Anthropology 33 - All Lectures
Anthropology 33 - All Lectures
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Lecture 1 040314 Anthropology study of humanity from evolutionary origins to the present worldwide distribution and diversity 0 Distinctions between past nonhuman primates and all ancestors to modern humans o Structural social and behavioral differences Australopithecine gt Home sapiens Five types of anthropology 1 Archaeology study of material culture to reconstruct daily life of past humans a Map cultural changes through time and make connections between different cultures b Analyze changes and irregularities in strata due to environmental forces and how they affected humans 2 BiologicalPhysical study of human origins and contemporary human diversity a Look at structural and behavioral differences through comparison of past and present species i Ex comparison of the way that children and chimpanzees learn from adults 3 Cultural study of the different ways people organize experience the world and their social interactions a How people adapt to varied environments 4 PublicApplied new field that utilizes knowledge from all other anthro fields to resolve social problems 5 Linguistic study of how language influences social life a Nature of language both at the physical level and as an active entity that changes i Comparative philology comparing languages to find their historical relatedness 1 Know that original inhabitants of Madagascar are from Borneo due to similar language ii Physiology of speech how the mouthparts and tongue move to produce language b How language affects relationships between people i What and how you say something expresses your relationship to that person ii Includes body language emotions gestures accents intonations etc c How humans express culture through language and pass it on to future generations i Language socialization how children are taught to speak through social interaction 1 Speaking is more than just grammar and dictionary definitions gt need CONTEXT ii Language endangerment languages that are close to extinction due to few speakers iii Language revitalization used to be through audio and text records gt now through gov action 1 Ex Government puts up public signs written in all the languages spoken in that area Cultural and Linguistic anthropologists do fieldwork and ethnography o Ethnography ethno meaning life and graphy meaning graphs gt collect data about people s lives and analyze it o Fieldwork research through participant observation by living with subjects for months or years 0 More qualitative science based on observations and interviews rather than quantitative data o Puts you in the middle of everything and provides a more holistic view of people and cultures Lecture 2 040814 What is Language 1 Nature of language physiology behind production of language and cognition of symbols into meaning 2 Relationship between language thought and human culture 3 Social change of language and culture over time as its passed down generations Language Prohibition 1866 o Language was banned from discussions because debates about its origins and how it came about became too heated due to a lack of any conclusive empirical evidence 0 Used fossil record to speculate about origins but could never create direct relationship for the cause of language 0 1990s use cognitive science and neuroimaging to understand how the brain acts in terms of language o Compare human and nonhuman primate brains to nd what distinguishes our language from animals Early Thoughts Before 1990s Evolutionary theory and speculation based on multiple disciplines 0 Darwin considered language in terms of sounds and gestures that came about through a gradual evolution 0 Noam Chomsky believes language began at a punctuated equilibrium about 10060 thousand years ago o Began due to a cognitive growth spurt started by a mutation in the brain of a single hominid ancestor o Charles Hockett created list of physiological and cognitive features that enable language 0 Refer to posted lecture slides for full list o Not logically interdependent don t need all the features to have language 0 Three additional features speci c ONLY to humans 1 Prevarication ability to tell false statements or lie 2 Re exiveness ability to talk about language in that language 3 Learnability ability to learn multiple languages using others Animal Languages Bees communicate location of new pollen sources to other bees through dance 0 direction oftheir dance is relative to the sun and the number of buzzes indicates distance 0 von Frisch 1947 won Nobel Prize for discovering that bees communicate through dance 0 Wenner 1967 proved that bees need both the dance AND pheromone odors to communicate a Symbolic language that does not require any material token other than the bee and its movements Nonhuman Primates o Production apes don t have the ability to control their lips and tongue to produce speech o Lack vocal apparatus necessary to modulate sound and they don t have a larynx voice box 0 Comprehension ability to understanding nonspoken referential symbols alphabet o Want to see if apes have the ability to comprehend the meaning behind language 0 Performance hallmark of language ability to create increasingly complex sentences within con nes of grammar o Unique to the human brain Multiple Modalities of Language in the Human Brain reading writing speech and grammar o Perisylvian area area responsible for language production a Broca s area speech production b Wernicke s area word recognition c Ape brain has Brodmann area which is similar to Broca s area in humans but is NOT activated I Have the potential for language but it s not activated a Reading brain reading symbols requires more than just visual specialization and representation a Must link visual representation to conceptual understanding b Angular gyrus association area of association areas not present in apes I allows memory and learning of symbols by creating associations between different parts of brain I damage to angular gyrus causes loss of reading and writing o Tokenlanguage brain use of symbolic representation a When symbol has no meaning we only use the visual cortex gt when it does we use many parts ofthe brair b Have ability to connect sight in visual area retinaoptic nerve to perisylvian area I visualauditory specialized region is the association area connected by angular gyrus c Have ability to categorizecluster symbols to create rules grammar for an in nite number of sentences o Steps to language 1 Acknowledge token object visually gt associate it to certain meaning 2 Sensory processing relates symbol to meaning 3 Note meaning remember it and create patterns from it Lecture 3 041014 Language inside the circle Ferdinand de Saussure gt originator of study of linguistics o Language is combination of physical physiological and psychological components o Language is made of fundamental components ordered by universal principles 0 Description and analysis of language should be synchronically rather than diachronically o Diachronic changes over time Synchronic frozen in time 0 Looking for the deeper structure in language that never changes 0 Study of external forces history culture etc is not informative o Language needs to be understood because it is an objecti cation of the world 0 Thoughts speech are chaotic and language creates order La Lange language whole system of language that makes speech possible 0 Grammar spelling syntax punctuation and the relationship between them Parole speech concrete use of language through actual utterances 0 External manifestation and usage of the language system Basic Parts of Speech o Syntax word order Ex Climb the tree o Morphemes word units letters pre xes suf xes roots o Phonemes sound units o Semantics word choice Ex tree arbor elm Basic unit of language is the SIGN a Sign something that stands for something else a According to the relationship between 0 Signi er the sign image sound or word 0 Signi ed the object or idea that the sign represents Back to Saussure o Human language pairs sounds with meaning in an arbitrary way 0 Signs are arbitrary but they conventional once they are assigned they must stay that way I Ex image for the save button on computers is a oppy disk even though we don t use them o Law of Opposition language is organized based on distinctions between minimal units 0 Saussure called meaning value 0 Things can be clustered together based on opposing ideas I Ex La Langue vs Parole Signi ed vs Signi er Charles Peirce Triadic Sign Relations 1 Sign something that stands for something to somebody 2 Object that which is signi ed by the sign 3 Interpretant sign created in the mind ofthe somebody receiving the sign 0 The speech signi ed by someone is interpreted as different signi ers by different interpreters 3 Types of Signs o Icon sign that denotes its object through resemblance 0 Ex The conventional symbol for a telephone looks like a telephone 0 Index represents contiguous relationship gt signi er causes signi er 0 Ex Ifyou see smoke you assume that there is a re nearby 0 Symbol sign that denotes its object because of law convention gt completely arbitrary 0 Ex Everyone knows the starbucks logo even though it has nothing to do with the place Lecture 4 041514 You can master grammar and vocabulary but language requires social interaction a People are agents something that can cause change o Signs are not agents people are the ones who circulate and activate signs o Language mediates our existence by controlling our actions Turing Test Alan Turing 1950 0 Test to see if humans can distinguish between people and machines through language Natural Language Processing designing and building computer systems that will analyze understand and generate natural human language 0 Robots are given a set of rules usually in the form of if gt then statements 0 Ex COG reactive robot that relies on responses and supervised learning o Problems with making robots communicate like humans 0 O O Coping with context have a limited set of responses depending on the situation Coreference cannot distinguish between the multiple meanings of sentences only literal meaning Distinction cannot distinguish between the different meanings of words that sound the same I Ex I want to go on the ride two more times I want to too Categorization cannot separate words into meaning when they are spoken phonetically I Ex dogspark phonetic vs dogs bark Contrast and segmentation cannot focus on one sound in a noisy environment I Cocktail party effect humans can focus on one person speaking in a crowded room Register cannot recognize the different ways in which people say the same thing intonation lndexicality cannot see the meaning in sentences that require outside information contiguous I Ex Look over there Lecture 5 041714 Linguistic Relativity SapirWhorf hypothesis peoples habitual thought tends to follow the grooves established by peope s language o Dissect nature along lines laid down by our native language o Language not simply a reporting device for experience but a de ning framework for it o Language shapes and re ects how we organize and understand the world a Led to birth of modern linguistic anthropology Language plays role in habitual thoughts and behaviors Points to our ability to think and experience the world in certain ways Shapes consciousness and ways of seeing and acting Evidence of how we classify those thoughts and experiences Doesn t determine how we will think or act but does oblige us to think about certain things in certain ways Ways language in uences thought o Through language in general 0 Communication with others o Through speci c language structures mostly syntax 0 Way you say something in uences how it s received 0 Phonetic interference o Morphophonetic interference I Mishearing words due to phonetic similarity o Morphosyntactic interference I Ex Passive vs active voice o Through habitual language use 0 Can still understand meaning due to habitual use in speci c place 0 lntonational interference I Ex slang and dialects I Whorfs empty drum Language shapes the o Nature of power 0 People use different words to in uence how people react to something I Missiles were called peacemakers o Nature of human agency a Common ideas about freedom and responsibility o Opposition between universality and diversity Language thought and culture are so intimately intenlvoven that to study one ofthese is to study the other two as well a Languages gives us the grooves for thinking through 0 Language in general 0 Speci c linguistic structures 0 Habituation language use Lecture 6 042214 is language just an instinct Language is not just any cultural invention but the product ofspecial human instinct Steven Pinker o Believes that ifyou have proper brain parts you will have language a Thought is neurobiological prelinguistic universal phenomenon a Language is a biological adaptation o Assumes that if you have learned one language you have learned them all independent of culture Blueprint for Grammatical Rules Model 0 Children will reinvent complex language gt supports idea that language is inherent 0 Go from simple syntax in very complex sentences and make them more grammatically sophisticated 0 Not about education or social upbringing but about having the right genes and bits of brain Genie feral child who had no exposure to people or society o Discovered at age 13 almost mute with a vocabulary of only 20 words 0 Even after years of language therapy she could not apply grammar in meaningful ways 0 Could not reach anguage explosion of normal child gt reiects idea that language is inherent Competence vs Performance o Competence having cognitive knowledge about words and grammar 0 Language acquisition learning grammar and vocab inner circle o Language socialization becoming competent member of society by communicating along social norms I into language grammar vocab register how to speak to whom I through language verbally educating about speci c social norms o Performance actually applying the knowledge to produce meaningful sentences and communicate in society Four zones of Interpersonal Space 1 Intimate within touching distance 2 Personal 24 feet 3 Social 412 feet 4 Public over 12 feet Proximity to others determines how we communicate with them Ex whisper when in intimate zone Appropriate interpersonal space determined by social interactions Culture is a way of taking Shirley Brice Heath Measuring language socialization through storytelling to expose the inadequacy of 1 Dichotomy between oral and literary traditions a One is not better than the other but instead they play off of each other 2 Unilinear models of child language development a Children learn in multiple ways and differently depending on their culture 3 Dichotomy between types of cognitive learning styles a Organizing children based on predetermined models Describes three case studies of how kids deal with storytelling 1 Maintown high level of comprehension of details and ability to relate story across contexts a Represent the Standard of the education system from middleclass families b Learn what explanations identifying topics categorizing them in the brain and using them in diff context c Learn reason explanations affective commentary about why or how the event occurred d Recall details and make connections between topics make universal generalizations outside of reality 2 Roadville manage details but cannot identify with the story and make personal comments a Raised to understand through simple explanations and visual stimuli colors textures shapes b Represent shy children who lack a lot of social interaction c Recall details but cannot make connections relate topics to personal experience d Need to learn reason explanations and link information from books to environment 3 Trackton use story to create context that relates back to knowledge of their own community a Represent children who live in very social communities b Parents ask analogical questions nonspeci c comparisons cannot manage details c Learn from experience not reading very good at reading social cues and communication d Cannot recall details and avoid the facts Focus on reason explanations e Need to learn what explanations Ways of taking culture children learn while growing up about how to act Literacy events occasions in which written language is integral to nature of participants interactions and interpretation 0 Ex Bedtime stories reading cereal boxes interpreting instructions for games and toys Huge disconnect between what children learn in school and what they learn through culture and society Bottom line school Standards focus on using the what and who to infer about how and why 1 Ways of taking and relating at home and at school are the same Maintown 2 Ways of taking and relating at home and at school are not the same TracktonRoadville Heath s Conclusions Chidren s learning way of taking follows community paths of language socialization Children take meaning from stories through literacy events The more similar home and school are the more accessible literacy events are to children Accessibility to literacy events leads to better participation in society o School are catered to the Standard so Maintown children are most successful o Created by historical segregation where the wealthy white community became the Standard Lecture 7 042414 Human communicative interactiontalk is shaped by an interactional ethos grounded in a worldview o lnteractional ethos socialized belief in how I and others should act to include communication o Worldview ones regard of the word way people make sense of what is around them Connection between language and worldview is taught through certain interactional and behavioral routines such as 1 Turn taking how long we wait to speak after someone else is speaking Role playing Acquisition ofsocial skills politeness and ways to act Registers how you tell a story depending on the audience Code switching speaking differently with different people Context act appropriately depending on the situation Interpersonal space how you speak depending on distance from person i Qgt9 F 99 Goffman s Main Point Analyze structural underpinning of changes in footing by examining notions of speaker and listener o Structural way to point out what s happening in conversation at every moment 0 Consisting of all the microactions that facilitate conversation and characterize a conversation Face interaction and talk are permeated by a sense of ritual respect 0 Individual continuously works to maintain face the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact This is the part that makes robots unrealistic because it s the subtle actions that make the difference Not tied to words but the use of the words Preplay micro interactions that begin conversations politely Greetings hi how are you etc Postplay micro interactions that end conversations politely Endings thank you goodbye etc Foo ng 1 Participants face is somehow at issue aliqnment set stance posture proiected self etc 2 Can last as long as a whole conversation or as little as a single word of sentence 3 Can be obvious as a dramatic change in stance or as subtle as slight shift in sound markers 4 Usually codeswitching change in sound marker language pitch volume tone dialect accent Frames gives an interpretive structure to details and highlights how those details are related to one another Frame breaks when new footing comes in to buffer between higher level and some other sustained episode What does it mean to shift your footing Change in footing is change in alignment we take up to ourselves and other present as expressed in the way we manage the production of conversation Social encounter of talk Establish rati ed participants people engaged in conversation 0 Beginning is marked by participants orienting together and bodily addressing one another o End marked by departure o Bracketed by greetings and farewells Goffman Is a conversation only between speaker and listener a Main goal analyze the structural underpinnings Production format means of assessing who has produced the words in a particular instance of speech or writing who is responsible for composing them and who or what body is represented by the words used Speaker 0 O O Hearer O O O Animator person who is talking Author person who wrote words Principal person responsible for the words Rati ed participant recipient of address could be listening or not Eavesdropper not rati ed by eavesdropping Overhearer not rati ed but inadvertently overhearing Bystander not rati ed by has aural access that is known by rati ed Multiple types of social encounters Byplay talk between speaker and unrati ed participant 0 Ex when television actor speaks to audience Crossplay holding the ow in one encounter while participating in another o Ex parents managing conversation with adult and dealing with child Sideplay subordinate interaction outside the dominant communication encounter 0 Ex when a guy looks at a hot girl who walks by while having a conversation with someone else Collusion an attempt to conceal subordinate communication 0 Ex whispering to a neighbor while the professor is lecturing Innuendo speaker directing words to an addressed recipient overlays his remarks with deniable meaning 0 Ex Having secret words that only certain people can understand Lecture 8 050614 is there a difference between sex and gender o Gender has become a naturalized system of meaning c We assume that the standards are naturalbiological and they weren t created by people o Sex is based on actual anatomy while gender is the expression of masculinityfemininity o Roughly 15000 babies born ambiguously male or female o Subject to surgery ifthey don t t strict standards US Criteria for Gender Assignment since 2000s o Raise XX infants with functional ovaries as female o Raise XY infants as male unless external genitalia is more female and testes are dysfunctional a Raise infants with mixed gonadal tissue hermaphrodites as gender most consistent with external genitalia o Western world still does not separate gender from sex o Recently people have started speaking out about the issues with sexual reassignment Gender Dysphoria gender identity disorder o Con ict between person s physical sex and gender they identify as o People feel uncomfortable in the body they are labeled to have as infants Naturalizing SexGender o Masculine and feminine traits are thought to be natural due to this connection between gender and sex o Gender is a cultural practice not an actual thing o It colors our relationships and informs how we act and think o Learning to embody a certain gender allows us acceptance into society Gender Ideology shared tacit perceptions and feelings people have o Explain interpret justify and judge they way people are and act based on perceived gender 0 Ideologies shape practice but practice reproduces ideologies and keeps them as norm o Leads to extreme views about what is right or wrong standard malefemale roles Categories of Identity Asset or Liability 0 Gender categories help af rm understanding and acceptance by the community if you t gender norms o Also help af rm misunderstanding and lack of acceptance if you don t t gender norms Female De cit Model o Women s behavior is measured in terms ofthe norm which is male behavior o Females judged based on their differences relative to males o Markedness unmarked when differences go unnoticed o Ex All men created equal unmarked unless someone changes is to women Dual Cultural Model o lnteractional variation and worldview differ among men and women 0 Men are from mars women are from venus socialization Children to dress speak and act differently at a very young age Always get bullied or subtly pushed back into gender group if child acts out of norms Continued in next ecture Lecture 9 050814 Gender is everywhere o Not a thing but a technique for classifying and therefore controlling others 0 Process of categorization that divides people into groups to create differences that are neutral positive or negative 0 Only bad when used as a naturalized category that can explain what ought to be how the world should be Dual Cultural Model continued o Men and women are socialized differently and have different worldview and interactions 0 Ex boys are described as big and tough girls are described as gentle and beautiful 0 Children taught to play dress value things and speak differently by family and media 0 Robin Lakoffs women s anguage characteristic ways in which women speak 0 Tag questions nishing sentences with uncertain question words right Uptalking saying last word of sentence with lilt so it sounds like a question Hedges lters using ller words like um etc Empty quali ers using unnecessary emphasis words Oh totally that is soooo cute Vocal fry deepening of the voice and slowed speech Gossip talking about others when they are not actually there Equal turntaking more cooperative speech without interrupting OOOOOO Is this differentiation due to actual real life scenarios or is it due to the cultural script that makes it typical Law of Opposition categories are understood based on what they are not compared to something else o Similarly genders are differentiated by what femalesmales are not compared to the other gender The Script behavior of men and women is invariably read through a more general discourse on difference itself o Leads to stereotypes about the roles of men and women and the way they speak o Does not match up with what s really happening in society 0 Ex Men gossip about gay men to maintain their status as not gay 0 Ex Girls can be competitive rather than always cooperative and concerned about others 0 Rather than discourse deployed after the fact to explain difference the script actually produces that differentiation o Naturalization of stereotyping makes it true because that is all we know from the start Exclusion in Girls Peer Learning Groups o De es the previously believed notion that girls are cooperative 0 Shows that methodology for describing a gender uses individuals rather than looking at the social interactions Women s Language or Powerless Language a Not all women exhibit high frequency features in courtroom while some men actually do 0 Malefemale speech patterns are more catered toward social status in speci c contexts like a courtroom Sociobiological Model John L Locke 0 Men and women have radically different speech because they have different evolutionary needs o Men use antagonistic speech or duels to show offtheir strength and prove themselves to women 0 Women use quieter speech to bond with each other and protect themselves from aggressive men Dominance Model 0 Language maps onto power differences so that certain styles of speaking carry more status than others o Competency in these styles of speech allows entry into social elds 0 Success and acceptance in society is de ned by how well you can follow the standard or the script o Perpetuated through the reproduction of these ideologies often cast as moral through practice Bottom Line Models don t work to explain gender as socializing means of behavior and social interaction Instead they reinforce the script of difference These gender race and ethnic divisions have historical basis that have been naturalized into society Authority of historical institutions keeps reinforcing the gender stereotypes that we see today The Script on gender has informed and continues to re ect every institution in which we interact Lecture 10 051314 How categories get perpetuated Categorizeclassify putting people into groups based on differences Standardize de ne what it means to be a part of that group Institutionalize create higher power that makes the groups a norm Discipline and Control teach people how to t into the group Surveillance always being watched by authority gures Selfdiscipline discipline yourself due to desire to t in and feel included Reproduction of ideology pass on the group norms once you have learned them Socialization in Language Discrimination o Linking speech style to character or identity o Ex Simba speaks with white middleclass voice Hyenas speak with bad grammar and Mexican accent 0 Foreign or improper language considered bad untrustworthy gt taught to children at young age Language ideology set of bias social practices and assumptions that are part of greater power construct People depend on ideologies without close analysis or awareness of underlying assumptions Constantly learn to interpret systematic signs through social in uence Differences in pronunciations of words carry the potential for positive or negative judgments Perpetuated by media and institutions throughout our lives Standard mainstream accent becomes considered natural gt just how it s always been so it can t be changed Proponents of the standard want to suppress any variations Social lndexicality ideologies about language and language users that suggest something about a person s character personality intellect or other personal traits o AKA stereotyping or making conclusions about people based on assumptions o Over time people will speak more alike over more territory of the world o Institutions maintain status quo as means of control and differentiation IN REALITY gt There is no such thing as not having an accent or standard grammar 0 Standard is an ideal promoted by institutions that no one ever really reaches Process of Language Standardization 1 Selection of way of speaking as standard Fixing conventions about proper ways to speak Codi cation into dictionaries and grammar books Distribution by institutions schools libraries of ces etc Maintenance of standard Elaboration of standard through specialized registers Prestige given to standard speakers valued above others C quot39gt Continued in next ecture Lecture 11 051514 Pidgin contact vernacular no native speakers mixed language with elements of two native languages less complex Creole second generation pidgin gt more complex grammar and larger vocabulary Dialect regional and social variations of a language due to physical or social separation Slang vocabulary of a dialect o Everyone speaks at least one dialect and has an accent Social indexicality when the way a person speaks indexes points to an assumption about their personal traits 0 Ex Smell cigarette smoke gt assume that person doesn t care about their own health or the health of others Discipline and Punishment o Standard ideologies inform and regulate the practices of society gt practice reinforces standard o Out group practices are considered as obstacles or limitations o In group practices are considered possibilities and opportunities The Standardizers who perpetuates the standard o Descriptivism describes language and how language works linguistic anthropology o Prescriptivism insists on establishing and maintaining how people should or should not use language 1 Education o word gap students from lowerincome families learn 30 million less words by age 3 than their peers o De cit model puts blame on chid s lack of verbal stimulation at home rather than faults of education system c Convinces children who can t perform by standard that they are not as smart 0 Ex lfyou judge a sh by its ability to climb a tree standard it will live its life thinking it is stupid Ebonics AfricanAmerican vernacular english 0 Want to use Ebonics are a bridge to learning standard English 0 Recognized as having its own systematic rules and grammarjust like all natural speech varieties 2 Mass Media o Includes radio television news and social media 0 Ex Trayvon Martin gt people see a teen in a hoodie at night and they assume they are dangerous gangsters 0 Entertainment Ex Alladin and Jasmine speak American English gt Jaffar and his bird have accents 3 Corporate Institutions o Groups that follow standard have more occupational and economic opportunity o Ex White males with a criminal record are more likely to be hired than black males wo a record 4 Government public sphere o Language discrimination is just a cover for deep historical hatred for certain groups 0 US government started on foundation of homogenization and separation of races 0 John Jay we are people from same ancestors same religion same language and same government o Slaves were not granted true personhood Three fths clause o John Adams sought to create standard American English I Eloquence necessary for participation in political affairs gt requires education I Education was not available to blacks Plessy vs Ferguson separate but equal never really equal Jim Crow Laws segregation laws I Cut off possibility of selfreliance through education and professionalism I Cut off access to standard English and literacy events I Made black people dependent on social welfare systems O O Lecture 12 052014 Language and Social Interaction Technologies Social Networking History of Public Technology 19th century Industrial Revolution focused on conquering physical space a Built railroad from east to west gt until 1840s info could only move as fast as anything frictionbased o Fastest train traveled 38 mph Samuel Morse invented the telegraph in 1938 o Electromagnetic pulse pattern of dots and dashes gt Morse code o Built one neighborhood of the whole country Steampowered press also arises around that time o Allowed printing of written material on industrial scale 0 Resulted in mass production of books to conquer and unite large masses of people Ex communist Russia o Rise of nationalism closely correlated to growth of print capitalism o Nation imagined political community gt everyone shares the same info even though you never meet all I People feel connected to people they have never met gt only know super cial facts Legitimized contextfree largescale irrelevant impotent incoherent information Value of information had no purpose or relevance to people s lives Introduce conversation of big headlines and few details Telegraph suited to ashing messages that are quickly replaced and require no contemplation or analysis Everything becomes everyone s business Rise of pseudocontexts irrelevant distractions such as crosswords game shows etc Legacy of Printing Press and Telegraph o Info that gives us something to talk about but nothing that leads us to meaningful action a Low Information Action Ratio amount of info coming at you compared to the action that comes from it 0 Derive importance from possibility of action gt oral and written information o Telegraph and press disconnect connection between info and action Ontology what there is in the world Epistemology way of making meaning way of knowing Metamedium instrument that directs our knowledge of the world and our ways of knowing o Things that tell you how you should react to the world gt Ex television social media 0 Telegraph and press shift the way we know what is in the world and how we nd and come about meaning Internet effects on the brain 0 Gives us an addicts brain gt excessive use results in addiction Feel more lonely and jealous gt result of seeing the success of others May heighten suicidal risk in certain teens gt cyberbullying Memory problems may be more likely Not all bad gt in moderation internet can boost brain function Flow of Reason and Decisionmaking 0 Moves from linear to nonlinear gt allows you to edit and make changes for revision o Route of decisionmaking of social media result to lack of consideration of consequences o Learn to take more risks because you no longer consider consequences Change in Relationship between Thought and Behavior 0 Changed experience of time and space gt loss of longevity and endurance 0 Have shorter perspective of time and distance o Immediacy faster satisfaction of desire impulsive behavior and always on call o Channels of physical and visual proximity are lost o Creates realistic experiences out of imagined relationships gt Ex gamers Self Presentation and Limits of Surveillance o Distinction between what should be public and private is blurred and constantly changing o Monitor consumer citizen data to learn how to sell and advertise more effectively o Modern derangement dialogue split dialogue that only meets in the wires o lnteractional cues social obligations are not tied to consequences Linguistic Changes Unleashed by Texting o Correct spelling and grammar will DIE Exaggeration o Bad habits will spread everywhere and language as a whole with deteriorate o Allows opportunity for creativity o Learn what is abbreviate and how sounds in language relate to letters 0 Common sense of coordinated action between you and other texter gt knowledge of standard Texting is useful when people want to keep in touch even with limited time money and energy o Reduces gap between deaf and hearing o Opportunity to see language in evolution Lecture 13 052214 History of communication before internet Systematic collection and classi cation of knowledge 16th17th century o Museums and universities created basic structure for storing scholarly information o 1 Library scienti c info accumulates in place with easy access 0 2 Index info in library can be retrieved through card catalog system o 3 Article allowed scientists to share info from libraries at long distances 0 Articles gt Library gt Index gt Scholars gt Articles o System never worked for everything and everyone 0 Access was limited to only students and professors o Info was dif cult to nd if you didn t already know what you were looking for Encyclopedias 18th20th century o Universal storage of knowledge where anything can be found o Can be instantly amended as needed but extremely expensive Failure of Print Paradigm o Allows you to go fonvard and backward on a linear trail but not branch out offthe trail o Dif cult because brain works through associations rather than linear path Post WW2 radar designed to provide ontheground info gt modern internet started with military technology o Packet switching messages were broken up into parts and assembled together at the end 0 Prevented interception from enemies and loss of entire message due to power outage ARPANET Advanced Research Project Agency 0 Establish common computer network protocols for linking communication between computers Information Capitalism knowledge is power gt information is money o Industrialmilitary complex realize pro tability of information 0 1920s business machines and of ce computers gt get money by providing info faster and easier o 1980 birth of internetwork gt internet 0 With business participation internet exploded to connect businesses 0 Military gt Business gt Consumer 1990s World Wide Web store receive and send documents 1993 Mosaic rst development of web browser 2000s Search engines don t have to organize and categorize information in linear fashion anymore Internet pulled into existence by 0 Information capitalism making pro t from providing information o Allows exposure to new cultures ideas science etc extensive geographic range 0 Surveillance state watchingmonitoring consumers to provide even more information about people 0 Key to government and market success and security 0 Demographic data used to assess consumer needs and increase pro t 0 Social identity rules don t apply on the internet gt loss of privacy 0 Cultural privatism hedonism gt pleasure is only intrinsic good and we should aim to maximize it Lecture 14 052714 Kerby s Lecture Iconization process by which linguistic features become iconic of certain social group andor activity o Facilitated through dialects and accents creating subjective view of right and wrong Fractal Recursivity process in which oppositions are made and projected onto another level Erasure process in which some aspects of people are made invisible o What we remove from our consciousness to maintain our ideologies Louisiana home to Cajuns gt French descent 0 Bayou Louisiana French word from Choctaw word bayuk gt swampy wetlands of lower Louisiana o Houma largest Native American tribe in Louisiana 0 Currently appealing US decision to deny federal recognition 0 Before Europeans they spoke Houma gt now only oldest members speak French Language Death most of world s languages are extinct c From 100000 before Neolithic Revolution agriculture to only 60000 today 0 Pidginization loss of in ections lack of articulation shortened vocabulary and less complex grammar Language Revitalization through written documents and audio recordings language can be preserved o Often dif cult to revive due to negative ideologies that led to its decline Lecture 15 052914 Jan s Lecture Language Contact when more than one language is used by same group of people o Leads to codeswitching pidgin creole and linguistic convergence o Linguistic convergence borrowing of morphological or syntactic features from both languages Language Species analogies o Languages evolve and change over time to become new languages OR o Languages blend to form completely new languages where old languages are still maintained Paraguay Guarani and Spanish are both national languages o Guarani spoken in several parts of South America before European colonizers o Resulted in mixed language called jopara gt looked down upon compared to Guarani and Spanish Ache Tribe speak Guarache gt mix of Guarani Spanish and native Ache o Guarache also looked down upon compared to Guarani and Spanish Linguists are not attempting to stop the blending of languages Simply want to document and record original languages for preservation