had at least 90 of their homes connected to a sewage system a 65 First Nations and Inuit communities were under a boil water advisory for varying lenthgs of time a a a a Lecture 9 Birth 1 Reproductive Rights a Access a The ability to choose i How many i When you have them a Poverty a A woman39s worth 1 Government Control a Stopped adoptions a Forced sterilizations 1 The Contemporary US a Sex Education you don39t have same access to planning not educated about options Access to family planning Abortion Poverty a How much we reproduce 1 Reproductive Control a Religious ideas about reproduction a Cultural in uences a Behavior legitimacy a Body adornment or modi cation 1 Female Genital Cutting a Varied custom involving cutting removal or stitching of female external gen aHa i Decrease libido i Has religious support i Tradition 1 Perspectives on FGC a Afar Women a Egyptian Women QJQJQJ 1 Birth Lecture 10 Expression and Cultural Creativity 1 Why a Increase Attractiveness a Increase appearance of aggressionpower a Group identity a Accomplishments 1 Attractiveness a Cultural Standards of beauty a The golden ratio a Sexual selection a Temporary adornment a Permanent modi cation Foot binding 1 Power a Less common a Display poweraggression a Recipient of poweraggression 1 Identity a Hair stylingcuts a Temporary adornments a Genital modi cation a Skin and tooth modi cation a Cranial modi cation 1 Accomplishments a Tattoos a Scari cation 1 Scienti c Posters a 4 Sections Intro Materials methods Resu s i i i i Discussionconclusion a Each person to do a task your name under it a Submit the ppt slide to Camrne a Peer review
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