EPSS 101 - All Lectures
EPSS 101 - All Lectures
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Date Created: 04/06/14
Field Trips Each counts for 25 of Mojave Desert Trip a Saturday 4119 510 517 or 530 Oil Field Solar quotthermal Energy Generating Station Solar Pihototviolttaiic Ranch Vl nd Farm UCLA CoGen Faoiity Dutll lg Class in May 15 hoiiirs Energy and Power Units quotFormosa who want some proof that physicists are human the proof is in the idiocy final grade What is Energy llniformai lDiefinitionis Associated with movement Associated with power i Capable of accomplishing work something it dcn i have when l39m tired or hiingryt De iniitioiiiis from P WSiiis X37 U it UP CU Ll L v quotit is important to realize that in physics today we have no knowl39eolge of what energy is Ft Feynman Energiy is an ext iu 39i yegtroge y of physical systems Energy is scalar quantity a ie it has no dire ction associiated imth it lE nergy can be CDl7lVEll39tEid into many iiorms Energy is conserveizl Energy is clefiried in relative terms not absolutely l n the Si syslierri energy has units of loiilles tJli 939 iquot i iifi ii i 3 l tf1liCl ii r E liquot i397 it i ii 39Tl i 1 infirm ticI ii Cl liui u t7l39l lcquotIl39l 439 ti ti WE 39 Power Required For Various Activities ofaii the different units which they use for measuring energyquot R Feynman ii nu mania mi 39 will r a I iniiitii quot1 i am Notes gf s 1i Use SI Units I g 39ampii39iiJiEWji39j j39iIIW7iilliil39P Whenever yt at I gplig i lulu ii I will in gI H I I1 y fquotquot 39quot39 39i39j39yquotquotf 39 quot 2 Food callories v Fquot are little Iigguielgal uhnuI uip tavhi39 Calories i uublu itu inuauullusnold nialiiI39ailuntiv rainHLI HalliIniI 1hair 9 I IgalHiIiiIII Ii H NU t i l l l39l ii ii cit ls x i ii U 0 iuIi39J ii I N lung 2 in uinagg g iI quii I gum lirrjj r iii anahiya s a oIa IH giant Iimi a hail ll ml un pa Inqpf alilih lf i Iiplnsi IIllinw huIlnggiav imIuu Ip QHiu C apllh is c it W rt I lit iia liuqiaaaldin Itia liiiiiui 7 7 inputgun ti ldina lili iuiidhliynmiuap iriu 4CA4 nb i 115 I snlpiaginI39Eail391aijiamp anI ilainiripui n LiiL U lnri iiquot fiji in i HI lgli ti M r it ii if it l39iquoti if it lIquotI1 pL tUtlKquotfrHlquottI l339 i i f i39lii il39 iiili39ii Tll ii l tf Iaiiuiindmi IL or Taliiipilllngz inf AilZIll 39iIllquot Ki Eriequot Id39l lif 39 Equot 39l39Ei Ltfilfll Ilr39El tlIII I i liu s q Imp m myiw Iwi kw A 139rlir dmiw rni pulhnp Crlid mp l I1399 5 iii iiw Pimvriihnrri ve1 IEWI5ttli39Iquot39kW Ianergmncti iiiiw iiquot uw Eh1InniinIfIit all i mtsotu mu tin um w a El i kw siftrliriiry Bright ltidlihllrb rim W It i nit 1 amt iii i we m39Ill39IlllIquotl I kw Pnnuk Wl ur Irma I it lk W 3939uiipu 139 adniiluhik iiri aw Onan l glam oiai1 Imam Enlmi kw Bum Hf iruntipg gt lifu lfi j kw CI eirlll irtd pnwci phliiil ilquotin11 FIlTl1 lf l39Efi39 r lll39 Spur Stunt E3IhiIii I3 1 39ll39EJ l it till IIW l L W ol eInmr39ii 2 3 H1 IIW F 2 UW of EELquotlFI If I1 at iiiiquotiw i1 ow P IM11 2 wliiil I mwr mwldn in id int All that pmiurr plum cmrlbiiian 2 I I0quot W 2llIJ GW U3 tingsanitem I1lI l1di39Ii39lhc um um is it iioquotitw at turn ow MEI I39i39iI L39I4ll1iI iiuinniuui39aiguiiaiiiatos llxmmkw lixIif UW 1mQlyr MLl iin L51 W Simian LI39I139IqIuiIl I l39l39lainmi lIlIA l39NIl P z llllilij vqlvuclc l quot Y Energy vs Power Energy A scalar uariti relating to the energy content of a system t Units Joules J or kg m sec Power A scalar quantity related to the rate of energy giaini oss of a system per unit time Units liu Iesfsec Watts W or kg m sec3 Don39t Coinfuswe Energy and Power ll Joule 1 Waritesecond lh7amp117HlHiithiiliiiiiA nnp39nkHhldquotVI1irjqEnm1lai l i l niiu Real World Energy 39 39 39 J1 L39mIti F39uain Conversion Efficiencies m m 4y rliignicai ut In tags 1 unuun Iiiiflfnnama P 39fiimIit lnhhsn n n Iniwwupur liripi3uiiuaan Iliumnitszii ain bin nrasiiin 1 lln391nnjpai Iylh ltjiirgimua Lihaebxirn ii F l iial FEW unmit Tnliii inn llnriaioilliqI jlulkpuhzh Sinnlorcinurn HnlilI ji iiInii311139il tjH it39ln fgiiih x IIjg isuicur2 iii Cuha llrguano Inga t iii C is li i ij irtt tirti 9 ti 5 L39l iEli Qii igtj lost lvll llfili loim Lil i397irilt39yl139iii i l 1quotf E rr ii l39i1 39itlItip it IN MI in W5 t Iquot J plrw I n at so I 39H rang I Il39 IAr iI39l rquotA fill l at Jam a Ill I ll E1EiEixE B uSu1tu E1U3393l1 ii39Ii1quot Iii I39ll ll iA 1ll air uiui II I39Ill T7 G E quot EE E2E7 lEEil aalr u gh r1 train r iii E In r cr 1 u ll sun b It wt I it 39 iialha39II i ia i i 139 ihell thing we rmvznl at in umi1fiEIiiIsis rriiwquotrrnhu1Is39 g Imlinr Iailhl lmdilllilit Lecture 2 The Ilistory of iEor llih39s Energy Regsnirt Miilt vi at Hot FIi39lt5 i things irrixru i towardi nncl away Aht ii1quoti U5 E5HiT 1Clt DU h rt 39r39 JqLrcj rJ mi tested on noel lr 0ri9h lhr39gt5J In 1929 Edmund Hubble used galactic spectra observed at met 00 inch telescope at Mt W39ilson by Vesto Slipher in li9i ll7 to determine the red shifts of nearby galaxies He found thatthe galaxies were receding from us at a rate that was proportional to their distance Thus the universe is expanding uelotil P Hobbies Law v has to The rluHll it r nwci 5 fgiome litifia 3915 Hi 2 rfoter it rttecle ifi39L tJftEquotHtttt t o 4 city tittito in in it i tlrotquotirE Th e Big Ba n g All the mass and energy in our universe was came into being approximatel 1339gbillion years ago during the Big Bang However the notion that energy somehow quotcreatedquot during the big bang is generally not believed to be correct Most cosmological theories are based on the assumption that the positive Emc9 energy represented by matter is exactly cancelled by the negative potential energy represented by gravity Therefore the total energy of the universe is actually zero in modern cosmology the Big Bang is thought of more as a wave or a ripple on nothingness The total quotamplitude of the energy in our universe is I 059 J CosrrlologistAlan Guth of MT describes the energy in the unliverse as the ultimate free lunch Mtlirtr iiquot IMEU not itquot2t1ll rl twat E llli3i39g3 Li39uJlUl tCDtfttl 1rt E d Into rrlcttlsr during h Big Bang ogre Eit g loo irtllj epamECr VhnH r r1Inct enieir39g 31 L3939quot quotquot 3 E 39t39Q 5 WCM 1011o t 33952 3 J E1quot 1 i P in a quoti39 Iquotr1quot ti 3 T attrtquotW rtt iz gt W e g f twgt rteiztv J n Microwave Antenna I965 i The current ternperature or space which is 3 K is a remnant of the intensely hot temperatures that existed when the universe was first formed Therimal emission from space can be nneasuretd from Earth in the form of microwave radiation This ggimic back round radiation is a major clue to the origin of the Llniverse its uniformity l10000 tells us that the early universe expanded rapidly from a tiny point and eventually cooled to the point where atoms of hydrogen and helium and photons dominated This inflatlointary period cuilirninateid in the formation of galaxies which today are isolated clumps of matter consisting of hundreds oi billions of stars CHE tCtitStPi ti bCt39l39k3jrtiU1quotquotICT39L Wldl h0t l Star Power Gravitational collapse results in a conversion of gravitational potential energy into iKllitquotle tllC ener of mollxecuillesand toms or heat Once initiated gravitational collapse would proceed inde nitely if it were not for the fact that at high enough temperatures and pressures lighter atoms and molecules can fuse to i ether to form heavier elements This processes called nuclear n h sis eleases tremendous amounts of energy the mass of the products of nuclear fusion are less than the masses of the reactants 3 3 7 He 35 Met r I 4141MEV Nuclear Fusion il39ttri fli L ilrllF f lntliyt39e il rtr t i397r in lf r iltp ahd tnwgmr nyctnrqlh hUUPt39 dm quotJ Star power has four consequences 1 Stars maintain a balance between the inward pressure due to gravity and outward thermal pressure due to the energy released by nuclear fusion 2 The nuclear energy generated by stars is radiated away to space near the stars surfaces in the form of photons The luminosity or the total amount of energy radiated increases signi cantl 7 is l The luminosity of the sun id 4 5 1935 W 3 The lifetimes of stars varies inversely with their mass High mass stars burn brightly for millions of years before they exhaust their nuclear fuel The sun which is a relatively low mass star will burn for 10 billion years 4 When stars exhaust their nuclear fuel they imglodeviolently which can result in a super nova a giant ex losion in whlich elements that are heavier than iron can be created Hrf39l1quotLL tt l C4 t t llt S Tl et39t tW jilrtlf tiil l 5hEli quoti39JC l atd tJt urn tatlci H mi H Ul39p tfldr tr1ttrh trI try rl iquoti Tliftlti hfj tquotlV U h1t l 5 W lfttfll l quotLlt ff 4 Form ation of the Solar System Our solar system formed from a compositionally mature cloud of dust and gas that included mostly hydrogen and helium out also heavier elements for hsi longdead stars The planets formed from a dust and gas orbiting the young sun first by condlensatilon then by accretion of protopllanetary bodies that collided to torm the planets Gravitational potential energy was converted into thermal energy in these collisions so the plariets started out with hot interiors Jl1 T disk of 3u gen 9 am liequotii31 envy La larygy I7 titmjl rittcli rlutt f llt39 lL iquotInllquot39 fitm 39tquotltt l39lfquotlt5 Tlt39t39lrtlf 39lrlgl ltquotlE39 quotI1rirlhquoti1Iti p i l ilt lrE l Wt lergzsr quotiV tlrquottt lt M Fri l P w l1quotl 3l3ll39l tquotlquotVlquot l lTClllll 39t ttj TEftlillllc litquotlJ39 F t 7 it trlt tr vi zit lmulgl lliuiliilli tlt39lilrinltr t J T the temperature of the s urltace of u S 5 o tyitm ilrtt t 15 N iiat 39Wit 39 ttlisu S ittri lilat utrt 7lll i l Earth interior Structure The Earth is one of rrnany ironrichi rocky bodies in the solar systeirn that has lost most or its original cornplement of lighter gasses such as hydrogen and helium due to atrnospheric escape The hot interior of the Earth difl ererltiated into three major layers a dense ironerich inner and outer core a less dense rocky rnantle and a relatively cool outer crust The 139allingquot of dense rnatlerial towards the center of the Earth during dirlerenttatioh released additional gravitatioriall potential energy resulting in conversion to additional thermal energy t L 01200 3500 8400 km quot7 V V 39 The temperature at the center at the Earth is roughly the same as N the sun rquot lquotitir rt1 tn tt l ltl l twirl tquot39It tllll i i lil 39ll f 139lt1lll s ll Lt Cllttttllltl l ltilquot lrquotlT339mquotlquotJ Clwjltiw lhqhtwwrqg iMudEtuHhl 1utilt5 li ljli t Cl cut s39t t E L 39ilC an average rate of 87 milliwatts w l Kai Primordial heat left over from the L F Ixki39 L E 3H ri1 LR39 R if x yj K t IT kl quotti j J1 A ttquotquot39 3 vi tiquots E5 T lEanth lsleat Flow and Heat Sources tloot Flow Hleat from the interior of the Earth is slowly leaking out to the surface at per square meter This geothermal 5 energy flow is due to original accretion and differentiation of the Earth is no mt mw m392 b New heat venerated in the Earth by thelgradioactivefdfecay of uranium and thorium due to nuclear ssion Haciiactlve Atom Radiation I W iy ll Pa riilcla Earthquots Oceans and Atmosphere The Earth39s oceans and atmosphere Cover the surface of the Earth but only represent a very small percentage of the Earth39s mass The Eaithis airnoslphiere is composed of 79 nitrogen 20 mrygeh and 1 argon and is 80 ltin thick The Earth s oceans are composed of water and are 4 lcm deep The oceans and atmosphere formed from water and other volatiles outgassed from the Earth39s interior and from volatiles delivered to the Earth from space from impacting mmetscalind asteroids The Earth is unique in the solar system because of its capability to support and maintain a surface liquid water environment 70 of the earth39s surface is presently covered by water which is essential to for the origin and evolution of life i3ii l39ll39l i il lrl iii trt39quottii i if i 2 quot Hlfl ti it el39 ii tit lililm E at F W in 4 2 quot gilr i quot 5 0 L L 3 2 l Ul N pK b My G 0 Heat from the inltienor of the Earth is 4 it tin it Q ti Lit i A quot limit im Li if r lilr w to r Lt r h39Vr Uiii3 rt i L full if H VIjfT l Earth Heat Transport transportecl to the surface by two p ro cessesl Thermal convection which transports heat by the buoyant motion of rising warm lipid and sinlting cold uid in the Earthis gravillational held The velocity of the Earths convection cells is 2 cm per year and results in ilate tectonics and Convection continental drift Tl73917Tt Thermal conduction which transports heat 7 s by the transfer of vibrational and kinetic quotquotquot 39 39 energy between adjacent molecules M 3 Thermal convection is much more ef cient at transporting heat over large distances j can Thermal ooniduction results in a L temperature gradient of 25 C iltm in the 7 earth39s crust CondIuction if U I pa pZ 395 Li 0 0m it tilzquotEJf iTlI39 W 39i39lliiquot1t sm iiiil l lv i tL lt i iiiF t s TE ll39tiP l39iquotvrt t39c39li il 395 EitmT let rrl 0 H Eartihs Ultimate Fate Earth39s energy resources are fundamentally the result of natural processes that were put into motion when the universe gallaxy solar system and Earth were formed The neareterm 6 billion year fate of the Earth is fairly certain The sun will expend ltquots hydrogen fuel and expand to 250 times its present size to envelop the Earth which witll spiral in and vaporize However it is more likely that a giant impact will destroy the Earth sooner or the Earth39s orbit will become lunstalble Lecture 3 The lliiistory of Humanity lLllt 7 i393939 t 35 i39i3939tiquot Eiittl139s tI ltiirty Dl l39l39llllil3it39lltl ltl l39iissil ll39t 391 lquotl tJli39quotFquot E39r i ll tIfLll prosltoects lolr at ELF l39a39quotl1l 1tl EE lr iii ute F39rofessiir liiivitl Paige IJ lJi391VrquotJ it 1tn i 39tl39n let in Early Evolution of Humans Humans are part of the Home genus Nil gunk Iin Ii 39139 N tmj39 MW t which split oft from the Pan genius lr ifr 39t at allis chimpanzee and bonoboi 135 million I HR l T 39nnr aim I t years ago mi 93 0 ty H1 y3gg The key distinguishin as ectof the Homo genus islbipedallsmtjwhich provides Higher vantage point Frees arms for other uses Foraging and feeding Using tools y 391 Fighting y t t Bringing food back to family Q 39 Improved thermal regulation 3 M l Signi cantifactorol 4l energy j D E 39 advantage torwallting locomotion i7 l J It l39tI2 lllotTtm genioi DlPPdElfL l quot95 enticing on two itsgs um tlx tail titl l i Wort on too tags tCtSl T39 on Ll logy Tquot Longer an 2 logo Earliest Evolution of Humans quot fr T 0 Mammals lived literally in the shadow of 3 quot i at K i 1 ls l P E dlinosauirs untill65 mi ll0fl HeE1 l39S ago hen the g 39 dinosaurs were wiped 0 by a gian impact at the t39fraaceousTertiary KT7 boundary The earliest known common ancestor of today39s primates forward looking eyes exible Our Ancestor arms and tingers ellin lemurlilte creature that lived 65 million years at oquot HTefT9quotfffr rm quot39mquot 5 ii v Living in trees gave primates grasping hands L T la pV good depth perception and fairly high 73 3 ea 39 E intelligence P 0 B J Monkeys have tails quot 1i3939quot39 0L Apes don39t have tails The closest living relative to humans is the g chimpanzee Both have genomes consisting of 393 billion Fl I P at T t Lia IJquotI pz iiicn quot 39 39 39 I Vi 0 3939l3939l7 ti base pairs ii 1fp p l The hu 1 one nd chimpanzee genomes differ F 4quot iv7iN only by l LE tquotlquotl tll h i riot itfEtjfi steer and liilolrnlotnt Dltitquot hoinit Sistine Gtt lCPfUP 5 V f 1 E 397quot T f Cit rtlol l 39 58 E teD 5 1quot 7 LD0 ll 0 Bake T Recent Evolution of Humans llumans evolved during a period of rapid 20000 3 mm ma Mb ilrlai ul year climate fluctuations that included periodic ice ll I 39 quot 3935 NJ i x 394 Environmental pressures may have made it l quotquotquotquot advantageous for early humans to leave the trees quot1 39 and spend more time on the ground in i 39 39 I Fossill e vidence suglgesls that multiple species of W I 39 the Homo genus lived concurrently in different parts m I 0j a of the world 39quotquot quot quot The onl onaextinct member of the Homo genus i i Home sa ien which has spread from Africa to we al the continents during the last 200000 years m 39 hm Many Europeans and Asians have 2 quotquotquot39 z Neanderthal genes which proves interbreeding quotquot39 quot quot between Homo neandleithlalensis and Hornet 11quot sapiens t Gtotgiol Tami 3 ll l 1 Itt39iL l l i fl 39 39 lJ 39 l H il TlJiLmM5iii1 7 lquot 39 l39 lFweMiIlion Years ol E 3 39ll39lquotlquot M Climate Change 13 quot l t From Sediment Cores quotquot u as 1 1395 2 is 3 35 It a s 5 Mitunm cl re art Age Last ice age 18000 years ago Ice lgE5 Etjlmrtot iltirEij E uiwolo 39 3 ClI39I ado p Srnolll JCll l391ht t iLT in t otrieln3 tilt titxl quot llquott 3o or39quoti Uih ilr39ilquottquotlt tief let iite in t39T39tei Humans and Trade We have evidence of hunrlans trading with other humans over 121000 hears a o 7 no other animal trades T Trade is hypothesized to have evolved from specialized sex roles in humans which may have started even earlier a key difference between humans and Neande hails S i i ilization froles promotes econonnic growth by e tminating inef ciencv c Today most humans have very specialized roles and bene t from the specia ized production of others in today39s society it you make everything you have you are by de nition very poor Trade encourages specialization efficiency interdependence knowledge and peaoetul coexistence X Trade is hiumani 0uU i tiUt i tot iE3 tytl o too it oi iri i39ili ted Z 939 l ttquotlS i tililquotCt t td et rlt lctlS lnrlrj HQ 3 ye imtelg iitimsoifgtiteii5 ltmi kH Wr cl sex ytttet trquot ttit i the tiHt quot E hquotLquot Ft ltl lit itrt Flt 1 t it39 l39 The Eve of the industrial Revolution 39 lellurnani populaition increased at a steady rate as forest lands were converted to farms 1Qlti iquott39li Pl In th late l7OCl39stthe rate of pgpulatiioin M V N y W G growth increased clramaticalllfy T is LilAl t 391 X Until this time the main sources of energy available to civilization was human jndustriail Revolution imtetabolism work provided by dornesticated animals and heat and light energy provided by burning wood and the II bq eLl i 5 Inr 39l e animal tats One notable exception to the above statement is the watermill which had been r7 an m 0 used since Roman times to provide motive quot quotF power tor milling gratin crushing ores sharpening tools or sawing r wquot39i 390 Aquot39Q 93 9 g a 12quot Century Watermill in Belgium Human Civilization Human civilization was bom 8000 veers BC in the i ertite Crescent a region of stoutwe Asia where grasses with edible seeds grain sstilll grow a wild Analogous civilizations grew iindependemiy in the Americas soon aftenivards he cultivation of grain is humahity39s third kiiller assquot 39 Ciivilization is characterized by agrlcul3tttre increased occupational specialization and urbanism Cu ltivation of crops and having a ton of food around led to the creation of stable farrn communities the domestication of animals and eventually to writing an economy with ourrency legal systems art architecture mathematics metallurgy astronomy as they say the rest is history The spread of agriculture tfyears act from the iFertie Crescent tivllt2oi lUlr 39 iiJtleul rtii0 t tiitcit tr 5ilZit i9 SiVL ClLtllCJi lti of iot 2 tit too it re o it on A Legacy of Deforestation Envitronmentalilsts in developed countries today wring their hands about deforestation today in developing countries However there was deforestation on an equally massive scale during the pre industrial era in Europe and ellsewhere inthe world By 1500 the civilized world was on the brink of a fuel and nutritional disaster due to the scarci f T as fuel and the scarcity of wild game which was a maior source of dietary protein T l i10 lt1l ZCl 39 I Estimated land I E I F53 39 use by a primitive it 239 p P 39 European village 39 5 of 30 people Each person in the village required a woodland area of tCt5 turn on a side 3 to maintain their i lifestyle History of deforestation in the ltihited States E iEV Mj 1lT l39 I39 LJ ia39ttg E 0J in ll 39quotW I l39titl ti pk ticfi Clrtid w39t Cl Wt E 39lilft til it t 39 3 M quotTh i1ail Zl5 The Fundamental Issue r E 17 Lecture 4 5 r l in Energy Population The Economy and the s N J 395 nu 39 m39I39au i ru alIIIILn E Y UCLA E53 tor EiJItl39139s Energy 35 M quot q Un quot r quot 7 Dlmlnlshlr1gtossil resources ond quotWquot 39 anH 5 nrosoects for o tusttoinoble future Finite Earth Rapidly Expanding Human Population PrCll eSsor rlCl Paige Wit39ll Tt1 Tl J rrrEr739rnl r5ul1ado ha 395 gnmg 0 happen ll tflLrlrll l lquot l ntrt39rlll it t rrlll5 rrll rrr1tf39lllj tn 39l J 3 lEli jectr The Finite Earth Population Growth and Decay Let N be the population and let B be the fractional birth rate and D be the fractional death rate per unit Ezpuamqlhl annnm hauy lnr llit I The Earth is nite in two major respects y T 1 T M l p M time t Then R the rate ofpopulation growth is w Fume Renewable Resources R B D and the rate of change in population per v z l e E y s quot l E Energy tlows solar hydrolloglccycey mm B I E T5 D T 1 Mass flows lblogeoclhemical cycles dNm1 RN 0 A i J s3 Bl oclly ersity lnon renewable in thE eV BlFlT V r Oi Etlquot t l l 5 33939 av pcR S Finite NonRenewable Resources 2 I N Ow y y at time t where e 2Tl82B the baae 0 fl1EllUrall 39 7 logarithms Land and Ocean Area finite space Doubling time vs Growth Rah Land and Ocean Molecules irreversible cgnverslon E For in puIauons the population will clouhle I p i when 2 O R M l ll a l12 07 7 quotI Any rational consideration of the nite nature or Earths resources suggests r0U9hvl 30 U14 Hilly 7 i Ps s in that longlterm sustainabili 1 can only be achieved by living witnlnl the I r 5 o beundatrles D Earth39s renewabIeresources The clepletion or Earth39s non 393 h E tphe0p pquot mt Cm r i 1 renewable resources is not sustainable We only have one Earth We may 1 T L i it x y y y Rt ln05 07 roughly so th half life IS 0 0amp one day be able to utlIize resources from space but we only have one i w a 30quot 3 Stemk it the rate of propurlatlon increase remains at 1 per U gin quot W t atnlrgeimaiunn rpiaq p E year then the population will dlouble every 70 years tlwl l C1 I P to ft tl llTllh lilbljl Wizu lquotrt39lL 3tllLl l l E rt35olJi39t EEm N llml7 mHGr F3 tltlnrole hr neolh rot l tllnt N H y nt nrnmntmn til ll lU quotTh Dcgttblllw l ljllrrtcr 3 p rs e 0 Ll nrgtlt tile yquotquotl39 1 e P la TF What is the impact of human activities on jt39h eyg Earth T E E2 3 X E 539 l F ik n ullsg xthi uu I Into 1 mo 7 My i ran W ingigJ3 5 5 t i quotis lg v r 2 E l E 4 ll 3 ELF a e i m st 1 rm 7 tie a at T t 8 3 A 5 e quotquot39 7 P ar e y quot E 3quot 3 3 gt 0 W J 5 3 639 5 5 uquot usquot sJ 5 3 1 1 41 ltF 5 I F 1quot wequot 41quot 5quot 3 39 F P V r quot in II Wu 5 39 1 quot E a lAn 139 m gr mum ta 3 fl 1 a 39 was E ungninan ngg 39t39 g I9 A 5 E 54 It 5 I 9 3 H x 5 5 9 if xi 6 3quot 2 J 39 5 nu to 39 39I To 391iip 3InI1 lingout liia 151 raysI rujni lam dl39 Iwetn V tianiuu uens V aud 39 i j 39 n i i 39 p itl is m i av 1 l 1 l it mt Ean E lgaa quotr4g l i In 7399 1 1 3 l J jgsf p 1 I i I quot I A 7 W 7 E 7 1 i quot s R a at r s2 2 9quot 6 or quot quotaat39quot 3 mad r r at 5 Tau III ts it gt53 3953 53 gt gt9 llumani irnpaot on the Earth scaies with population R non5umnable ti i ti W1 tr hit 1 airtjt 39ilt i Ii tgl W Wt D5 t lt t i ttk What about What if we39ve underestimated our nonrenewable resources Then they will peak later than expected but they will still peak What if we conserve and recycle our non renewable resources We would have to oonsenie and recycle faster than population growth times demand which isn39t happening Even if we could do this it would only delay the peaks What if the prices of nonrenewabte resources increase as they beoome more scarce Won39t that make further exploration and extraction economically viahtle r es but entploraation and errtraction of resources itseili reoluires resounzes if you use more resources to extract a resource than you gain than the extraction will not be economicatly viable no matter how valuable the resource What about the law of supply and demand Won39t this guarantee the availability of abundant resources for everyone No it doesn39t guarantee abundant resources for everyone right now and it de nitely won39t guarantee future resources for everyone especially resources that don39t exist What about new technologies and substitutes New technologies for extracting and utilizing nonrenewable resources will only delay the peaks Only new technologies for extracting and utilizing renewable resources will speed the inevitable transition to a sustainable economy What about controlling population The rate of population growth is declining but the population itself is still growing Controlling population by irtten tionally iincreasitng the death rate is obviouslly not accepta ble What Fraction of Earth s Non Renewable Resources Remain 9 One olbjeclive way to tool at this is to look at patterns of utilization W quotL1 3 if the rate at which we utilize a resource has peakeld than we have probably exhausted at least half of that resource if the rate of resource extraction grows with time then peak extraction will come earlier and the tail off in extraction will happen faster n11 r nut lmwgwi i antam renewable resources inlzu years It quot it u 4 7 rquot7IquotI39 39hEeYI IW2 mu quotM II 2 rnrn l I J 1 sar smUsuiiek Inn g39but1u Bottom Line We are loo quotn at ermanent supply slholntfallls for lrnost non tf ltli iiiii39o L liift39 j re li riC Hurt iliJl aquottquotquot i hmkuhe hmrnot dml butwi T life it f lij ti l ljifE 1 l u it 3 if til it ieo t tour of thb re uuire If LaE I N r 7 cured umjler CiittfE tiEll5 too hora iunoort mt lr i SDL3il if Q What about if we just do nothing 9 Soon after the start of the industrial revolution Thomas Malthus wrote about the disconnect between the potential for exponential human population growth and nite global resources He argued that famine and disease were inevitable ggseg uances of the oyerextehslon of human E Q ulation T 6 As we will see later in the class the exponential increase in human population can be attributed in large part to the availability of energy from non renewable fossil fuel resources Modernday pessimists predict that the exhaustion of fossil fuel resources will lead to a quotfreeze in the darkquot scenano resulting in the downfall of induggial civilization in your lifetimes however short they may toe The Reverend Thomas Malthus 17861834 quotAn Essay on the Principle of Populationquot Modern paraphrase quotThings that can39t go on forever don39t 39 u u I in lt quot 0 l F39 411 Ea Freeze in the dark scenario i ht39quotii39i Qt ti 1quoti39i3 ltioltCilnfgtllll j rtitt ii tiIttilltttlirt Lt1illll salt if U p tl The Origin of Fossil iF ueis Glucose TPhoilo3yniiiesiis iimi eoo EH o39i quoti c ifi o so iii a 39 2 quotii 512 W 2 Liecttuire 5 g Wi T ri39UW U russii Fuels T Fr awe W C5H12O5 602 1 eneigy ECO EH20 K Ln AG zaeo iltJi per moller oric Himid 15x1quoto7 Jlkg T l 39 Gmi39i p c P j UCi i E35 mi Eirii391 s iI ii iLjy39 T y or Companson asgjme X g P h EJiii1iI1I391i 1DTighL39i39 11IiiquotfS1JhJiT11IuJI inIJ T f Xg M051 Ph0i0SYniTi39iB C energy 00 39 Umed i MU Eil7quotI Q i93 biosphere either by plants and animals or by emit FUEK rirLjaAperzlizi for a 39ii39 liiI12Jiiii iimire Z Z bacteria duriinig decay fOHOWHg organism death it Some can be sequesiere d in 39 ere it is not easiiy oxidized T T nditions oxygen can be 39 remcwedi from T e carbohydrates producing reduced organic matter F MJl39L SiECIfi i i illif39i Pquot 1lIt 39ayau niig m ui i m M L 7uigi39nij duj tj oxygen p ifquot t bf in is i C C o Vii 1 raj hi 0 n mg 5 Mn 9 quotklH1PQl U Q in Piiafxiri t1iE lIirl 11 GEM buiIiEi beiore decompo ih n 3343 Heoi and proisur 1y L39 es 5 uremia I LJQSEDU i Coal Formation and Coal Types Petroleum Formation and Types How WSFORM or T I T 1 i E COAE o no 7 ED i yi I 1 W 7 PETROLEUM 2 NATURAL SA5 FG R AT I N icyL Em ON ammbhhqm org mammm L L an 1inM P up 3u N L naiiirniiw in UEPOSIIS usually ibieneaiih line surface oi U T 39 K T T 39 I T lhe eaim e It calico swear when 1 coniains V i QK 1 3 z oniy a SfW 1 391Du lDquot5U Lii39 and sour ii I oonmams a la oi suiful Crude oili l S aiso ciassitizti by me weigh oi 39 i its rnulecuics Lghi Crude oil ows freely Ike waier while heavy crude CM is mick like tar 3 rkquot39E1 is I ifMai II a oor auunbie blnelmu moam ih bIack udlnmunr tock oo imnd mosny oi urban and 39rydI1gtcrtonowIlh vnnuzn gas oonsrslung pnmaniy ol methane typ39aIy W1 39 ieas I louiii of other aiemmln tl nlw 3 H O and N ha mu Hg 1 than 20 P39aBViEl39 hydrocarbons Call 1 mnyd and mmgly rgqulrog le prmznidlm I 3 Em moor mmaarsi innu Iuai 9 139a 539 iIa1C IVE Ewlshl F ii m la mtl Exposed Coal Seam quot quotquot9 quot quot quotquotquot 9 Gs aring Eanhaiggini 7 5 7 9enoiieUm wrong in i rio 5ooi m wag Hem d d iwmF39C 35Ed C E t 7 TCDUK Li C 39Clg haul in fine rm1ri Fovirn in Hularied idovhei h heclih Ti39 i quot39iid 39 Ti d9Ep homogciimauf iiaygerj iDCll m iquotDr ipiru I ouE rock iniiig m2i1S A Leas moiisiiwe Wmm Emma iuiore Juwifur impurity im m Po uho EPUVl397i ipEdi QUE H VDLgii mew i39ttli t tor E iiirrel rll Clr cl tl E cit uJD itTJ39Uf39b393 5IV13 l1l l39i i3 H s M G inn e iHnost ie 39 Natural as Tar Sands Tar sands oil sands bituminous sands are unconventional petroleum deposits Loose sand or poorly consolidated sandstone with thick viscous tarlike petroleum Found in large quantities in Canada 70 and Russia Tar sands reserves represent gt200 billion barrels of oil equivalent compared to 13 trillion barrels or oil globally recently brought into production Extracted using strip mining or steam or solvent injection and then re ned l Natural Gas can be extracted from porous subsurface reservoirs or from nonporous shale and coal deposits using hydraulic fracturing tracking improvements in gas extraction technology have led to a boom in gas U5 Marketed Natural Gas Production production in the US and reduced prices lEw Ee3 l The US is gproiected to be a net exporter of a natural gas by 2020 at R l 0 s ti N 4H IJaquot g EV P i o la A l 5 III39 In pF Elli ya Z 0 J 31111 i r lDIIfJHEI l39L f J a6 1 M grwre trL 7 f N LN W til pa 1 E W wit 3 Ltj 1 K r39l quot amp39UE Ex Uwalu F U K in p ilrl i t lpl L lcl alrwriels i39Cf1 t d 39l 3fDU5 Di 39 lirlrJ5tot iE irioill pt kiijhlg F 39 a39KIing 3 im llis uuriter til lriigh tt t l5iure Jt tlitcttfir lt 0tlr t39h lJ r lggge lrlotur1i glglgg Oil in the LA Area 0 2 O Near UCLA 1mun uhru K 39 quot Hi 7 j IlII 39f39 t m H as l LA Ilmlillni V 5 r K i vi I 5 i H 7 39 39 rlllI JE39quotr 1 39 1 lt 1 ll 1 ltan A 39 4 i quot HE39l39tHl39r39 H 0 0 ruequotrk L 39 L l I H 739 In 39 I F I 39 l V quot IA nu N mtHtm39rmi flu Ftrltt 7L1a393liIVquot39 7 c E I I It r an IL 5 lIin Hug 39 i I quotalt rm I3 39 390 Y 39 Discovered in test by Edward Doheny I 4 p T 39 R l J lg l 0 In the 193039s Southern California was a 7quot 0 pk D M W id In M EHBUU Gd national leader in oil production Beverly Hillls High lquotquotEiDlfillE olt no illlrt rift oil 3939tE39iCl Dix iE39id Hm lllne clue to 34 pcitcl hgl lCltW39V t39I 31l3lilI339 who tElCtUnllc fmill r5 lf t39f139tLlquot alt quot Drill 10039 l DlilIrJl Emir 39r eliLo JUl39F uIClf 1 Flu worlt f t rim ml Mar Ttmwise F39riiniryw sa 1EI J Petroleum Refining y2 F Crude all Is generally not burned directly but re ned lhro ugh a process at fractional UISEIHEIKEDH quotquotquot Bottlingico39ndelnsa tren point tntperaturr5 39quotiClquotEliii8 with increasing moitIlar mass Crude oil l5 heated and their sent through El column whose temperature decreases wrt1 height Compaon ants of li39lquot39lE mixture are separated out where the temperature of the column a close to the boittnglcdridensatton H 39 39 E pCln1 appropriate to Crude Oil Re nery Products it i that compo imd Natural gar is natura and requires no J letining rand F c 1 Octane Mdletzule 1Hlghar lecture nan can wdtulartd nrgrter nonewu n V 139I iE39ILli dotovrwnrtg l rl l39lIG I l1 23 1h J39l t lJ ltLl l griL39 iglfgr ms Wl fllti5 ha in El rrshri 9 cl f tlJlW ml is 39l Etilled 115 35 quot j iinle i39E399iy39li139lL rullutriri wlriiS393 leiquotnp t39quot lquot39Vir73939Ql39al39 up A lnorjlllrr 33 t4urh fuel l539r3priftlrlEcl l2ri l Jr i lquotl l3l3lll rl j lmquotM Fo lI l Fu l5 gr39rlraUi tl 53 39F tll39iLquot l l half oil Lu II C DP r ltquot1l39l39WP39tI ll llt tr lg to c it as ingt E I quotAlfu1 Fossil Fuel Reserves Fossil fuels provide 85 of the energy that modern society consumes They are our most valuable nonrenewable resourcesquot Economically recoverable deposits offossil fuels are called reservesquot Geologic processes have resulted in a nonuniform distnbulion of fossil reserves around the globe The global market value of proved fossil fuel reserves equals 27 trillion The market value of the top 100 public oil and gas companies and the top 100 public coal companies exceeds 7 trillion World annual GDP 53 trillion 1 id r r quotV f 39l i rlil lt392 Eutl inn riintt rtenst cit vquotr39m3t 903 t4 ICM1 1amp0 Net Energy and EPR iv The concept of net energy is imponalnt for assessing the viability of renewable and non r enewalie energy resources Net Energy Energy Produced Energy Consumed Net Energy Ratio Energy Produced I Energy Consumed Net Energy Ratio is also terrned Energy Paybaclk Ratio or EPR If Net Energy from a given energy source is negative or the EPR is less than 1 then more energy is required to produce the energy from that source than is produced Fossil fuels require non trivial quanltities of energy to produce and ireltine The EPR for oil is currently 6 meaning that it takes 1 barrel of oil to extract 6 barrels of oil The EPR for fossil fuels is declining steadily as the richest most easily obtained deposits are depleted The EPR for oil in the l920 s was 50 6 Here are some current EPR estimates for fossil fuels Oil is 39laliltF39t il nJ N Coal 5 ll y l I l M 5 Natural Gas 5 Q i j 10 sf K Liquid Natural Gas 2 P rlgf ll Oil from Tar Sands 15 Trttces t39t H 1fJ3l39 EWrirltls r Wirtl t tquotitCquotl l39l ltquot tU 3quot5 F 651 pro rat P n1lf lEP t f h 4 fl v rlt39 itlll teI ePl 2 5 I l tttlj E rev 39t3t LiL d H 39 Ghawar The World s Largest Oil Field Located in Saudi Arabia f By far the world39s largest ll p Ml easures ck l m Accounts for 430 of all Saudi oil production or 6 of global production Actual production kept secret but appears to have pealred and there are no more Ghawar oil elds to be found FEgtoliltedl in TDll g u iI quot ru 1 If rbssavhai Ci Ir 7 5 L x ff 33r K Saudi Oil Production ilistory sf J l llb it l lltlrllrrCll9 pl LtlquotE0J39t39Je ttiiM teed 2 ruel li 2 2 Qwd 3e15 quotquotl i iritltiid Le a Synfuels Fossil Fuel Utiization and Demand Chemical conversion of one type of fuel into another I 2 2 First use quotCoal Gasquot mixture of H2 CO and CH2 used for lighting in the 18003 39 In ancient times fossil fuels were initially used for heating in regions where wood was not readily available as well as for road gaging and roofing i in medieval times fossil fuels had military uses flaming arrowsand lcipilin oil etc ivggqj as the dominant source of energy 39 2 the mid 1300 s duriri Vl ind5trial revolution 4 Pietrollieium rol uc ssur asse coaei s the dominant Example Reactions 3C lie coal 02 H20 H2 3C0 C0 H20 CD2 H2 Fiunther reactions can add lhydrocarbohs to l Electrical generation 2 t 39 Dleelwenieges Industrial Processes 2 Requires significant energy I i 2 2 2 rlgf li Process creates polilution Symueus 392 2 Cleanerfinal products ii J5 1 Ti 0 Si UJ i ill liens a seal Coal Gas Lighting Wit i39 339l39 PT 391 p til I i Eil lef 393 z QRIJ3 g3l Q1303 397ErDleU 39quot rieet i Fri5393 ll JQiE g lifl k e e53t l lJquotEf 5 External C0n1bU3tl0nl Engines internal Combustioini Engines Internal combustion engines burn fuel intermittently or continuously within The quotquote 39 quotquot quot9 e ee engine Wee th n ine to roduce mechanical ower iiriverited by James Wall in 1765 ednvened E E g p p P L heat from burning fuel into kinetic energy From To F e Steam enginies are externiall COliTlbU3iOlquott Butler Eixhalist 2 inn crz1nnic39a i tii39 engines in which a flame heals an intemal The first internal quot39quot quot e e quot39e he working fluid GD39fT LbL39 lIElr1 engine fUUf2l 39f 1 ll39C39 was JlJil by Dutch GV quot i quotquot aslronomarchrsliaan 7 39 quot e quotquot Hiuygieris Hi 15555 it 2 C mF e 59i n used 39Ul39ilDOW d l1f lo 3 Power 4 Exhaust mimic a piston weight inside a cylsndei to pump water Gas turl39iil39lFe cngie5 use continuous ccmibustibn lo C0lquotl391 QlfBquotSS I 7 IS and 39l 39Il i rotary TLIquotb ll 1IEI elades to achieve very high Wall39s DoubleAction Stationary Steam Engine W821i r M WW 2 M l 1 Steam engines are generally not closed cycle and 1 generally require large amounts ofwater to operate t 39l K I 2 Understanding the workings of engines led to a better i 7 39 PDWBT diin flle Win 39 e 39 uinders landiniQ of lhermodyinamics m 39w quot 39 quot 39 WW 399quot quotWquot 39ll nene it eat his im loui in 4 cl Ede li quot quotquot39t39r quot39quot ii l neht eneugg Lu M p pF UidlUCe iitlleisk gla liilllie Or CMe Se399l quot I Q during the p N 1 2 39 Used bl N3We 0 make QeS0 ne during i Fossil fuels are util ating as well as for the W quot WW2 and by the SOLl39tl l Africans during Nazi Simfuel pliant generation of mechanical power i r39 39 2i39 quot 39 apenneld 0 embBT90 Mechanical power can be used for a variety of tasks E Advantages such as e lif kite and EISEOUS iuei efe mete 6 lillillihg food production and mining e n M Tranisportatioh 39 A MO car coai train anrivers at a Kainisas quot 39 power plant This particulari pliant Elec INCHY generahon consumes fourteen such trainloads of coal each week Lecture 6 Fossiil Fuels Enviranmeniial and Huimian Effects Cumibusilhla nmewamas 8 wast 5195 Olhur mnuwubln 3 ZLME lun39I ILuIsrrLI UCLA E55 im Eair1i1quot5 Eneirgy DilTIiIquotiiSlquotii Fig i 25ii iE SGUfIfIE S and pirospeci5 for Gii su5hiricIbi e iuiure Frrziiesiar Dizwid Paigei d 39S394 iquot39 quot39quotCJ Jquot39ZlL39If 39diI Fossil Fuel uiiliiizciiion 21ZJ nlhaI gal n nrul 39TIl39III TlIli I2i Tmnsporfafion combstion EecTr39ici l y genemfion 39 Space iieairing Ofher mcinufclcfuring etc H 92 and mlhla ma mil 3939 39 1 M 39i Coanlln E Ligtwerg Nofe how propor on of 9 Worid fossil fuel consumpnon since 1950 If oil and especially ncrrural 3 r 39 quotquot39 J39WnEiiIhailil gas consumpfionhave 7 W J j inuveasaed over 39I39lm o 539 39 LU p fquot39 Ha viriiLhou in mI 5 1 392 Jr J86 39 6quot a 39 i 1 i i u i e quot a T 2 39 T 39 0 W UHF x if5 I 0 393 rigsr is e Thermodynamic efficiency of a heat engine E1 1 11 H ind T W m 1 39 39 I r I 9 c Tn useful Fiir D i A was him awn aavm ism gtgtm r an H P 39 ear y W V wwoiie W J H i a Q 1 up u a Liar 1 39EW 1 I I EnA399 it C Mquot aim A 0 U CDM5 u 4Uji Equoth i inuiia e Ei ni Emj quot11 p quot 6 U k k U j T 1 upfc a W Um 6 CLMLL TIVE DISCQVEFHES 03 cuMLILMuvE 7 k 3 P sauc now 0 S 119031989 PROVEO RESE VE5w 0 Q 1 T13 IM p 2 cr2T 3 M 20 D V 0 Fame FIGURE lgil GineraMzed Ecmrn of curves of cuT1ul a1we discoveries cumulative pro ductuon and proved FESENB5 or 8 mallfoileum mgmponenx duxrxiang a hull CVCIB 0139 Droducticm r indmales the time lapse between discovery and production From Hubhen 1962 Fxigme 22 p 55 w 1 I J 39 I 7 w 7 an 39quot quotE 3939 5 V T mo x no BBLS 3 L5 f E H mnmaTr U j T T I u 7 3 g 2 V CUMULATIVE 3959Vx39 quotL5 W rnnouc rnon T 39 quotquotquotL quotquot PH1 I 24x1o39 aaLs T 1 xx K I Nquot E 4 5 I3939 on T m T Z quotquot I850 lav 1900 I92 r950 17 2000 2025 zosc vAI Figure 1 Lowerd US crude oil Tife cycle based on assumed ultimnlc recovcry of I30 and MM billion bbl Raprin le d from Nucn39mr Margy and Nmrfom39furc HubbcrI1955 F 3 EN cuuuLAnvE 1 T4 FHDDUC non 1 W V was O 1 5254110 anLsi nsso uira IFOO mizs I950 IiT5 zo o zoza zaso YEARS IILLICIHS OF IHLS 1391 H Figurt 1 Lower 48 US crude 03911 We Eyciie based an assumed ulti muie rtcoverjr olquot1S0 and 200 billlicm bbl Reprinted from Nurlrar rnrrgy and rlacgfon fuchi Hubbcrt 1956 U S ml pmduclmn rile CrbhU5n39J U1 vi39rT39 1350 I339 mama 193 1940 1953 1930 209a 2033 204a oan 203a 2959 39Ir39eu I F5 4 2 H IIMquotn 1l mFx u 39 u n IMH Ln jmlrli llquotquotquot39lI 5 M K u1Mn39M Rcl 139I n39 IV pmsM up gm u N H 4 Lt MIn kuurnlujt Lul Jun Iv13 Um 7 5 Uhbl T 1Q7 5 II1HJ 2 15rcaI Worldi FetFD iiELliIi39I39Ii P rioductiiorni aindi H iubb eriquots Peak iiistory T PreTdiictid n r i I 39 i i 6 An idealized beiiisihaped curve for oil productioni known as iHubbrert39s peak iHLibberi39s peailt sJifquot u ax 122oil E T i d iquot reserves r c 6 PY r 0 T Aj CD quot 03 x 1 r I 39 9 A i nI ma I il laili LIPEJE Isis Ea Ii Nquot quot2a Iquotui r IiipIi 134 339aw I T 1 i r I mfi39M39JquotI39l 1 1 um I MIr lt52 T x k A L Td T T F M Tl quotquot fEL39 E 39 i lqu F955 393955 cm 5 ans P 0DUCTlON L39ROFliLES Q 39 2007 Erase can T I EL r quot 1 3 7 T 393 l l39 39 I4 l LA quot Time V T 1 d i 3 as I quot T F u H p Hf P IDG moo M00 IIMU il i Q quot Age df Oiai Long Term View T T FIGUFIF L2524 LllervgrEnvircnriiar1i md Ciirndta quotquot 39 391 quotquot 9 quot quotquot quotquot quot F quotquot iCopy39mnl 12 0 Napier E Ccrnpury ZDDB I 3939QAI iIv1iih39 i E39 39 1av iha J III I V 39 i r iris if ii U f 393quot Mi heiii useid N Pmdwho tj W F LlJl 04 43 Umiiii 39 Emil 39quot350iJICE S CL r iquotiEIquot39i39l j qr Peak DU Pea k Coal Annual Deaths in the Unitedi States 19992007 In 1956 Hubben esiin39ia ted that iJS coal prdddciion wduid peak in 2150 W mm W M PMW1 mmv r WiT T 39 b iMore recent anialyses suggest that i39ieTUrS coal peak WIN occur f391i2 0T32i Us Anmmmh Rm hi mul A 1 Cgidi 1 3 gm 9e39 quot 39 r kmuomai qeliiila gy quot1mi T M 3 w39 1 I uio 1 i39 irI39 10 yam IQSJJUH O U 139 u 5090 WT Hulrrir Vcjldkle Crriialimuzj 26357 T T T quot T m 1 Yv nib Yy iii ii71 iui iilniluili 39 ir L394 LT u S 4000 aw 3ir2393 Incidents lnvolvlnq FifEal39I39i JL irJ 3000 L uT iiAw 2 i ifn 39quot Sgxugil Behaviors zLiUiJi 20 AH iillicll IE9 155 g and indiretl Ti1JgE1quotT39 A Mini quot I39Iiiquot1Ill1 K 1 gtIiiiiiuiiaInI39 IiiIi ri lt UiuH g39n K 1000 T T rs ti 939 39 9 Jquot39m auq 0 I T T T T US Medical Deaths 39 39 39 unnecessary Surgery 2000 13950 209 3050 MT 2 3930 iMedi Ca l i Qi Errors in HGSDILHS 7 000 Oii ieir Er rdrs in Hidspilais 20000 i 2ring tnui 7niIs 39m2x391 i rfed ions in Hcsp ams NonError Adverse E eels of Medicaiions 103000 Worldwide coai demand is expected to outstrip production in 2012 Environmental Costs of Coal Extraction C a39 Mquotquotquoti9i Fi l 39quotie 5i T R C USi coal mining deaths 19902DUl9 tin noaa tiI8 EM ta i 0 t 39IlltlIOimgrr D c hlnaquot ll ilt oi mama it B if E 0C use an Il l l ind to mun too u8 33 gm rm iirm mou 3939 iquot 5 quot3 I K B3 0 3 Kl uintli quot7 39 mm Q3 2W4 I5 E37da2I1ti H00 l Lltiplhi 03 3005 E 5196 lllfl til 35 man 03 2038 L715 dmin 200039 M cllaulttn EH 31331 2 F503 lIaIquotI 3 quot39 3 quot quotquot 393 2018 rtritha 200139 El acorn DEE i 39 2001 30 1aI hrt 031 Ian I dmmu 21304 339 rimM JOEL 1 23 IuII1riu iD239 20061 math quot 7 20071 Inning V V V V V mun atrm n9 About 80 of US coal is Sl pped from the earth in siit139ace rrtines the rest comes from underground mines Su aoa 30 quot mlquot 019 coal mining may arartriit aialty alter the ianclscapo Coal oompanies throtiqhnut Appalachia often remove aritire i TO lH39Wagtllf39l tops to expose the coal below The wastes are generally dumped in vatlays and streams in west Virginia more than 300000 acres of hardwood forests hall that size at Rhode tstarirtl and 1 0 D Cl miles or stnrains lsavtj bean dastroyad by this practice Underground rnining is one otthe most hazardous otoccupmions Fntilltty Rate tiiiir the Hlnmg Industry and Pt1v39Il I Industry 264117 ttitnng and inluring many in accidents and causing chronic health problams E E quot 39 t I Landsat Views of E r39 3 rm T the growth of the U it E Hobart 21 1 I i t Mountaintop N fur l39 quotquotquott399 WV 39 39 ff p lbetwee i987 quot39 and 2002 L iquotquot IELI J3 ii E MUSH3 jhiywpeid Hum Emmi Nut of tlttf 9EtroLit at olriiarr lbibii ti i t m w quotr 1 f J MDLquot f P quotH 1 ml 395EEm lavit9et39ooi btl39ifiiulS Er W i L lrquot wLv 3 Ti li r39 39 k W H5 Oitti rquot Erucidtigrmltj otirli kill itr7ni J all lJW39Q Envir onrn ental Costs of F etroleu m Exliracliion and Procliittion Environmental Costs of Coal lLltiliization Excluding CO2 Emissiions Burning ccat causes srnog acid rain and air torrins In an average year at typical coal power plant generates r 3 t i0tJtJiCi ions at co 1l6 l mriirori trees worthy 10iO 00 tons of S03 trnakas sutturrc acid and acicl tairnli 500 tons ol small 8ll39bOI39FIIE partictos penetrate deep into the lu ngsli 10it0t3 Icons 0 nrtrogen dioxidet equivatient to hall at rnrliion aarsli i 2D ions at catrbon monoxide toi39r 170 its at mercury tllmricji 225 this at atrnnrc toxic 1114 ms at term ttoruitt There are 4433 coat rrreo power plants in the US it is esitirnatadi that ittiioiy account for r0t 0 deaths in the US per year imas ly due to air p olution 39 iPetroieurrl is part of the rtaiuratl enmrorirnani and is erentualllly irnatabotizeo by tziacteria i Major oil spills ana oornmoiri ga b aiy tytiical ly El 5 one every 2 months quotq p The airtires t oil spill over occurredi in was H l 39 I r E rzausod by Iraq delibaraztoly released about 240 I Lr pO I rttillroin Q3l DFi5 atou t tonnes tot crude E tquot 39 oil into the Persian Gu lrt1uin39tng the 1991 Gulf 1 39 M War and burnt otl wells in lrowan vla As or becomes more scartze axploratiiotn will J llill 0 Enj ssiang I nmntration in Fish out out Pl Dd ttfl Lin Utmvincptgpd St t 39 Add Rain tro 39Egtt rrri lf lCl iquottquotlC11 rjire iaarrtetllrci oi pollutitl Fislt SLl 5C l hmE L r hd t i i axpand to more remote and more environmentally sensitive locations and cause more environmental de radiation ti Especially true for oil eirtriction lquotI390ITt tar sands First Earth Day Apn39t 22 1970 in response to Santa Barbara Channel Oil spill iquotlCt rctE39lt39lCt C73l f39 39 it39lCf t 1iiquotll2f itt1r10r rll ltpll lS quiclflj 393otr rir oitfi tiins riot V39r39llE1 EI jl tiiiilrtvriolr riritl owl lgg irquottaQltr tvDl lZFCl liti iiH 0 EW Advanced oating drilling rig could operated in waters up to 24 km deep and could drilll down to 91 km Largest accidental oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry Killed 11 workers released 500l0Cl barrels of oil per day over 3 months g T g osts are estimated to be Hz 40 billion bz V y F7 r 7quot 1 I i V Qquot 39 i quot quot u i I E 4 I ttlntiiin 7113 Kx 39 goquot utrra391 I ll mlrai Pialllniiltllj Milt IIn Anni F138 on Shore oiigiviiap lilclv lrg in ttte suit Oi ifVlQi39ir Huge alTrlnore ctrt39lti39ri5i Environmental Costs of Petroleum Use excluding CO2 emissions 1 i v Serious air pollution potential p 2395 Volatile Organics f Oxides of Nitrogen o Carbon Monoxide l 5 Particulates g I nuan Progress In Reducing Utano Po P i nus iv 13 mi P J r39l U 39 I r I 1 F l 4 i i ll 39 4 39 394 Ii n H I r 3 Eur 9 at at 3 3 Q 3 3 L5 if llint beevl SLiC to t1fFiil m r 5Fh i at tau 5 quotquot lquot lDl E El1 iilt39ltllr W hll 1 lquot i ll3r Deep Water Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill MayAugust 2010 31 Sawmill lC39LlEd E ii f lTl C ti39tl39l P Wce S ggd J d llhis U5 c 8 Tar Sands and the Keystone y Pipeline Tar sands are tunconventional petroleum deposits consisting of unconsolidated sand saturated with dense viscous petroleum that will not flow unless heated or diluted H with llglhter ltydrocarboins 1 t n Matting liquid fuels from tar sands requires steam and K extensive re ning EPR 18 9 i B h y 3M Alb irta arfada has extremely large tar sands deposits WW Tar sands mining operations have been likened to Mordor O Middle Earth trom Lord of the Rings The controversial proposed Keystone Pipeline will carry synthetic oil from Canada to re neries down through the US towards the Gulf Coast The pipeline faces extensive opposition from environmerilalists 1 Si Gilli oi Mia taro i7ltl lquotClfl t lc J tot JoI ld tritlYquot5 lquotiiiitgt39 tlquottE uriruur1oli t39i9 tZlt t fjt oritl t rrtzicltsf toviolet one in roriri lquott5 iCi39ltquotl i W3 F iUWtPi39ri9 r t39iEt t i tr itl rtt l cl E 3 1shat ti 39 itquot in Lott il l i til i til 11 rK 5 Ejlt39DU iquoticl lAli ElliElliquot draulic Fracturing Fracking Cmy 39inirit i3uits 1 intro Hv ll Tmt m SUV iFal39IitCi f139v391Ct Em l 51 I m Drilling approach developed in miicl tSl3lZl39s tor producing 39 a natural gas from porous but impermeable shale r Involves Injecting high pressure water sand and soapy chemicals to fracture the rock and release the gas Bushllcheney initiated Energy Policy Act of 20115 exempts g the gas induistrLfiromt 1U39 enivirognrnenlalregulations lncludirig the Clean Water Atl resulting in widespread quotii 5 2 use of this technique to increase gas yields W p MEquot 391 Environmental Effects Fracking chemicals contaminate aguifers 3 Fracking lowers water tables mu rIitquott mmt um MI 1111 an tlttnip lqiinmint wits J39 LIii iiIia s 1unit emu Advances in emission oontrol technology have resulted in signi cantly improved air quality in US cities despite increase population In LA the next area of focus are non standard automotive pollution such as vintage autos small 2stroke motors and ships and boats ss1au 3 2 we i Despite signi cartt improvements lllquotI air 1 3 t rt 1 th 1 it b i tin t l l3939h quot1 3911 a p quot c 31 2 gg ajer snpzrffanriz i 35 Htquotquot quot5 l l 39 tli Ny E Geographic Distribution of Shale attributed to the oombustion of 391 u quot gquot Flammable Tap Water Deposits with tracking potential petroleum in the US a we r at quot Froitutrii t o ellt5 ireleo li icilurtil grog rttryi3gl lt quotl gtyigilly i tm1tffil tflPltll L rotrkr lilo turo l giot C in ti39iitpCr t Fn oi l 0 ii a n cl Wa r Since the beginning of the 20quot Century at least 200 million people have been killed in hundreds of wars hunger and poverty kill 10 times more each year The major causes of war in roughly decre n oil prevalence l RESQlJlCe Siial lldi wealth energy 39ReigioTn kill non believers and dogma master race etc all non fact based UprisingsLibralion Racial tensions Since the 1940 s oil has been imanlltind s most valuable resource quot World Oil Reseirves 100 trilliori World GDP 61 trillion per year World Military Expenditures 16 trillion per year Examples of oildriven wars World War II 19391945 Suez War 1956 lranIraq War 19BiCl 1988 15 Giiii War iiesdissiii 2 Gulf War tgtloiaial 5 n i 39iill ai 2i1 Wailll 39i39 r e392 K iiJ39i39 Lquotinri39ii39iiriii1t quotf3int M S13 lei l iIuiit ltiulusiEs39J IiJ139tt cIii39l t 39i griii ire i i ilriJ I Sir39ll1 1r ye i 935quot litiitit J7 ili39r39ita vi E iiLiiiti iii 3r iti In modern mobile warfare the availability oi oil has proven to be as important as the availability of soldiers and armaments The US military is the single largest customeir tor oil in the woitd 39tilli il llquot1 ei iquoti iii iiquoti3 ltili tlti39tquoti3 ii Calif oil iiquotrtIrii riJZ lo3 iill7 7l1lJiQ firiftj left ltiiiiJli 1 quotquot 39i i t tquotl ml 5 up g la Latest War Russia vs Ukraine Putin39s Candidate of Science Dissertation at the St Petersburg Slate Mining Institute quotMiinerail Raw Materials and the Strategy for Development at the Russian ElC0tquotl0llTW Putin argues that Russia39s natural resource base will not only secure Russia39s economic development but will also guarantee the coiinlry s international posilion l The quotnew cold war will be less over basic ideology but rather over access to basic resources F u l l i o l u pp ill ii ti 5 WE 5 PE if In 5 iiii i i39j7l i W W lfl i39iii Li i at l pN 5 s I39lIil illl lF 39 gr i 39 lRussia supplies more than 30 ot Europequots natural gas Most oi the pipelines go through Ukraine in 2005 a serious dispute erupted between Russia and Lilcraine where Russia claimed that Ukraine was CiiV39l 1ll1gI gas destined tor Europe in 2006 Russia cut of all gas flowing through Ukraine In 2007 gas now was restored but Ukraine refused to pay back Russia for the stolen gas in 2009 Russia again Si391Li iSi0ifi5 ti gas in 2016 Russia invades eastern i JitFal391e after an anti Russian group takes power and doubled gas prices if WJi ti it lllil Zl39iWiquot E 39 F39iii39E i39ltquott Gfftlgpl l iiiiflciih g SirPC1ii i3 li39quotlt39iiiJ39li39jt1l5 C02 Climate and Fossiil Ftreils v T T 1 390 LeCL e 7 t Atmospherit Catrbcm Dioxiidie 3 380 E i T T Measutred at Maunra Lora Hawaii 5 p i i i E C03 Emrittssientis and Ginbal Warming A px quotquotquotquot Pa quotquotquot T37 5 T l pO 0 03 360 E ll vu quot 2quot 5 m PN iL 350 E tr F r r 7 T 39 T V 8 Lt aquot u t trtit 3 iiiti 39J 4 A V Z Amuamycle N340 E tU1r39 lll li39tFii39lquotN i iquotrri tquotquotirquotquottLJiI quot39quotr 39 T rrtt 1 0k 39 39 quot E il iiI tEquottT39l f int t at 39l 1trt539e tTTtte iitltJH i I X T 1330 3 T t S quot7 quot320 3 15 rirJ ttmr l rTii39ttTi Pquot II IT 0t Jan Apr Jul Oct Jar Q3 fl git quotM1r U 5 r 39if 1 quot I I I hf 397 quot 310 1960 I970 1 930 1990 2000 Flt tEirw cw teuets not V due ttnntrcti w39G I39q B39r i C1iUf d iatj 43ji 39UJ riTt ctttcl htiC39CLLgJ Di 39gM5 5urrtr tTter e Ce xv quot iuJttiquotti F 03 P P ce tr for aUt T W DeE5 not otbsjmb A T VEat UJEi39 erm39 Q At JiStia5l39Ei tight owne qhtstorhf CM 4 W T hi it et ter W rctclttttmn j 93 my Ftatlected solar Outgoing radiation golatrtranlarmn t titntrareui radiation 107 With 235 Wlm 342 Wlrni v Retlected by clouds eetrosets and atmosphere 77 Enriilted by 324 V 1 7 7 rm N am Infrared Waveierrglh Misti 939 S luj igdgtitQn cgmmg m E 39TI Th rmnl t l fi guintg nut Where is a strong feedback between the greenThouse effects of CD2 and Twater vapor v To first CrIidE r the atrnosphere IS saturated with water vapor by sum increasing CD2 increases atmospheric temperature and increases the water vapor holding capacity 9139 the atmosphere T N 39 Ti 1 H eci H gag 0k Water vapor teedbatzks rTe JghiT in ie the e eQ1L of CD2 treetnhoutse warmttntg T T T T tDoubiing C02 resutts in a 5 C increase In glebat average temperatures FIGURE 1204 Energy EI1w39Bnmantand Climate CopTyrlghI9WWLNor1onampCumparry 2008 p 7 2 7 3t BEhh0U E 31115 nlitlj trijL11quot Htctii cT1iTSDlb T W Tttmrarttcl S tcctmtTt 60533 i PZ TT T t 39 T P quot ifi rtorr coet tm H he t V KEEP H ulmmm WEN 1 re 1 IS rcenimuje 4 V CC t1 i 93quotl E Eif t39l39quottti v ltS E 303 gt aps mm Hg Htgit rEt tP t39hrreu SQ JE ifiJ is Louerocio iri iiou i5 Di 01 CO2 Emission During Octane Combustion 1 I Jquot Y Octane i xygen Water Carbon Dioxide 1 14 gfmole 32 girnole 18 glmole 44 gfmole 228 g 800 g 3249 mg Mars I I Earth I r L E N 4 J E 2 K x E 50 Venue I 5 Q T u I 1 lt3 392 39 393o 392 to g Ir C L quotquotquot4 1 X x L a t quotL mo 5 Mm 400 600 mm temperature Kelvin More witihowt gt Earth withotit greeninomse effect greenhouse effect Vanuswithout I J greenhouse effect 39H7ci i li1 H iLreiiE mi 39UrimE tr tart tee bidgo 11 iquoti2r r 1i y39rIll1SQ i539i5EiW i73liE fCitni m i r tit of gmg quot39 Si DZ ji Ciimzi C D reject 395 1PVquotii C1 I39l g Milrh mM pd iCFl1i tILl39i CO2 Emission During Octane Combustion 2 CBiHm 25 0218 H20 16 CO2 0 Dc1ane Oxygen Water Carbon Dioxide I 14 glmole 32 grmoile 2 18 gmole 44 glmole 228 g 800 g 324 g 704 g Each gram of gasoline burned yields three times the mass emitted mass of carbon dioxide i gmtn 31i 3ii I39iE Gk 73 3iiti391 i L12 PidrfLiiI cJ soxEt k mini 1F1 VE H CL int oi Co N iquotliquoti1tLU og riliEri e5 39Hi39iE lEii1tEll C01 CO2 Emissions F Srg cimt Spgcmc Speciiiic Speci c CO l V i l l i 1 Fuel p a co Emission Emission k 9502 kgftdi R9c ozkWh 9cllt9iiJ l39I ltVWW9sJ N W Coal bitiimi39rious1 anihraciie 075 L 7395 23 L37 osssiins i 09 125 33 o27 Light Oil i 0 117 25 D 26 Diesel i B as 113 ii 2 024 LPG Liquid Petroleum B32 123 1D 024 Gas Y ii 2 Whlzitural Gas Methane 075 lg 23 0 23 ii i Crude oii 025 Kerosene 3 I125 Wood I 039 Peer D38 Ligniie 036 1 Bio energy 0 l 0 Coal is rich in carbon molecules and yields more 302 when it is burned Your Carbon Footprint quot Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector i ii ranii l395 Lquot39 139iIi 155 Pwet Hat ion 7 2i 3 Transportaiiion fuel i1 M 39 Wasiedisposal 39 rim ireatirierit 3 4 Ag Ll1ltr3I i Pe p 2 39i Liinci use and quotquot5quotwquotquot 5 10 O N tric mu burning F 133i I fui retrieval 39 39W 10 3 REEllquot391I1 LEi39llHiIquot1iJ rte P piiw39rmag arl tlistiitutIgtii 393 quotM L 39 39 3939 9 3 39 3939 man 255 I 39 39 4 0iD i i39Z0 gtigt it i 3 4 1 V 39 I if V p I 39339 link 2 frlgquot 152 0R A 913 39 5379 ii l f 3quot W 1t1 on me lliuhvon Dilontidle Methane Nitrous Guide 9339 39 91quot 1 P 4 r Ia Kr B1 tic wt An average U currently emits S resident an average of 189 tons of carbon per year a large room filled with pure solid carbon An average resident of China emits 49 tons of carbon per year An average resident of Ethiopia erriits iIi1 toris of Carbon per year in Vncrurun hiui tsligalbul 1FquotquotEquot 9E F NUT39ITli l JiiEji5iW Pi R quot5 l 3l cilUquotriul itTii Ell l i Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions i Igm 2 sirmai oz Enimimun rmm i ouitil rum eiimnig Cunmlt Ilairi39Itiiuie mill Gin Hmhiijt W timi The current 302 content of the Earth39s Atmosphere is 3067 rniliiori rrietrio tons Cumulative histoncal anthropogenic CO2 emission is 33Ut3tJ million metric tons So the atmosphere as a whole contains only 11 0 as much 02 has been 39u39Ili tAIl Mi39 ir E sil Detiliri1IF L emitted Lifetime of CO2 in the Earth39s Carbon Dioxide Residence Time ampi m 5P e ei is LL 0 eats quot i lquot quotiis i39iiiiiigiiifssi 39 on quot 1009 yeartmesCaeSI 55quot AherAFeivC n1uriei atmospheric CO2 is in equilibrium ii i I with dissolved CO2 gas and Pcmmi in Atmosphere if ii I carbonate species in the oceans j 71 Biological processes in the ocean 2 quotquot5sM Q play an importantrole in the carbon U r v V 7 7 o 59 m TEAJ i3f an we cycle rears Since i 39Ci Iieinme Cm quot l 1 Q E E39WlH4id COL i5 iii t 1 iin391 ZJJlOliE39r39J Time i quot Slc is i5l3CLE5lrf liquotl39 iE rl in OfZ CLFi D3 39n39 iiL J t iii39t E idC zitquot iriii lquotiJ i all U til i Cm or iTUTll Pi Ch Ariitarctic ice Core Data 1 V remizerarure variation rmco C nsemruionj G02 pprritir Degrees C s g p z 2 s 5 s 8 3 3 3 3 39 furs EP iiziii erature witli atinos herii CD2 c T T The data are omiw l39Ia cointroivizrsial iri Lliat CO2 increases iciicl to lag ierrfiperaiuire increases We live in an unusually wamn period iiaiiiji eirri 3lnit1 ctiicie Ire age liicl ii39ii iistirgil391 l39s l 3quotquotr i ilien i39ll ltjoei up S Aiiiiii liliriquot quoti ll39li339isi39 3 i if39r i H e i iiriio nquoti lei LATJ lZl i gr ectle Ci Variations of the Earth39s surface temperature for n the paint MG yaara T Hiiquot7l0t39lCE1i temperature records T u It i il I a i i r i r r Recent records 1quot rom bubbles trapped in ice mm MminnWo39iii3uquoti aiE TquotmquotFmquot Show 3 CW and rapid wa mng cores show a signi cant increase in greenhouse tiIMnitv2rIvat 39r6 a mr n ll t39lCi gasses that coincides with the onset ofthe f Recently Conwed data Show 0 39 d 5ma em 1 that 2Dl0 was the warmest year i 6 q n T Z on record 2005 was the second 0n T i 0 P T F warmest 1998 was the third 5 nail quot39quot id 2 warTnr5t Lquotg 39 i P c b e a W u 5 W 1 p E quot39eAatii aiquotquotF39 u bIl1npnt1000yaar it 39 Wquot 39 quotquot 39quot39quotquotrquotJrquotquot39 v r s 4A pS y 39Hlir1riI In lwrtrlilniutn V12 39ttm139 I ii limit to Mix ratings Bubbles in ice cores are atmospheric samples M M i i ii mi Q5 1 3 PIC twl J l7 l 95 Ole S 0G z 01 p ll Ctiicl er in it Cl mll oipiiiofE1 e pg Yon tiiitltne i 0 tree t39lf l9 lf til s j a quotti Y rh wj C 2 itnctitiotej groimkh L lHW U liI39lrireose stea its oi Lictlme lriimo res l 39quotllrhJ5il r39Lltli mvtial tihon l l The melting ofglaciers worldwide is a highly visible indicator ofglobal warming p The surface areas of glaciers has decreased by 50 since the end ofthe 19 century mgr Sea levels rise due to l ltllel rtg of ice 2 The thermal expansion of seawater warmer sea water has lower density 3 The sinking of contents due to tectonic processes on in ifvettt 3 Since the last ice age sea levels have nisen Posit Glacial T i Sea Level Rise at m0FC hell 190 meters M j iir iw s5l1 u r Sea levels during the 21 century are quot391quot l 39f in 5 predicted to rise by it p to 2 meters Jim 3 E Sucln a sea level rise could displace tens of Models predict that the north polar ice t E quot J millions of people and render some entire i1ii39 r sotoo 5 39 1 r T P 391 l5aPPquot39aF 1 3 H1 mwm H W countries uninhabitable The loss of sea ice they iatfect bottom 1 3 391 W x H W c I water fontiation and the circulation of i i 1 5 quot39739quot Recent Sea Level t Ilse to 35 c the dc P Qcgarl PIMTAniric1urcnig2InrIvI39u1 25 E G J E t L 39gi i 39 39 i 5hiwl flits Jztanlagv v I i i 39 quotquot Reduced bottom water fonnation will P iui 2 p3 3 i1 decrease energy transport to the poles in g i T U i 39 q causing cooling and title onset of stuzlden 39 6 cooling at high latitudes39 Ei E 39 quot L 2003 There is evidence for sudden cooling is episodes in the glaciological record 33 90 92337946 1453 9 tigii f ED l l 3U39 lncivtgctlre ittnTiSS sect ice Other Effects of Global Warming Potential increases in the frequency of severe weather events Sea level rise teittpiansiiori of water with intr easing temperature and glacial melting Sea level is currently rising at 1emimjrear A we to W 395 E llquot 0WYl its I Pl Gr B 9 it 39 7 7 Ill The CO2G lobial Wai rm i ng Debate The connection between CO2 emissions and iglobal iiiarrriing eimergeel grab ualty trom scientific studies after the mid t97i I39s T Atmosphenc scientist games Hansen testi edbel39ore the US Congress in 1988 met igslobail wairrriing was occurring and Pl Ocean acitlil7icaation eaused by iuiptailce ofaitimospherir CO1 results in bleaching of corral worldwide l6 oil the wnrlcl cqrral reefs have died since that it was liltely caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions Oil ieompaniies companies staged a major t39ll 4i lll39liflil39l39lquotlE l liDt39t campaign to cast doubt upon warming measurements and the potential role ol CO2 emissions which continues to this l983l Changes in ecosystems and crops Large numbers of species have shifted poleward at a rate ot 6l km per decade lncrcased primary produetivilty due to increased rates oi phottosynthiesisi due to increased CO2 levels Positive feedback mechanisms i Methane release from melting of l rozeri peat bogs at high latitutles Release olstnred carbon dlue to increasecll lbrest tires and loss of stored carbon in soils Melting oi ice sheets and glaciers Changes in vegetation patterns day tion can aiigni resulted in l Climate Skieptis o legitimately quieistienied the T eini7ersiiM1o cannot be iconviineed by enee no matter how strong in 2tllJ2 Frank lurilz lingiuislliic 3LllVliSi0 f to the Repiuibliiean Party coined the tern Cli ti quot for George Bush as a euphemism tor Global Warrning which has unfortunately stuck Lunlz now has changed his position anal egreies with the scientists The ltlobel lquotl l ZE lilquotl F ltquotlll391g 200 IPCC Cliirngte Chg age Synthesis Regan documents the links between 202 and global warrning and the case continues to grow stronger New IPCC irepoin released in 2014 Yet a groviiing traction at US citizens believes that global warrmng is a hoax Check out the PBS Frontline dloeumenlery Climate of Doubt httpzlfwww pbsorglwgbhlpageslfrontlin eilelirnat eol doubu llfli39lt li illft l l39iquotl3 tffl l39t393 2007 lPCC2 Report lorig Term llTtlC3Ci of Global Warming ri39lri l Parts per million llquotEii3t3939l39tFdi mii mi P iilttiW A k Lari ciepcrietent 17 I K l t e 39 an 39flt t 3 lill fuel iist J nit pi mitt ttt ls bull 02 7 quotquotquotquotquot quot 0 I4 WHi he Emiipdi in imre Degree pl iintrensie VPGTHEIICAL cor lEMlSSlOl39il5 i j PEAK I I Sealeii I sue flue to t 0 1l3939ilFi339F lri3139Ilt l22lii39139t ui Lttlltj iii of C i2W lll llriflfip ii in aulsiviu Ctll tCl ClCf fL ttS or ten l Ul i 95 I S an iie lne tr l39lFquot lquotl3939Jl it itll 51i tquoti iC9 itquoti quot 2 iitma W I lenipaattture 112 itutieri 1 fexi t nt39ii 391 BDlIDI139l LlquotllE39i Global wairrningi will be with us for the loreseeable luture Overall impact on humanity remains to be detenninied I CUE quotilli39tIquotIMillt39 I39ll trial I 9 years l E ll i39t per i Ll in we J W till i I C0ii tl inLiQ ho Tiimiieote W J I 03 Iquotquot39flquoti i iiiii yesis Lecture 8 Solar Thermioi and Geothermal Energy ii tZin39 EF35quot ICU Ei1ith39 Eriergir Dtmttquott39i hi Q tossil resources orirl mospects For o sustoinoibte future Protessor D owiil Forages 39c39c rrs ri it I39jit339LJ Photons From The Sun The Earth is orbiting a star that is continuously radiating clean and free photons into spaee in all directions The sun39s total radiated power which derives from fusion of hydrogen into helium at its core is 384x1tj3 W The sun39s visible surface photosphere is comparatively cool 5250K An average solar photon 750 nm watreilengtht carries N gEi1cil39 liB5eV T 2 5x l0 i 9JoLites T e wavelength of the solar radiation spectrum peaks in the visible rtlon of tihe spectrumi 5pec 1rel lrracllance Wi rn7Inrn iwoo T250 Wavelength rmi rmitst dein e di 7 tmibie L l39l39t3 ti it 3 iwziiiri3 mm 2250 zsoo tinquot tel rT i 3 tgtt tiLr eh Solar Thermal Energy Basic idea Use solar energy to create a heat source and utilize the resulting thermaii eriergy TMUIHEV L 39JUt wt it re trig H 3 t1t1L Q r H W p5 Prmer i lquot ti t EfCtSS dirot nroiiiij tutth ihrr utE Wt P0 Thermal Emission Photons are nature39s little energy rnessengevrs iTm 39 Objects emit photons over a wide range of am wavelengths de e din on tem terature It N 4 The photon er 3 r temperatur g quot 39 i39r olt 1 the Stefan 3 K4 Hill II j The wavelength of peak thermal emission i P quot occurs at decreasing wavelength as 39 i temperatures increase Am meters 287x103 TK An object that emits or absorbs the maximum of at all wavelengths is 39rr t called rh fa It 1ls laiPl l1i V1 i ltll E 3w ildeal curves as a function of 39 39 0 9 J ii i39tii1i i rt39iiti Vi waxrelength are called ioiackbody runctionsiBitT 3933 quot T T 7 393939 3939 quot quot39quotquot TherrneI emission from realsurfaces goes as 39quot 39 Z d J 31 E 3 D Em BAiT where aw is thqemissivi or 39 t 0 o rr i 39 Eli lrquotiii39Squottquot3939hj Q A i35tJ MZ1 tTiCE l E ltit iCt drtlrlr l5 39Wquott Uh ubgm bf r39 l tutti crtiltriiiaprir3rt3 LlCtljlI i ilimt ie l iTtli f t iih it i 5lisit Litl 39l li39fi l E39 lie l r loot tltTi39ltoti3 3 ftiitiitj ttttig F til late I Pct llcjtquotltquot Radiative Balance The net radiation ibiaIaricegotaool2 quot ct in st ace can be iexpriesseidi LS cos B igA soT m on dTldt T Where 8 is the iriciquotd39e iux of solar ra ia on 6 is the inciclence angle m is the mass per uriit area cp is the heat capacity and dTdt is the rate or temperature charige the radiative balance at the surface s cos is 1 A F1 eoT4 m CP dTfdt The Greenhouse Effect Adding a piece of glass or an atmosphere that is solar radiation but that absorbsgnd emits infrared radiation alters S WSW A aw E Ci D Resulting in increased surface temperature 3 soTquot J 3 a cosB A t 39 ll toiC i rri Gp dTfdit L l Wt En 3 H H353 r v oi rltEt lctt When the temperature of an object has stabilized dTdit0 it is in a state of radiative equilibrium ie the absorbed solar power is equal to the emitted infrared power m c dTi39dt 9 T EDT l Film The net outgoing ux of infrared radiation out the top of the glass is unchanged lttCquotS Pt39i r irquot39tI tTfd E l iquott J uiri tt39i JEI i39i39 bed ti on u did t i t i tl393i l39f1 l tJtt7l iEi39irii tit rl E 1 ii min cj Q cli i ttLJ il i Jr ihForce t ed at ii i i bed 39l39lquot l i39t139Lllt l39tquot39c1 i393riclirit39itirE LquottL t39lCtiquoti 3 U5 glam Milliquot ta it attt o5lt ei i39iiiliieittilFai ttiorti WE T Heat Capacity and Thermal Conduction lnsolation p 7 Iquot l V Heat is stored energy in the form Ph t 5 from the 5 KEEP the Earth C quotfj quotquotquotquotquotquot n T 39 of randum Kinetic enejrgx from freezing space SK sunlese E 3 V353 Wquotquot2 39 t quot The quantity of heat stored is Earl 35 g g M 0 4 propomonai to item 9 y we and The flux of solar radiation at TAU is 39 iieiat caiipacity39 E c T was to me the Solar constant l g i 6 Heat ows mmugi materiats 1The distribution of incident solar ux Em i y if mmugh a Pmcess of therma insoiation is governed by latitude quot39 39 T diffusion local time and season i The lilux oi heat Wit rri2 is mm propoiitional to the thermal T 6039 2 39 39 1 0 conductiwity it of the material and L It quot 39 39 quotquot quotquotquot39 the temperature gradierit A s 3 399quot d r TJllll39lj iOgo 0U 39a F k dTldx I l quoti tj quot39 S i g 39 n e tT1iii3 init 2 l s 4 6 Where it has uiniits ofW rn1 it1 L 1 quotT pz ll Z Q z Low coinlductiwlity materials In EU 1 t 3 M ii i 3s e T g if reduce conductive heat flow E5 Rf 5 quot39quot2iv Daily Averaged Iinisollation at the top ii r 0 of the Earth s atmosphere W mr 57 T quot 3 3 Tiiip i c 1 liiii We gtct tot e St l 391 i m i39tii rt rt oi in Ci 39t ili quot I ri itL39i uJ5 iiquotl DC lEiquotitEI39icJW rift I 39li1llt3 H49 oe ta 39Ciit Ei Ilit tt lhj it LquotaljCH Equotl trim hiirjh iietll ifdoim quotl1Tj W Th ii in HS M ii Jun iv 11 tU ti ale tEWii P B hirriit l i orj St39ii1SePt ii 4 lR gqrti or ih t it Pith l t H ct tiric CWdt lEtutilt39l it p ltE u nd it T trllMVlS JlVEUquotCV39 Diquot r ill l 5 o my l Passive Solar Heating r Solar Energy Resource Most homes can utilizebene t from passive solar heating quot ll39lhe avalirlalbility oi solar radiation at the SlLIlquotf3lCe is intluencelcl by clouds Space heating accounts for 30 of the energy 39139 which absorb and scatter solar radiation 39 usage in a typical home Z i Four elements 395quot Wquot M Large areal southlfacing windows to t Pt g 16 39n maximllze solar energy colllectizon especialllly Lquotl Int in winter when the sun is low 39 quot V Highly lnsulatin walls to prevent ic1 T 39 3 4 con uctlve eat loss to the outside M y 1 Mechanism for distrilbutigrt of heat quot LUUJ H39 ll lTlIrl139tt throughout the strut E 7 Z y U l e f Thermal energy storage using a high rnass 0 3 i U HLlJi39tUlkH hi h heat ca acity heat reserve to even out T G ii 5 p the daynight solar cycle lrconcrete slab or 39 quotha Watef r Doubleelayers of glass enhance greenhouse effect but do not provide a high degree of a thermal irlsulation US horizontal surface annual average insolalion vanes from 2 blue to 8 red ktfllhlm per day Depgoyable window insulation rcurtailnsyiy mam X slabs signi cantly improves efficiency 0 Wllr te lcrv or r lquotrr gtur39Mg lquotquot E umlquotlquotlr r1ll F l l 3T lJi39lL Lit letrliJ CILJH tlorj orrlrl roul le iE tit i tt jllt hEiUH 3 UP fl M quotquot lchlits EllquotlErgl at rilrjrht H7 lreqr wlntrn quot7 ta ampN Active Solar Heating 753 0jre Solar Thermal Power Active Solar hea n S stems use Um S or t Solar thermal power systems use large arrays of e fans to move Sdlahhgeged ydS frog SEW quotquot quotquotquot quot solar energy to achieve high temperatures wnectors i T i L i M AAA151 High temperature uid is used in a heat engine to generate electricity Q RoOfMm0Umed Solar hot water heaters can p 5 J i l H l is Highest efficiency is achieved by active solar tracking i i i fl J i Solar One power plant operated in the 198039s near Barstow CA and 1i reduce me e ne r39gy use in la tylpicial home by 20 lplFOdiLlC8d W0 l39v legaWatts of electric power by lboiling water atop a lO0 Conventional llat plate solar oollectors absorb meter mwer solar radiation and heat water by conduction p Freezing and rulpturinlg can be a signi cant L if 7 g ooncern in some climates ES 3 C I rrLlLH e Newer evacuated glass tube collectors reduce l W 1qET conductive losses and provide the greatest E i e Trciency and reliability ix i w Qnqpi V H y 7 quotgigs l f 39 quot39 quotTquot3939 4 t 3 b n l39 i 39 d r t aura V7 quot 14 P hi Rii quot5quot 1 39 quot 39 f 339 I Ia F5 39 quotquotquotf39 iql I 7 7 I Ir39 rr2 0 39 Solar One W rr 39 393939 quot lJll lr oIr5 icuj all Eulolr E llTiE 1Ii S tiJ CH U mire ttrlraJt39t 391 l L Ocean thermal energy conversion OTEC attempts to exploit the 20 degree difference in tempefature between surfaceand deep ocean water in the tropics OTEC uses conventional thermal power plant technology to generate electricity Temperature differences are small efficiency is very low but the fuel is free E lCFl39tE1939gllil til l37l l39 llT ill trlquot39l Ll it in l squotiquotllquotli39l l on l til 1lLl1T SO l O l lC t39tft if i ll World Energy Sources T1 Huiecrted rttml Saamgtrs Sela tnan timgni l 99 can l llow Wi d 31555 r quot 39 g innanr mdiausn 31 C1 39539 559quot 1Biq39i E H and iltirngt eats D E39quotquotEragE Dmt eamrmncn Thmrm quot39quot39quot J to mental energy 45 39 nr Im3y g r r I I i 39 Tim lI39urgy H Ei r1ntiitizr1 Kc 5 30 Dormw K S1rsFrs r E 39 35 4 K lM lII quot Elr lstif A F E cYu mm 39 39 39 t Motion of Pk F r 1 x E 5 Earth and l 5 1 Enurmr ol 39l E T 39lfL39J 1I lquotl1 Tquot pKC D 3 iirl39lr139l5 k 1 39v Decnrr l1DD3 Geothermal liar 39 E l 1 equotquot r quot x r ou2sat 39 l 39 39 F mquotta i arllht l e l Ll3 llJ usa3 I quot xl cwnmns I K K J trser u23L it rise honest quot j amg quotquotquotquot39 quot quotquotquotquotquotquotquot39a Fautll lusts ta N 9 f 39 il Iquot l t M2 I Emt tstnlsrtor 08 Energy Emrrrcnment and Climate CDpy1righ lquotquotNW Norton ti lcompany Eirllili Earth is warm inside Ttinr39ir eratrirnsl tr l ltte Earril accretional primOrdia1 heat radioactive heat Earth s heat loss results in geologically active planet chemical recycling surface manifestations of heat 39lllt tlt rrl iJiricttt4ietxt Mm 39 he 5rtruc rr oft1MIElnh quot395 W and chu Gqalhmmail Gridlertt Ejfl i mi Ems F rec Spact Cm itr rH2rpsIn39o X q 11quot 39 39 rquot quot 1 x l rnDrptuIc in 1 r Gf tjiunl iJ I Q I E a I lllm mutant quot 3 3 5 ta Ien 1 4 E 39riquot39 quot vtt 39 39 Fil 39Ji z f nj Geothermal gradient from the centre of the Earth averages about 1 C km However through the convecting mantle and uid layers the gradient is lower In the solid crust heat transport is mostly by conduction and the temperature gradient is consequently much higher typically between 25 C and 30 C fkm depending on the location It is higher still in volcanic regions and along tectonic plate boundaries where seismic activity transports hot materiat to near the surface 90 0 90 90 130 N I l quotquot quoti 3quot W 7 37 Fgt39 quot iA j 5 quot3 4 j 2 P F L 39 i b 3 39pr39 39I 1 F J V r l x39 39 i t f l 60 r x 5 Urtrial 7quot W a 60 1 Pquot2 p quot339 7 5 r 4391 2 tr 39 l J I 1 h395 u 7 0Q LI 3 39 L Ii tigE ui 3 i M N l 0 r t r J I E I F 4 30 E j lit 3 3 iiquot quot 12 39U L 5 339 quot 3 P 1 N s on E I 5 0 39r 3 I 1 W T 1 u L avquot I r quot J quot39 30 7 1 3 39 r 3ti quot 391 VJ T 7quot39 fir p 39 60 60 a W 1quot quotV 39 39 it T quot 1 L 5 i 1 ff39 ii39 5 i I l py gt gt1 5 i 3 90 130 90 0 90 Longitude Ccpyrigi1tr11i w N Nor1on 8 Company 2C08 f lnlf tiuui iilciile5 l l5quoti39flrilil39tj atllt a lquot39lEH furiw Qnl M EL iiif i N tf at m pt quotlro gu it lg ti 0 Cwtmizl visit 5 I1 Jl lDl 1I39 E ii iquot ii i ll lgjliel L 10 Geothermal energy geothennsll electric ff 30 5 39 l i K quotquot electricity production iv 10 GW pr d quotQquot quot E0 as 6 x 39 direct usagequot 30 GW 3 K x 0 40 3 C 4 39 quotff 4 l E district heating space heating spas industrial processes 2 33cwquot desalination and Q agricultural applications 1975 1985 1995 2005 Hottest ii nsoiiirr1 Geaolhennal Regions 39 i 39 a T T 39 lowgrade geothermal residential heating 3 gogljng Direct usesolgeothermaI energy in the us heat Gen5unn um it IN 1 51 quot fa 39 7 iIIuIrltuIil I 3 J 5 n d ma HBGIGJ39 Pz L Flmrtis nr1 spas or 5 39839 I I s s iTiT Iquot Elacirl sty in Heaigrua oi tuning in Bunid Geotl niermal Gradient Map it x pipe ltx tlitij ll li quot J 1 pp Uli cle il 1 i ii i C39l FlJt5 lLquotquotlllIquotl39 39 l quot5 tlllwll ulf l391iiilrj li39i l l f llmn ml 1 ii ii l il i lgH l ini pj Benelms of geo thermal power cost effective reliable and continuous quotbaselinequot power sustainable mostly environmentally friendly relatively energy security can39t be imported Downsides sometimes limiting use large capital investment for electric generation essentially limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries I not completely environmentally l 1 benign release of some greenhouse gases some geothermal elds not economically sustainable dissolved solids iproblem lalthough also economic opportunity lowgrade high entropy energy source Wk plant ommnmsl inn lllhli rmmldazlllla at atop in the tfmparrliilll Valley Colillloamlm Hllih mlmiml commits all some 5oullhum cnlllllomlui gaomalnnall resllruallrs gmvldo smlallalai tiwimudom Illkii slllteoi undl Illw I I39ul39II39u I quotn39l 4 1 7 quot t i t 7 3f39 39 quot39 E 3 He vat i I lIlI Flllli f 7 mt I up ur any 1 3ir V 1 Ir quotuinelemIl39r 39 j Din1 NuI I mu 9 7 gs 3 p1 um inan mi e JI J lir I irn FJ mil x n 5 H1 n Val i all Q F I 0 L t lril ti Lll llliir Ji li39ijr39Wir1i 39quotipgi jlj if R1 hlti f ml tit iii trquot Geothermal plants do not burn fuel or produce smoke They can however release CO2 the lairderielllo llielldl ls sltllll mod ltllll llll atliger Mm years wIt139r1 w12nrr Tll h 139 Eililhlnnnli Eledrllfiljr Gnluu nm Im Im Im Itlullhmlm rquotHm iu mini H WmIi H9411 DEI illilfqfilf paearnnnui unmin hum Tami gnu2artr pain gunnInnn ya Elf mm 3 galum DEHEII spunfa l l11L39rlftu l i1391uMi39quot1 3it em 0 4 unnunu u a ag ngjI n 4a39 us 1 aw 55 0Ye vi mqh 39 quotrlt k y 39 X1 t4 397I on ii ElI 7 Vir39t39 1 QIab quot 1 vi jnun sit quot394 hlI39I am r r 39quot1 a uuIn g39 39 quotia quot3 c 5tn1iHtEvL h Erimri Ermi5 Irue39I and PQ 39pg qr SW N llmran it xfu3 39 i H California leads the world in geotherrnall electricity generation lJ ltT39Uquotl39U l lUquotlr grddl 8 ll lr p S lJ t C1 d d b ClUJ39l a 3 1 ULIJ Ihl rd I Ru noftheriver hyd roelectrlc plants a in locations where there is a substantial natural river gradient eg waterfalllst h39vers can be diverted into lurbiries to generate electn39cily V 1quot Rlunoilttlle riverinstallations are the rrtostcosl ieclive p 39 S hydlrolpower systems to install arllcll deperldingl orl the fraction of river water diverted the least egg 39lgi gr rlentally grfnaging ii i 6 Because of their high costbene t ratio most the best large and small scale runoftheriver lhydroelectric sites are already utilized v in l Typical smallscale runaolsthenver installation 75 or the nlonnlal flow over txliagara quot3934 Falls is diverted to generate 4 SW ol 391 1 electrical power l39ll ll lhl 3 umleur l39l ltv lf r1Et739t39 lT3Q9d lml lrlrr39f ZlltCl fllo uettfr lgtUt lO Jt Pumped Hydroelectric Storage 6 No river No problem i Energy cant be efticielrltly stored by purnpinlg water into elevated reservoirs and then retrieved by quot E lll l R EV letting the water flow back down AG quot quotkt H Beauty of the system is that the nF quot H same turbines that draw electrical power to purrlp the water can be run in reverse to generate electrical power when the waiter runs in the opposite direction The overall et ciency of the system is close to 75 There are 140 pumped storage systerns operating in the US with a combined generating capacity of 18 GW Purnped energy storage facility tg 39 quot aural W 1 North eld Mountain Pumped Storage Facility 39U 1l 39 U tnlfl it if U quot 5 l ilrli ll llncl tililrrl li LlU CY llllhl negfllpd lquotrllll ll0 lI E3939 P L7U3 QV r lltrl tor l tJ39lFrfl9lE Q l l 39tl9 Lil Lullr l ltlCl39ti rtquot 3t39o 1 l C quotlll lrquot lrli rquotolJ gyll Cl Cl CW1quot Hyd roelectrlc Da ms Hydroelectric dams impound a reservoir of water that can flow through turbine electric geinelrators orl rderrlagd W 5 T The power produced is P s p g h r is where p 39 39 3 is the density of water g is the glralviltational r w T acceleration h is the hydrostatic head r is the 1 new i rate of water ow mivsec and k is the 2 5 39 x ef oiency typically 09 The largest hydroelectric plants provide 10 times the power of tlhe largest fossil fuel or nlucllealr plants T r39 quot39 l2 Storing water behind dams potentiallly enables the utilization of the total ow of a river which E may experience signi cant seasonal variations 39 E j E j39 39 The ability to instantaneously control the flow of water to turbines makes hydropower T j quot effective for handling quotpealting power loads l due to temporal variations in demand tirrle of p 7 y day hot weallter etc 1 Water storage behind darns can also provide additional benefits such as fllood control irrigation and recreation u o Hlltltxdl M Di lQlLL title wcller IlHquot HJ V H lCL JlJlt tal lril39 liorrtecl 7tJ39tJllL395 l lo iquotl l quotnll ll J f V N W Dam Construction Dams require signi cant quantities of materials and detailed engineering to withstand the pressure force of R the lrrlpounded water and its effects over time P The simplest dams are gravity darns that rrlay be constructed of rock till to provide males and soil for seepage control Gravity dams are most often built in wide canyons Arch and cupola dams are built of reinforced concrete and are most often built in steep canyons j39 K iquot quot4F rrle goal or the dam builder is to find a site that will l l l T provide the most water storage for the least cost 0 IT 3 3 Large darns represent major public works projlects T can oltert costing tens of billliorls of dolllars The energy costs of most successful hydroelectric projects are more than offset by their energy prodluction The average EPR tor hydroelectric systerns is 225 the highest of all energy systems Hoover Darn Site Hoover Darn Construction llolquotr p Lt tW15 lllquot39t7 1 l 3tllJl 3 of lltfP Ct I l ill L fFquotr frl l tj lll e5 5 lli39C li JlquotC 5 in 3aw t it iwi Biofuel Origins y 4 Biofuets are created through photos powered by sunlight 39 O lithe chlorophyll pigment absorbs photons at blue and T red wavelen A O O 9 The photosynthesis reaction roduces glucose nthesis which is Lecture 1 2 er ii quotii tii pB ECO EH20 V CsH12Oe 39 502 2 The reverse reaction is res iratiogo btirnin Burning biofuel results iri no net Cgzernissions j e C The photosynthetic process is regulated by t 3lant39s H f P T X r 0 T stomatal pores which can open and close UCLA EPEJ 1399 J Emm Emmaquot Plants can t take in CO2 for Photosynthesis without lfrir39riinishing tossiil resources cincl loosing water vapor which saturates their pores when i1rrJ35eris for o tJ5C1ilgtFi it3li iUiUt39Ze 0395 T T 1 Plants in dry climates can39t afford to loose water so they let in very little CO2 an H 39 Pmressm EQWJ page i The net photosynthetic ef ciency of most ecosystems t l the ratio of the net chemical enerquot i irodlucecli relative l to the incident solar energy istroughly i T T J lioweyery it s not this simple since bioiuels are not H quot 39 quot quot continuously accumulating on the Earth s surface quot39 ijT quotr39 CEFE 1iL39 eii 39li l t ilquotl T ii1 Wt it Q irlt llli2D il l Tiiiilii l Ul cyg Glucose quotDryquot Biomass Composition 39 To rst order the creation of organic T y T T Cellulose C3H10O5 carbon by photosynthesis is balanced by TH E CAR 30 me 0 39i Linear chain of thousands of Cellulose destruction by respiration and decay CYC L E quot linked QIUCOSE Units The residence time for surface organic carbon is 20 years A small fraction of organic carbon and carbonates are buried in marine sediments where they reside for 1D0 million years Sediments are ultimately heated during sulbductioln and release 002 back to the atmosphere Structural parts of plants Fiber constituent of piaper T T textiles etc rm quotii ij i tquotquot 4 Only digestible by bacterial in mminants termites Hemi Cellutose Non starch component of plants Only digestible by bacteria Lignin Fills the spaces between cell walls to make them stiff and waterproof common in wood iT wew was Only digestible by bacteria P quot quot39 39 Other 39 i X 39l39El39 quotE quotJ 3939 Oils sugars minerals etc l 39i3939 39r 39 3939 3939 39quotquotquot39 quot many oil which are digestible II by humans if not poison Raw biomass is 2030 water by mass Inrwars1 um M3 1T39ttlCjf39 O 392 C gtquoti D p y J5 pN L31 E i i tj vr d3 h7 be t 1391quot Dtghin lu3 IEM l r Iwgtl39 g role xii aqfggi I l i l l i iii39 J 9 l I l I ri39amp U quot1 it 011 1 1quot r Photovolataics Conversion of photons directly into flowing electrons GHQ fin to C Semicondluctor technolo gy Lecture 9 Selim Volltciic Energy lvletals NonMetals and Semiconductors Free Electrons Perimlic Tizihle at the Elements if MI K7 The presence of free electrons quotquotquotquot1qt l explains the differences in 3 T 0 properties between metals and WJBC1 nonmetals Qt TT l 3 Metals 1 P gt E39lri l39taIlct1C ttISLM39 quot High electrical and thermal Meta i conductivilty V Ductile opaque solids with I 39 lT39et3lllClUSterlf E EM 2 T T quot quotJ i NonMetals V0d39 Q HM 51 I 1 39Equot g 39 nt is wu s39 mgan Elements with la 3 Low electrical and thermal A Elements with Ilargely or completely lled valence electron so lets are nonmetals andl noble G039WUCllVlW fmm gases 39 Solids liquids or gases Brittle i Elements on the boundary such as Si Ge have a limited number offree electrons and are it sollld not metallllic luster N ll39Meta39 called metaloids OF semiconductors lilllwlg 39eteI im S to tlmw lrhtet glh 39quot W 3quotl Late iquot3CLW E 339 L W j I Reset 39 W6 33 titg H tgim an eiletm A in 1D TquotIt Semiconductors H overlap 397 39u 5 g 1 1 l39 I H I1 A E 073 to tr E An I7 43 L1 1 in 1 1 27 a age 212 E IInJ I I2 ill Ei asst D at a 0 C43950 I M OJTII i ti 7 lI 2l3939 3 N 3 739 T metal serniconductor insulate W 35 Whether an electron can befree de nds on its energy level Electron energy levels are iuantizediand separated into energy bandsquot In a metal the valance band boundto the atom or molecule overlaps the conduction band free electrons in an insulatorj there is a large gap in energy between the valence band and the COli39 i dUCiiQll39i iband that almost no electrons can 0VeFC Ol Tle in a semiconductor the band gap is small enough that a usetul numtzier ol electrons can become free depending on their degree of excitation Semiconductor band gaps decrease with in fSmrilill tiot39iclcJctjn oil SEVt ttUTtitJ tDtSl ctgililomil us to Wtltt tiijruidiiE CU1 Iquoti 1t i3LhV W if it lZquot ItlJDiiE to 1 39i39E i rorit ltiiiioi til 39llT i3ui1391i 1 tquot pn Junctions At the interface between p and n semiconductor materials excess electrons from the n side diffuse across the junction into the p side and excess holes from the p side diffuse across the junction to the n side The result is a strong permanent electrostatic eld 06 volts for silicon The unique properties of the pn junction eke it the key building block of modern solidsate electronics inc u 7 g A Pw is ii iii 3 5 7 IvTI I Dil na hr1quot on luau 39 quotE139Tunno lquotunu pm urn El1a it It i I Ch EH1 II L211 11 39 r E l lggil 511139 39I am 1 l39r39I Elif tJllie3 eli ilquotiii iiilld Semiconductor Charge Carriers Silicon is a s emiconductolr with tour valence electrons that are shared between tour silicon atoms r Adding small arnitsof 10quot39 contaminants to the pure silioon structure is called gpg Adding doping maierlials with more valance electrons trarlstorms silicon into an ntype negative semiconductor with an excess of ellectron charge carriers A Adding doping materials with less valence electrons transforms silicon into a semiconductor where quotelectron holesquot are the charge carriers I ca It in n is i 3 I EDIEIli3 u IIHEI i iitl i GI ii I on ing no it onwI quot39lttntlIIi tit tig trtti tu til it ii it ii I9 no on Jul tilttillints 39llIj3Hm toilitt B in II g at I I tr I lleutaral n type patype 1739t lllt lf3 r cliliti n tonliii I ill l ill l ti5 to j139u1Gi SiiJlt39pt quotl quot i IquotJiltj1lquotZ quot s tZ1ddillquot39lij iiiorizi U lif ii39i 39 E P39il iEii actigiimj its utilenrse en t ij i39E39 t lltquott l iiiti39 Z 4 i tl l lt toiltl Tmiii1 it 3 e Semiconductors At Work tjin elevn liar fquot A itt iJ ll 3 Wm we tarhg Ptylpi 3 Nmtypi tragmlrur o r p mm Lil crmioa you13 he Frdnzi TH pIt39n39uem I birlim l3i iIiIquotg nfmga than J c c Lmi mi ii iampK N side P side Diode Electrical current flows from P to N side but not from N to P side Note current flow is in the direction of the positive charge carriers 70 g igjFDV Photovoltajg Cells 3 0E7 m 3 P l h iiill39ItHhbL lEmiquot J it out l A M I 3 z quotWEI is from of E 39 in photovoltaic cells photons with sufficient energy to eject electrons from the semiconductor structure creating electronhole pairs The electrostatic eld created at the pn junction causes electrons to flow towards the n side and causes holes to flow toward the p side Solar cells consist of a pn jUlNlCtl DiW sandwliched between metal contacts to The n material is thinned to allow penetration of photons into the pn junction The accumulation of electrons and holes in the p and n material causes metal contacts become negatively and positively charged ejust like a battery Current flows through the cell driven by the absorption of photon energy LlED s lLig ht lEmitting Diodes work the opposite oil solar cells l U39iiiwl win HquotltutJtjh can i39ll tfl ihohgtn Precinct ct 39I 1quot Metal 7 Solar Cell Efficiency Imrfua Solar cell efliciencies are also M reduced by a variety oi optical eff 1 losses xi 39 A l I ll Reflection from top 3 q f 39 0 n surface n 39 I 4 f sllpitllnj by top 5 39 canhct oawngn 1 A 2 Absorption and reflection by top metal contacts 3 Absorption within pn material 4 Fteilection from rear surface T l These various factors reduce the realworld pealt etticiency of standard single junction silicon solar cells to 13 T The f ClEFlCY of a solar panel consisting of multiple solar cells is llurtlner reduced by the ll fraction the fraction of the area of the solar panel actually covered by solar cells a As with any electrical system there are additional losses due to electri quotl resistance E1 0 f l etcquot etc etc Mostlsolar panels have a realworld ef ciencies of Dl e rCM Crystal line i i i 9 7 391 W A I By 39f FII riuPqF mtquot d P l i P rgt p9 aiimorioe c witwmapm 7 is llnmnuz2 moms cilurirq sits idol tethcleivlr l b Thin Film 0 quot 39v139 Ilaintatam 39 39UquotlItquot39l ampt unumarrnIl r Inain 39 item m h Z 7 Iraq 7 7 r mardpzsgrniprrattasi Eigrgl igml not 9 ti ct elnlr Multi julnctioln cells use multiple semi conductors to absorb solar photons at multi Tiewaveien the to iincrease ef cliency Lnytjr5 tllrL39Ct39Jtb usitlelr39 ll0 ll39quotlf T pnaen Q fl iign t kW ilip tflJ39i 5 l WE Solar Cellll Efficiency The quantum nature of light and electron energy states and the solar spectrum place fundamental limits on the ef ciency of solar cells quotlIF9 i 9w39a391 F9 I39I39V39 UIUIITJI rtvl i y 39 W l i tr no tw tR 4S l ll quot quot 7 l 2 hquot 39 E L V V P I x K I 7 iv 39 1 if L Mr I I E 39 A l a K I V 1 a J I i 39 l quotV E l K 39 I K u J P M I e n a l 39 V 39 quot f I I u O 4 quot E quot Ii A l l l 392quot l 39 I it I l 7 I I quotX r L 39 J Ls 1 k r 111 7 I u n I 2 Recl 39solar spectrum Elmn39uavIrnurri current density TlquotB l39El5 a39 l39lquot39EWl39 U39 1 5 quot3lquotl C quot 39 39 39quotquotl1quot39 lt Longer wavelength photons with energies less than the energy of the semiconductor band gap can39t dislodge electrons and are lost to heat Shorter wavelength photons with energies greater than the energy of the semiconductor band gap can dislodge electrons but the l raction or photon energy above and beyond the band gap energy is also lost to heat a The above considerations limit the theoretical ef cien for single Junction solar cells to less than 35 7 Cm W i g it rnry Qvrei quot lquot lmlrUt tEr flC 1Utquot cliG Ereilt i39lelgiE5 OW l j tquotl ill t39llI y iP t bL yjH l llniquoti EXCTVE lill39i ClquotI39iCll iS Cmgp5 i mienll39 3 Tltjlo ll f i39cl7lTt t rquot HM FhgtiffgkJ 39f39eE393l d Q5 hC Clt Types of Solar Cells tumor by the supply l l IC jjiil minn A39 2i39di5l39 riinlurn139 Ave mior i Cquotiiquotltl tZlllllrlE rljlfiril lquott llt39l tilllm ltquotltll l39VfIu 5lWli0l in trt5t lnlnylle 39 l cplgl Ei lllquotlcll jln Lll393tlI l ll Seller Ell I lmC1U lquotl OH PFOQFGSS ill 30l3F Cell Efficiency Solar Cell Production and Costs 4 quot39Ter1y ll Jr k Bast Rnnaarchacnllll lEf rIamien EINlREL rlri cl 1 so 1 F 0 E i I l 9 E 7 T l E 250 W 39 E 1 E still L E150 5 i pr 4 lllll T 39e quot mtmga 1 is Q L 5 ill Gitr il39739Ill 1 Jan Line at 1391 E1 I an lJE l lquotl39l l 5 I rig anal 5 a Solar cell production has recently been increasing exponentially at a rate of 30 per year Solar cell prices have been decreasing exponentially at an average rate of 6 per year i4 J 0 i r l 5 ll llll t39l l I963 lfl ill llll l llllEl 39llll39 VbII ll nlI 1J41 m1I 4 1 FIG NH WE 2 N16 1135 Zinlgr etis ii lg o Fllrl9nl lrxllh ffl ulll l39l germ celli liefarrve Chettpei than ful ll illalfl 7 fl Site as crulcuf EH5 to pnlvvl lii Qlnlu9h elelll1tllCLll enlerlcjql elm EnlWe US T Photovo taic Energy lmpact First Solar Antelope Valley Solar Ranch One Project 2013 37 million cadmium telluride panels Previously disturbed agricultural land US Electric Power lnduntnr Nat Gernnnl Tbtel 4 billion klloulattlwours Lip 1 Ell ll Solar photovoltaics currently amount to a negligible fraction current US 5 ji l electrical power generation Callecn researchers have estimated that the entire electrical power needs Q of the country coullcl be suppliedl by a single giant solar panel with an area or if 6l1ailll square miles n 7 I Grid Parity and Net Metering As Ilia cost per watt ol photovottair energy do ereiisnes it will Laricoma equal to or less than the cost of grid power in more and more areas Soca oeul Grid P l39t lr39l51ill iIrL39triialgw39Irrti1on cost equal lo or less than that ol lirie itlllll f provided El39E39E1fEiIl grad has akready been sigiriiaaa a EJlnFly rsaari arras soars as Hawaiii Neat Fl9 IW E lng allows henioowj 2 to plug their Net Energy and Energy Payback Ratio The amount of energy required to obtain an energy resource is a signi cant issue for renewable and non renewable energy technologies It currently requires 1 barrel of oil to extract and re ne 5 barrels of oil this gure used to be 1 per 50 in the 192039s The increasingly high energy cost of oil extraction will eventually make the extraction of fossil fuel uneconomic makes the vast majority of fossil fuel deposits uneconomic Energy Payback Ratio EPR is the total energy produced divided by the energy required to build operate fuel and decommission sririr an ays garter suitable oonwsrsion to Are C39lJquotlE3913939 d3rMtly into l39I39ia39r riilotrminity rrtrrler Wl39llI Equotl will run eackwares and run up negative alerts usity char as 39j was rnesering arei1ea an eaiireeIJant39 way for hCt393939tl i239o n39l39jE395395 to balance rzut daily orr itirgy needs w lirmt seating to buy barteres to ssore erargy on site by alddeng power to the grid Ii iirig daylg it air39d taking power from lite grid during ii a 39 X 2T39iE ngrit R p W l Ctllquotr III1ID and other olirles are o ui1g slgnilanant tax iimeri1r39ires for home and business E r owners to install soar Celia StJlt39JfcI39Ir1 pEI iI3S such as Solar City o er solar kl Lik ti l39quot39tquotquot 1 Iit r the upfront costs 01 insta ing solar power by selling the power you generate over lease optirzris to homeowners to riiiLice or 1 39lirnrr back to the i39lI39I39rIS Al of Use Mtr tl Grist l iri tj39 t i Uliiii1i Et li iin l iirefol in ElE t l rlr at Cairn r1iil E l LitlDl l39t lltE lr jiquot39s39quotquot la nefj ltUf l l39lquotlquot lll r Q it39lEl lira ii1 hi iiiLl trfiiimEl gar ri t rrrtnio r or lgor n oh l i l qr C r W ll will it t 3995 Projected Solar Photovolatic Energy Production Energy Payback Period EPP is the amount of time an energy source needs to operate to pay back the energy required to im build operate fuel and decommission it I For solar panels the EPP is currently 25 P A to 5 years EPP will decrease as production rates of P photovoltaics increase due to the mda F economies of scale g F 1 1 Photovolatics could be providing half of 1 squot c39 TT 39 quotquot 7 39 quot 1 quot f quotquot o r 1quotquot r39quot39 39 3 our electrical power needs by 2055 Hol iv39E39iiHurlr11rrIFV C 0l39lFl Hiuqr Lls Ii1ai P5 Pmducnon Energy Puyanct lrIrrttrIl39ry Groin Raw amp Frcieerilon of CA Enorgy all our Him E Iquot F mrii as 39 mm l39 I 3V use in z in p on an cin EFF reA r39ni39i39 39 rimIii39ii391 iilt T i all 39ricmI3939m39i ss iinPub 393aeif l5 a 311I J igiu l 39 3539 39 quot iiiquot quot39 rquot 5 139iiF 394i 3bquotut 1 quot39at l7 lr ttJ lTJ tlCllili iELll iJ3 iilizi Wt ltril lquotll t il39rl39t TquotquotEt ill nlt flllj neiienerg 1 1 A r r r criiE quotlltfUtil f lrrirrii lrtLr E FllE395W lat F V irimm i1em ilL3Ej FT l39Wrl39Elld T l F39 tquoti lri397Il ti r iEl iiiquotf 7 lririE t oilir2rij rliti 539ireneilrilf Examples of Energy Payback Ratios EPR Hydroelectric 205267 lNnd 1180 Coal 511 Natural Gas 5 Nuclear 711 Sawmill waste 27 Solar photovoltaic 510 EPR for renewable energy is a strong functionquot of the pro39ected Ion evi ofthe energy system Lifetimes for solar photovoltaic systems have high uncertainties 1 wt or re til it it quotit l 3 ll El frigige ti39tquotlL39lilE rltirlrtg hlkj glfg rI39ilquot1i39IjhiJ i fr l E National Air Conditioner Addressing Climate Crisis Bush Calls For Development Of National Air Conditioner The ONION June 20 2007 gI39 StJ Egt3 2g5 LFJHI an Luau i u nu Dn39niuy by rain ig ip ll I r liJ JJ39lI1 rd I ulEli iraiuidmr ClI39fquotLIIilLII39H by llm your IIJII5 Tliu Miiuivrrim Ait GriruiilsiiiilzI II iLamp1wq Iv nDi ViU so 39eill riisli Jlegitt prim awrlri maidi 39 in llm riunmiri lli39ll Ff BGFl391 ca2tilnit cirlillitin 4 rm canal vI thin man l ta ll III crawl rug5 til i IIi 39l39BFlt urII1 E ifau Illjt ll uul utlsjliligi innliglhy p true FHEQTZH I7IIli391l 39Hr1l1I3939IlrliJtrIt li and IaiqpcuiI mt limit Itlf llama lI boilh ldgnvl and xiwmirla acezrmi llmli 39Ttv39g dniiltiourspiz39aiilIqiu i winI397ilJ1394 aEtll3n39i1lMr l I7Ciil1t vi hi niigrniriieslas hi1 Ii39II 1I1 Frssfvlgill Elm 5an miirIini Ft lllh 7 39I it i39Is39m39lII I1rIII ltheEri Ithiclrnm in393939 cut Iaquotidnr391I TiI39rE39i vnn int P511 fPHH 39lVP F39Ii l g39iIJ4quot39Il39i39t39iquotI 1I 39It iiril Ih n39 iI lift G t1l1Qll39ii sllrlrlii 3 In Irrrai i39iil39iLisi Quilwi rinipolfiIiiu1niI ie39iinn inIii onnnramiair1uur1 Ili1I39ui9isiii Itm ocuuluuoh i39iUcilng 1eltlan weand on imlist tedmalv r 3115 maclxin 1iiiWI cmrgmubwl t39iwi39Ir139Ir1i uiquotE RrI39uuIlt 39iI Hui lmwlfl lIr39lI f 0 39l39 gppiczd iiu a mri mtml Ior t39mnJ1t1 IJ39ru lllrl ISIAH anrlmiity Hung agella ihmry Fnlun III quotSu 1 ailr39n ni1lLmi n39l539n i39aHI l1139nnvIi rIin1 HE iilinlgh rlllq rml u39I39 3915 miiIl39P4 Jami IlTiigi Hi hi Lt1H39Dquot1 li l 1F fIquot39 1I1iE F A liE39 El tequotIl2riIuiIJ Fimi 1 MI 5 llquot I n llvEh l iTFEJr39 Hui ea rpwwmu lLl inane mi FF HJo ran all re1392u quotlquotEh or IJmun irlra oi Iriimziiiul 39Iil3Il liIl FaIii39relrm14 inn r39I Esqjgup main nfrlif rnpgitl cal Ilu phu391 iuin39iI mimaalmi rumlgirir iicpIctiaben ruin pinrgttmo Ell and gmzta mils Ina rImtu3usI IIiInq warm fiiilfliit TIII njmrrnri 0 tr 3955 rL4331 llvrn Jgt I1paling lllg I Mitreat AH mhlfl t rquot ud 0 Ii EIII prwilian lnl llm i1tuiVl39r39iDFJI 39ElltLih 1IliEilIrIilrir39tl l Ila U 393 1 quoti3939Isrrr aiubber 39I I0lill be rlraeltia Ii Ila iiIlh of uriuliri ilrii I leiaideil 39lI39IvH39i J39 uv rimsliii939 u i39iiiJu wins 39ruryli Prim PIJIEBIKI Siniplwin Iampor uizllirrn ls39lilIlLl1E39 i39li nrviu39i1n CI h 39ZIrlE and rlara3ii1h5 E i III1uLi W331 lzahui Cu1 iIi a2l39lIIa 39adtciPu Elulriru J History of Wind Energy itecture 10 Wind Energy Arab Sailboat a goon so Persian Verticslt Axis D 39T l Z l 339 ls i39i39rtA EF 5 5 l l Eiirlquot rt s Er1Ergy Etirriinishing fossil reseerrzes Ct 1quotlZiquot porvospects fer ct tJ5T i1tl3912l39i3lliE future Amencan steelbladed vvater pumping windmill 1560 AD jqmundhhll gnmwuixu1m5 L 395 anr39qI I39 ii niihdu1 iFre39fessor Dewid Pciige C3lEJ391 l39HI 39i n1Clii39J 3C iU Greek Sailing Ship 500 EC Tall Ship 1300 AD Wind energy has been a key enabler of human civiItization through time p 311 I D p T it icttJC H OUigt t tie Va E5 tii quot S df rtk i until 0 Atmospheric Circuilation Inna mast lurmmzzwr lquotC Atmospheric Structure Atmospheric circulation is driven quotquotquot39tlFlquot quot l o f m M primarily by latitudinaL A erature gm 1 squot hgracien7tstc used by enhpncedtscillqar p ea ing a e equal or re a ive o e gm 7 T poles 1 es P Q 7 1 of abserbed solar radiation is rm Mi am ggwmw an an an converted into wind energy Earth is a low ef ciency heat engine The net effect ofwinds is to transport 5 i Wind patterns are strongly in uenced by the Earth39s rotation Eastwest winds are 10 taster than north south winds Warm air rises at the equator rains out moiisttire then descends at 30 latitude Tropical equiatoirial surface trade winds are part of equatorial Hadlley cells A Poleward of the tropics circulation is dominated by irregular westerly winds Eiu h jplrt re t Etttuiujh 0 CU39I 39iTrl33939i ttnr jlzf 0 Htttlej tell5 not Ct 30 ii 3QegDpOio A cl 1til E Que a Cltt A Equation of State ideal Gas Law P p R T where F is pressure N m3 p is density kg m393 Ft is the ideal gas cons ant 28 J kgquot Kquotand T is temperature K 7 The density of dry air is E 12 kg m3 at sea level nid decreases exponentiallly with altitude pz pa exp zih where pg is the density at at referenee altitude hRTg is the scale hieight and g is the gravitational acceleration h 9 km Most weather phenomena and human activities take place in the troposphere the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere which is characterized by a signi cant 10 Kkm vertical temperature gradient hours Average Wind Speeds EastWest winds generally increase with altitude I Maximum winds are observed within i p subtropical jets centered at 45 latitude in both Z1at N mwel Ema 39Hi15l39i at Jet stream winds are most intense diiring the winter seasons Surface friction results in 39 signi cantly reduced wind speeds near the surface Wind altitude pro les follow a power law relationship ufu zfz where u is the wind velocity 2 is altitude and o is an emperical exponent of approximately if J I l ii lquot39ci Qo l7rilir iilii ri N fjli 310 Li Liquot Cl iquot title 3 pt Pei CE iy iii tl i 4 ii i P Elf Cquot iilJ39t l T1 lihquotW y P 39i39i i39 Pit 1 iLaJ pX F E o K it iiiiliizi E 5quot E J ft ui1quotl3l iet iiie T i quotWijlilf M y di S 1990 W Y K pug P east is El ti 397 it C2 quot39PE39n IV E L im Hj r g WindSpeedPower Distribution I liilwhomni Measurements of the frequency of g y wind speed and wind power at a i T Y 39 o note that fast wind power oersiIes S 3u39f a39j m d n ore an a e win power occurs for wind speeds of greater th1g1U nf1 ec which occur less than T 5 or inf iimel T Therefore energy distribution and storage are important considerations for effloleint utiliization of wind resources J La139 1 an Ex IFiL39F39r In H rm 39eyinii39i r rl I 13951Aa Annual average wind energy potential at an altitude of 50 meters for the continental US l e 39 industry windustiy considers Cla 3 aocations suf cient for large scale power generation ft cubical volume of air with volume s3 has a kinetic energy NE m v2 where K mps3 takes a time tsv for the entire volume of air to pass a given point i Wind Power Density i E mv Int 3 f 35 5 L 39 A u A s2 C quots at W U 1 u39i gmyniiiuaa391ii The energy available from wind increases rapidly with wind speed The rate at which the volume of air transports energy is p vquot7 s3vsf p v3 s VI equation in Woifson 1539 Edition page 306 is incorrect l The power density of the wind power per square meter 2 p v3 I Total global wind power is estimated to be 2 Peta Watts 10U times human P j energy consumption I 1 l VV391i quot 2 V V pZ 7 l A wind turbine extracts energy in proportion to itsare and its coeft igientof erformance On one extremefif no wind flows through the turbine it can t turn so its coefficient of 1 performance is zero g On the other extreme if all the wind flows through the turlbine at full velocity then its coet oiient of perforimanoe is also zero Betzls derived a generalized theoretical T performance CU e f Cie r1lt curve nth i gt 16f27 0593 for an airspee ratio of 1ll3 Realworld turbines attempt o optimize their 39liIu39 39X E J 39v39an J quot i 1 lI4 u L 39iuYl 5 Wit ilr if 39Tr ti tut K giltEd quot3 Ud r performance coefficient depending on their W wind environments and safety considerations G 1 Power typically increases as the cube of wind Kq velocity until quotrated power levels are reached D The power range of hightech turbines can be M c E signi cantly expanded by using variable pitch blades is I L 0 R lR is Turbine efficiency is not nearly as important as quotV P Q 2 cost perwatt since the fuel is free 39 quot Mutt E EIL tQlTt r trtiitvltitf vl quot W l bit if We j 7E E39l Wind Turbine Design iran1dl Iii1 12 Ieriigur quotr4 ld1It39iii39iquot fampiquotilI39 r l39 i Wind turbines generaliy consist ofa lower rotors and generator Horizontal axis turbines require a bearing to allow orientation relative to wind direction Blade con gurations vary depending on application Blade noise increases as the 5quot power of blade speedi so the more blades the quieter Wind Farms Because of the pr need for local control infrastructure and site requirements large 1 scale wind power production tends to be concentrated in pH wind farms 5 quot3 Wind Turbine Scale ma 1 5 s Generator gearoox and brake assembly Vquot139 1 The scale of wind turbines is increasing rapidity Larger turbines have tower oosll per watt because Wind speeds increase with altitude greater efficiency Parts count per watt towers blades generators Energy Payback Period EPP is roughly independent of size so why not go bigger Current largest wind turbine is the Vestas V164 in Denmark has a rotor diarneter of 164 meters 747 wing span 64 meters rotor tip speed200 mph power levele MW For comparison the 10 MW Solar 2 thermal power plant in the Mojave Desert was 700 meters on a side U53 quot7quot ri 5 Econoniics of Wind Power Ci llilllnj IIiIllJ i wlnil line r nugih U1 IR1 IE1 JG 3 sew Pain F J ti Euros per lliillwlni The estimated Energy Paybacli Penod EPP for large wind turbines is 33 months The net cost per Joule ofwind energy is approaching 1 that of fossil luels especially if CO1 emissions are E 1 taxed E Market price forwind power in Australia is now less 5 FP than fossil fuels 3 Global wind power capacity is doubling every three 5 It years ifop global producers of wind energy are the European Union USA Garmariy China Spainquot indie iltally France FMII Fuel Wind terms can coexist wsth preexisting ifnd use such as cattle and UK rarer U5 39eo39era sii95 iie5 fcrwnd power are 5riquotra 1nr Qlllalln I C39lgen wmd genemtmg capacity 395 10 geolhermal than for tusam Quote in f ltslItquot T39 but rlliihnr F r watt an 3 xi soar lrllii39 li1 1iir uti i dlli395 the radii the enlarged but Jets i39iiirile 4Funiii l3 Wind Power in California Ceztlltmntil AnnualPwii iua 39liVlfE SmiLall at EU m N W d PGWEJ galla apng capad M Ealifomia has 39 1 39 39 dciulzired S39tT39rII E 2 I22 l 0 W1 391 533 l M 0 39 l 3 IE 21 rs Year m M H 2 39ita 235 o 1 339 mi j 3 iI E V 39 0 am am ru39 15 Megawatts Capacity J inraxaimia 39 I me 395 quotaim at High sustained offshore winds are potentially a huge energy resource Cost of offshore wind development is hat of onshore Development may incur signi cant costs risks and environmental impacts saauan Issues With Wind Power 39 Ugly factor Noise Reliability Overproduction Over Subsidized Stress to infrastructure 39 Bird Safety Human Safety NIMBY 1aJJmIu urmd Lrin 1 ill Luziflv fi a I39lfEniw39 an aim amzxhrai Mli39Fuquot539 39quot39Ii AG A Z E North Carolina Outer Banks l l InjzdA Jail 7 Wi39t quot39iltl i fLi ltIlt39ltf Ml lls Hiti ri cilia Eli lsfitllitill 3 Alternative Wind Power Options High Altitude Tethered Air Rotor System Floating Multi turbines The Geiger Counter Lecture l5 Nuclear Power issues UCLA E55 la Earth E ne rgy Dlrninishirlg iossii resources and ptrosoects for o aUl i39Ciillquotl139Zi Z JiE future Gn39iund I nzitessor EJmi Paige rgiigzi32 miir5 on It i il l39maganailod Fmrrmri9 rini Jppomhgh Wihpacim GPI lb u139ldn Gwyn 1109 E39ltHt1ni39iS i it C u mi i 3i Icrllfiii lti i I 3quot5 iiquotf quot i i tid iiru bl ii l ii CE Coulis ts i39i39r quot39Uiquot39quotE39t rim iiquot1lquoti39iquot C1quot il39quotL i3939f irlrtirmi iiu ii1i ionizing Radiation Radiation Units lonizingiradiiatiorifirncludes particles or electromagnetic waves that are Radiatiori lExposure lClkg The amount oi radiation required to create 1 coulomb oi charge in l icg oi matter e gggtic enough to ldetaoh electrons from atoms or molecules High doses of ionizing radiation Cause immediate effects such as radiation Absorbed Dose Jlkg The Gray of 0y is the amount of radiatzion required to deposit one Joule oferiergy in 1 kg oi matter 1 Gy 1l0U Racis poisoning Low doses oi ionizing radiation can be cumulative and canieause QEJA i Equivalent Dose accounts for the fact that different types or energies of g 1gll radiation cause different amounts of damage The Sievert SM also has units of ionizing raclliatjon is present in the enluiroriment from cosmic rays that are N Jlkg but is normalized to 1 Gy of xray or gamma radiation iSv 2 100 Remquots incompletely shielded by the atmosphere and from naiural radioactive decay X Radmkm Energy Weigmi g illnteractionlofiionlzing radiation with matter H 0 ii39l39 i Asg l 4 i actor 1 35 if W 397 V s iiit irJquot iquotl395 0 ii P Ilt1 kJ 5 MamEahMw ciiaitgacl puirtioigu nlemi3939iV 1 V New B E E1 L 5 i 39a 1lUe1lDO ieV to B J T at iwj too keV 2 MeV 20 EH mi l bi Di E C A 220 MIEV 1 or V 4lf rquotquotL I n quot m W4 i7m G 1 gt30 EV 5 I i A M 7 39 l T P i gt2 Mev 2 I j 0 TN J 39 l A quot I 7 739 V 7 p n 6 TI CilplUr photon V E heavy 7 7 i 7 7 n quot W L n quot3 2 A typical background does or natural radiation isJ 3 rnlsv 30El m iglireirgi per year A Tas rquotquot lethal fullbody dose of radiation for a human is 435 Stvior 4005Dt0 rem J 0l 39fl1lT U ii in 0y pW 3 7 ll R H PE f V p ii ii iquotiil i Nuclear Accidents The Early Years FALILOLIT PATTERN liAHCE 1Is H ill UAIIIJCH I If Three Mile lislandl 1979 Three Millie island Unit 2 TMl2l was a pressurized water reactor near Harrisburg PA The worst accident in e cilirillien nuclear plant in the US l Various rnistalties by the plant operators results in shutti T to the reactors core An automatic emergency shutdown was initiated the tuel rods and melting the core lIiquotE but the still not core boiled off all the water leaving the reactor fuel quothigh and dryquot I 6 The intensely hot uraniurn tuet reacted chemically with the zirconium cladding and the steam t39tJplul39il lg iitHsei a oiIrrsnaa1iaieiri atnIin l H After declanng la senous erriergency evacuations were orvclered by no sigiilticant quenlilies of radiation were released to the atiiri osiplhere IalllnarFunquotlinparlrmllgrg uou in ii39 IlllI lII39l Il3jE i 4 iaiaiw gir gt goutvurinalenluri1auannisI llIliEl 39E quotDI Iil39II woiiodnxrwr9lll39w39i39niI39rI939Ir39l39iiPIzlunu nu rAquott1r391391at39C 39 II lIiquoti39 axuplrt iili 39llin39wiquot1quotIr F L hmli39 0 F M 139 l stuniolthu totret mhertlouorIndustry r u l quot39 quot quot Tllitll was a iinaior turning l r e o rm P poirit in the development l or coirninterclal nuclear l power ierideiiiig construction of new 039 ETKICWE I313 is innsunriiiar untountil r 9 E it it lhuonrtngallitt I 39l139 t z239339EC l ii A In 12639 niiag iiiEI5 E E iair F ourrmr q I1739 niiuqryrirzi Alainniti aJt l trainranttririirsuviii pl gwusrfr rmasrsrgjiinaltwiigmixm i l THI39BII1amplt 1 39 it vs 3 r41 ram xl chj in out 1 139avgnu an urge up 57 js39u mu is241 taiiiIsotnsI quot0 E lamiirgea paymr jqaioqaasauxin1prnsampzuannI J my I Vlabl i in 3 9 l i l ll i i quot 39 i lEstiii1ated cllealnup cost l f Fame Mam cm St lEillion quot Hlfi39Tquotil l l kJ llllquotf LlltWJ l li i lquotl l i39iiCl 399rii ltt iUf E l iii I quotll ltlf Fukushiima Daiichii 2011 The Fulliushlnia i Nuclear Power Plant in Japan oenslsled oi Slit tioiling water reactors built by General Electric On March 11 2011 following a Magnittide 90 oe tfiguetse all the reactors were suocestiluliy shut down but external power was lost 39 i 45 minutes later the plant was hit by at t5rrlgter hgti tsunami that topped the plaiirs 5 Trrieter high so iiail disabling the plant39s ernergencir diesel generators leaving a 3hour of battery power reimiining tor ioiierat irlg coo i39ng water l3UlquotitD5 39 i n X losioni that resulted when cooling water levels becarne too Cheriiolbyl Disaster s quotll98t3 During ii test of an eriiergencir power system various operator errors and an inherently urista tile reactor design led to an explosion and graphite tire that blew 5 of the reactor tuel directly into the atmosphere I 237 people suttered acute radiation sickness SCI operators and tire ghters were timid by radiation within three morllhs 3 Adults 3 u me E i Adl lescllnils 2 5 3 39I 3939 W 39ilC39hildren quot a 7quot39r ier e m L i 39uIiiorn39 r 5 a Ftadiadon Colntnroutioris Tihyrold Cancer in Boleros lt ili estirnoted that the radiation release 39 x W 7 released will lultirrtately result in iooo Hild39 llEquot ElP Wtt K G eddrtionsl deaths and trip to 1 rnilhorii cancers E 1 1 world wide l 3 tIlLyimll p W i 7 i 39 aguagdk iooctoregfieaiy due in giavaieigi ilgggig quotquot r 39 39 quot 1ClGClCl people were eveizueledi in the areas surrounding the reactor oorinplex 0 63 Ii 0 p 39 lt Soawoierwos piped in to oool the reactor cores 7 l quot1 1 i The reactor oores have oaiporienoedl a partial meltdown and that some at the 1 H conleinrrierit structures have been damaged and are looking quot quotquot quot There are hundreds of tons ot spent fuel outside the oonteinrrient structures that l are eoolirg oft and awaiting disposal eurreritly exposed to the atmosphere g FA39ld i It is esorrlelod that the Fuliushirria oioanup will require 30 years and S100 billion 0 IfL it It I5 estimated that more than 1000 people will die from cancer as a result at 39 T D Ft Fvassum quot3 gamer radiation exposure enhanced by bllBOCUI139tlIa I0l39l Ra mgn Levels Red is 2 re nes horniai background is 033 rernsfyear Liquoti139 l ir39t r ljl 1 l l U l39 L r R tr 1 4 is H lWJf fl5iquotilit lit rquotlt ti Pll E lf lieu ll ii H liglil l lij iii quotFUPntLl39r P P 17 flIit p E LI ULl 1 3 H H p L F 39139 is i i Mi tit iii In H at i if Uuummekwtulmww WW ij if 2i l Ll ll fl lBM0aNCCumWa1i0n 0 T q j l Us Nuclear PowerEconomic Issues if Figure Silt lFuIIJPivIor Oponlllnn UGCIIDIII iuuest v us 39z1na I Wrwrx 5 1 h 39 i 25 H Nl lnew nulclllealr d 1 39 quot l LquotJLquot39 F3939 h 1lltus p l quot Gf i iiiit licenses issiiedsiiice i998 at l l r iIGJ t2Cl D or Sk Weil P I n ma 1 4 l T l oiliirEg lnincur o J I PF wf g ll l I 39 Fwe lecem new pmllecls Protarc3 Upto mti mg H 4ili7 Hil f E E r xi 7 rnaima zooucsa we Z t 39 L P e quot39 Recent premaiure closures pi Clrusliacea 15SE5 lD53 an 1l P e I qb four Ower lants Vermont W 3955 L5 u 0 d P d 39 c p b la n irr W l l 313 Yankee Nisconsin Kawauneee us s as m m u l quot39 quot39J39quotquot 9 59 V z California san Onofre Florida 7 T 7 T 39lrwui i 39 M quot39 Crystal River T f 39quot quotquotquotquotquot P 39 quotquottquot quotquot quot 39quot l Ten other plants currently at risk of closing both in captive p l markets no competition and in l u i 739 open markets free competition I W L Signi cant debate regarding p 1 l r who should pay for the costs of K M l T I 39 39 nuclear plantclosings AZ Equipment aiirurF39 led SCE lo the O itlill closure oi the San Oncfre ulant tn 2011 ll rears artists at slclhetiu 29 In tire latest r 0s W plan to recover he lost powrr 3 3 illlllllc1quot wil be covered by rate payers rari 31 4 billon covered MI share unideli iiiquot FukushIma mdlatmn dispe llon model may 39 acmiiional S4 lliiiHri mil be required to ctecommissicn and demolish the gzlant l ll39 f5l39i illlrquotllIIr39i39lllii iVlll39ll L i1quotillquot lquotEquotillFiiiquot ll ill In r iwi i ma i l i lq Q iquot39illtZ t39lI j rl llr139 iii i Jlat iCI39t39T 11Iiiiquotll 7139 iJ 339 iJc39ll39 iCtiliquotii i 3quotlTllli irquot i P 5 N Ll ill rm 3 3 riwiEi quot ifoihu l 39i i1 li ll E H xM ll 0 ii at J N ii iquot Radioactive Waste Disposal if Nuclear Proliferation Disposal of radioactive waste is a Unique issue associated with nuclear l ll 5rarl Elfln39llw1U l 5a l m M WWW l 39 I if 739 39 it It ll 39 nuclear chain 391 39i3llL39I l W In 5 F 39 F quotquotquotquot39 E quot quot quotquot Because at the long halflives of the isotopes rrwo r39vrd 160000 years H 39 39 39 quot 39 quot 4 39 39 39 anti Llquotf39l quotl39l 39Il39I tf3 regarding our future over irnesea es ol1Di years most 3915 39 47 quot B P p mus 5 Cttlullinl l n iiii 7 approauis loi I1UCliJIf waste disriossl lac la trrmicr1ilillIl3r 39 aF7 A Hal 39 1s C L 4 39 ll 5 M l ll Plus Were is SE39iEnJsquotNl39l39i 39ElTE f quot7quot p waste 5 3 l I 39 a39 mu 1 l l 39 Irl l Q1 la quot V 7 1 1 l 7 quot 17 M DI F iis 111 ItiEhhl A I A I quot 7 l M 5T so 7 III 39 F q I ll1390quot in l g A 3 In as quotquot 9 ll E I lg quotquot quot39 U quot 139 105 we 4 H1 39 ls E 7 3 an 39 quot 9 M Ill U hJ 6 m V V N 4 u 1L JrMD 6 it Is estilrulteri ihat1li39 re are i4Di1ZO00 I393939rr 3 3394 39 34 2 tones of iiigiily i TtI39lCheri uranium aL 4 to 1 1 r 1 tones of P ltoriiu39quot in the weriiill 39 39 I quot M H P 3 I 1 About halioithis 5 iiseci tor Fowler 39 quot 3393 3 39 Tlquotlfc us started mooning uciolir mwer quot m r 39quot 39 t ecI ii39ioiogy to satellite couritquot39e s mtlm the I 7 4 393 Atoms tor Pens23 program 7 V l u u l e x 5 H 39 s verailoi I quotiJsiF ir ai E warv quot 0 V quot convened to rmclearweapoos rogarns V I quot 39 39 I 39 39 quot M 39 l quot j l l Whether the wIrJi sJiIr39r1l1 MstainsJ of l is Ps I39lquot A I 7 H quot5 quotif 39 pF 0 ml Fuel Ac mw as 3 l quot l39 l me nuciear weapons misses the world safer or N l Iess safe is I3 dehataba E i3 t 39 l l4 39 39 p 39li l l39l l il ii ifi iliti H l Irwe ml ll p5 L ll T P 39 i i vi r i I i p i l ii ll 5 it is l i i r 1 Fill r 39l39rii P l fl ll9 39 r P ll 39 39e 39 r i ll ll 39 l W was irlswl liiiiflj llfilli s lltell lll lquot li 1i li39i rri f ii so ill i i Dirty Bombs Dirtyi bombi are corwenitionail expilosiiwas with aiddiedzradiioiazctiue rnaterlal Distributes radtioaCti ve material widely radiological damage and contamination costly to clean up 39J JtirIti lg gottanZt terror weapon Concerns over control of radioactive matenals since 911 1 Dirty Bomb A Cesium I37 lled parlcage uncovered in Mostow 5 39 Abandoned Soviet Radioisotope Thermoelectric Gen eirator HTS tor the Laklng fl Examples of radguai d 39 Roman Empire Europe Han Dynasty East Asia Decline ancl Collapse of Civilization lecture 16 Our Energy Future 2 1 t l Lr UV13 p as h Examples ofragidicollapsez Mayan Civilization Central America Easter Island Civilization Paci c mr pt Road Warrior QijlE39l tE1rajlit i ititlriifiit pO I Pj ijtiui iIfl liCl i E35 39lZlIl Euriquot39r 395 Energy l39Hmi1ishing fossil resources cincl prospects For to sustainable future Frofessoi DU fltl Flange lncr easing political tensions in oilproducing regions i ii i mm W W u V L F r17 lt 39 I lFumlameinta Future Energy Issues lnconveiniertt Tiruttts ltllodern civilization is enabled by energy agriculture economy techniotlo iy transportation environmental control etc Increasing population liftti er s ear Increasing energy demand especially in developing regions o of our energy currently comes from burning fossil fuels Finite fossil fuel resources Renewable energy sources coming online but slowly Rapidly increasing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel burning Prospects for signi cant global warming climate change sea level rise extinction etc No clear consensus regarding our energy future Direct msasurantents IPCC co projections quot iquotquot quot l 39 quot ii ism laa edl on models for a vi 7 39 5 Sconnirlos E iquot futElI39e E l1fMStSllOnlSi 2 5 0P W E157 PA MFI 3 e in 3 r E2 F5921 Past ens future 603 airriospheric sortamirations mo e o tam mo ism tam 2000 2100 lglifitll i i l IquotI f 1lquot391 39i39if39l l39iquot quotr r39 quot tslw h Wquoti ll iwi mi e x tin l a39ur quotlv 7 H J M Q l t I 7iiquot lquotquotUquot iGk 7 39 7 itquot39f l ivera bf ii 39EfEt3971C1 tD liul mti Lli239D W dlJltjbll39il39lrfJ at i l3f te39v C L CO2 Emissions and Future Scenarios Carbon Sequestration Removal ofcarbon dioxide from the atmosphere by physical burial and subterranean gas injection H 1 JK K p I M f Us jet t 39l39Hi39I t Ll u A T s Issues jg 39 K quot 39 M Danger of leaks Tectonic processes NIMBY 3 39 5 e j quotiv Cost d oubles cost of fossil tuells S Energy requires 20 oll energy produced a I H rquotquot T 0 S r i t Current Geographic lDlSlTllbUltlOl39l or CO2 Emissions Q J15 WtAK 1 P l H M 0 J F T J gm M E A H A Pg y lkif l lf gt llnj l ix 1 KTE U1 U 39LfI yI39ltlti39l tilt quotltlFl39l39l r l39 quot Ir 0 5 K ti N l tquotT39t39t I llt39 slL ltt1itmquotrr39 l 3l l i tl PA M1 l is p t will rt W Mquot 6 it r l ll ll quot quot39l ll 395 L31 E l t l4Dc1quot1 quotquotquotN39l139 E lw 1 l t j R tHl tIl71 I tart1 rgfl U llf 3377 PLl 39l rr It lquot i W l tltl e 39 39 39n l F l r N l til i 4 39239 LI I I3 it it A3 S ta 1 E lrl hll H1 rj Hr 13ttl quotell7 l 39 l 39 llJ li led ottnl7et tlr l39quot39l l39lquotIPitt of P 3 llquot 4 tilt lat rt l3939ltylyM quot2l r39flL39iTf EUlitr39L 139 LJl r tut all 39quotlll39l739 IT1 E n g i B p B n g 7 7 W 7 T The only remotely practical way to prevent global warming is tqIsEECi e isgstionls l The most damaging sources of future CO2 emission have yet toquotEe built Solar Radiation Management to cool climate Release of reflective aerosols already happening llncretase land albedo Space Sun Shade 3 L7 39 tri tr t l 14 jrL H Carbon Dioxidle Removal am Hi 551 U H Artl cital trees that use chemical reactizorts to remove CO2 from the atmosphere Calcium carbonate bricks Ellochar anoxic pyrolysis of biomass produces stable carbon that can39t be used for respiration Gil 51 l393qr C D Ocean Fertilization Photosynthesis in the open ocean is limited not by 3 6 sunlight or water but the availability of nutrients to the ocean such as iron 3 M increases photosynthesis taking 302 out of the P ah 3 M atmospihere 4 8 W l luhplredltctable ecological l BSlllllS 7 W W Cam be tested without disrulpttng ocean ecology g in Relatively ineffective compared to direct redluctlon in am 5 n1am39 P as we is Z 239 an 39 quotHis IJtI39lII3nIra 39391l ElInlilr I HIm39n1 LII i IfP vi l939Hm B39 JfquotI h39I ITvIi quottl lls i I Dawqagt jl V r Z fl carbon emissions 7 lt39l quotJ larl ll Jul l quot1 3 ll quotl tj1 y l il rl39lquotquot gt E l l l P I all 39539quot ill lquot ltl quot39 l7quotquotfIquotl39 ltrt ll llflllxl l Y quot39fi ll if ll fill l39T i ii it W ll iquotl C tlri v tar t i39i E E i r quot3 D iquot39 i H i L if EC K Esi tygii pj ILL I 7 11quot I ll 1 s1quot39lJ L Q39 r C 0 Ai1 hquot1 PD Al Mai t1 Wu iirtu til 1quotti uquot r0 B B mi ti 0wB 0 0 it ti E 1 B BB il39E J l 39 ii m g3939I quotr 39tIi 1ilL ii F U 4 i quot E F r i D E It IL r r i fquot39l1quot7 r tIrtir394itlttI D1 uiut39u3l eIii1r Liirpi iI39I 399 5iI1 ls 5 r I uII E ilm Three example scenarios for our energy future How Much Energy Do We Need rs quotiii a I 39lquottiiquotJ39 LI391 Global Energy Production and Consumption Ewe i 39hr tlFquot Po ulation is rowing by 1 per year but energy demand is growing by 32 per yez ijas a more energy intensive lifestyle spreads to the developing worl If we continue in a business as usualquot mode then by 2050 the world gt would consume more than twice as much energy per year as it does iu1t v 39 1 C today X 2 i 3 t P 1 If fossil fuel energy sources are currently peaking then this additional p energy would need to come from new renewable sources H rl Illgliii 39I i v i l H 1 E I 39l f ii if U i ii i ii R ii if ll i 0 U 4 J 51 quotii Ir 1 ta 39E 39W39 397 Jrtt i39 ii 0quot K W L iilitlitil L ii Ll Oth Id Renewable Energy Needs 39 39 39quot 39 er eas Cap overall CO2 emissions to decrease over time Create a market where CO2 pollution credits can be How much renewable energ ired to supply the bought and sold or traded 39 USA s current energy needs 5xt 0 Watts Theory If the total number of CO2 pollution credits f 39 does not exceed a predetermined cap then those who E can reduce emissions most cheaply will do so achieving the pollution reduction at the lowest cost to society i Renewable Energy SoiirttUriil E Iiper p of UM Nara Issues J Brought to you by the nancial services industry Lame windmmirea 500E00 000000000 Three wirionialum the same folks who brought you Enron the global nancial meltdown quotquot quot 39P M quot E 9 395 m quot quot39 Encourages trading rather than immediate and 7 Acres otMonocryntnLtineF39VCetls 125EI39O 120CICCO0CO 229 ttnweetriearcaoflcansas neqesslary struptqral Changes H Historically similar pollution trading schemes for AcresolThn Film FV ceii tooooo isooooooooo 235 39lI39l39I39lquotB39Eal39B a0H39C3139lll38 S02 have not been gs gucceggfulvag Qn piit39iliLlEl m laws tax ingentives and taxes AcresolSolar39l39l39tern39aIPowerr soeoeososa issoooooooo 315 ismeatheamaotitanaas Fusion quotquotquotquot39P w quot quot 39 quot39 Acres otEthand PnoduiI1 ori 1IJEIO5 11538061538 220 lirneuthearea allarlsaa Same pnnclple pB powers Stars Necessary temperature and pressures are difficult to 9 He 35 Me 39 achieve n 141 Mev Experiments that achieve a quotb tkevenquot point have been recently achieved 7 U E it l quotiquot39i l 39i Jt ti I11 t739Fl quotl 0K ATl T it iii in Lt quot7 quot393quot 3 Energy Conservation and Efficiency 39 Conservation Deiberatell sourcato make it last longer Conservation tends to not be very popular Efficiency Doing the same or moreusing less resoorces E lciency tends to be more popular andfcosteffective A report lPiUll39JlllSllquotlE ll in 2t3llIJ6 loy tlhe llVllCll llliSey Gloitial llfTt SlllllLlle asserted that quotthere are siiftiicient econornicalily viahlie opportuinitiesi for energyproductivity improvements that could keep global energy demand growth at less than 1 percent per annumquot ess than halfofthe 22 percent average growth anticipated through 2020 in a businessasusual scenario Energy productivity which measures the output and quality of goods and services per unit of energy input can come from either reducing the amount of energy required to produce something or from increasing the quantity or quality ofgoods and services from the same amount of energy Key Areas for Energy Conservation Eat less meat 6 It takes more than 11 times as much fossil fuel to make one calorie from animal protein as it does to make one calorie from plant protein Producing tkg of beef results in 364 kg of CO2 emissions more than going for a threehour drive while leaving all the lights on at home Over 2l3 of this energy is spent roducing and moving cattle feed Meat production accounts fort1520 of all greenhouse gas emissioins it I Resist use of coal quot quot L Nasty dirty carboninitensive etc Limit population growth 9 DOf39l39t buy stuff lit quoti l 391 V1 Key Areas For improved Energy Erficiiency Appliances and lighting Newer electrical appliances are signi cantly more energy ef cient improved lighting ef ciency lighting control and lighting design Ctptimized use of appliances to reduce peaking loads Building design insulation Roof Coverings Passive solar heating l lllgl leel ll CtE Cy heating and cooling systems p6 lrnproved eniergy rnonitoriing and cointroil l ndlJstriei Efficiency energy use improves pro tabiliity especially as energy and transportation costs increase Supply chain optimization Reduction of packaging Vehicles Lighter weight and lower friction vehicles save energy Hybrid propulsion technologies also save energy Look out for the efficiency ebound effect estimated to be Se 40 eg buying39afmore efficient car encourages more driving quot Pu llrl m L lat p p lgit ll L39tg T l ii i I C l F iquot W 1 o il i i 39f iJl Z i39lLili39 7f i 0 6quot ll til A quotlow lquot l l39 7 ii 3 ll The haring E caongorrly The Next Big Thing Basic ildea The internet enables eriicietnt distributed local A 39 2quot i 1 generation and sharing or golods isare39 T quotA 4iquotquot A t39 39 services and energy In the new YAHOO Lu lc l5 lq 1 sharing economy everyone is both a consumer and producer amnnmr smear This system has the potential to G 1 usher iln a new economic order nquot lirlglgSE that wi I rovide reater overa 39 39 productilii thangthe current r h E centralize corporate economy Q Cjnunes quot l R0595 3 Current Examples game Youlube entertainment Facebook communications E baylPaypal imarketplacefbank P eergttop eer tile sharing info Emerging Technologies 3d printing eliminates facton es Car sharing each shared car replaces quot15 Cars 5 lhquot3939I39Z1l39 llZI ll39quot House sharing eliminates hotels t39 L393939 Enery sharing Individuals and SmElPCD 0pS in errnany cunently generate more 3 V z r gg electricity than the major utilities TOP 5 RATIONAL BENEFITS U 139IE339LH 39 quotZivi El 51 I394 iii l397l vill39 tiiquoti ii lquotiquot Il illsul 3939 3939 I quotl by lLeclure l3 Energy Storage ond Hydrogen tl39tT39LA EP33 it i EI3939Jl 39l39 l l3939 Er1er39gy lD irninishinvg iossiil resrzlurces and piro5r3ects l oro sustoinolole f39ut urer Flrotessorl lm icl llbolgie Jig e l3939lt39ll 3 392 luL liquotquotEfU l ftkldi u it Q 39l39l t L l af I CL 3amp3 Ii thlquotIquotE E ti i K if5 I 3 393 quotL39fquotJ J ix Lx 391 W Lquot Tcf39 ski G G kQ Grid Power Storage Because the demand for electric power is not constant electric utilities have the opu cgtn of storing eegiyofor periods of o g 7 at demand without having to build additional power plants Viable large scele energy storage options include Pumped Hydroelectric Power T y discussed in Lecture 13 i v 0 1 Compressed Air Energy Storage llCAESl 1llquot39Iii l it at Tl l i i P 3 fl E19 lil51r f1 3 71 1 is w ir i 39lifW 39i quot E limit it til Qol n t it E l I it E rix o in ii i Energy storage is required for stationary end users to balance power supply and demand overtime i Energy storage is also required llor mobile end users Energy storage is one of society39s most pressing technological problems The goal of this lecture is to present the current state of the art in energy storage and discuss prospects for the future Intelligent Grids United States transrnission grid Sanon FENA Transporting electrical power is en more econor iggl than storing it The key is to use high voltage transmission lines to rninimize resistive losses Ohms Law V 2 IR P lVl9FtVquotR The US Electrical grid consists of 300000 km of transmission lines maintained by 500 companies H Transmission and distribution losses were estimated to be l65 in 2007 l Signi cant vulnerabilities to miscommunication ineptitude and sabotage exist it Hi lH39l 3939lE39lquot39 iiit rtujE T l ll 39l Iquot39l ll lii39 55 quot 0 lwi Ugllquotioi titllquot my rot is vriirquotlli739l ij l l39ile i ii cw n to UHE Cl S 39Z3939t tl ii ti39t T Ligjtdl E E A39l39 ttttlf3 WW1 I CL W Wet igriirttl tquot3 V 1 k t LwlIl39t39l39L quotit I Supergrids and Hypergrids Mobile Energy Storage 3951l E Energy Dcnscin In the mid 197039s R Buclcminster Fuller proposed linking the world s electrical w TW grids to even out daynight demand across longitudes y N K cT llli quott p t The creation of a worldwide grid is now iJnderlvv l ya analogous to the internet W T T T T Watt it is now economical to transmit electrical power over distances of more than F quot W3quot39 soon trim T T TT T 5 g qot J W39 L The next generation of 765 Kvolt lransmissliron inTves Klvlilll leinablle costeffective T transcontinental power transmiissiioin 39 D13 Longrange supercoindticting electrical transrnission may be on tlhe horizon Mqtu t Hm ts 39quotltquotquotquotquot rquot r p Y t 3939 jU M 239 quot 6 quot 39quot 3 1 Z as Pg py if Gofes ir r czrxllo l P T tlE t ttltt 5 T T 7 T g a lLampnlti oaqu i M M ii Mama 391remfrv tLn 7491 gig l iivliiaf an i I1ns1TniI39uI py nmp r mi ii 5 2 if an g III 39 Energy sto e for moms apptrci1tionsis the reitum challen edue to the need to maaernure energy storage E power art eiency an ise 39 an rtttnimiztemass vcliumo and poTlu hon Proposed US supergrid to transmit wind P39 P9 TT T T T energy Tm W ii W 0 Wquot H f39gEiEt at lrl er Hitrr ttrritjr Mt 51 Tilt DHit Tb E FHLHE Ir Th TlIN E lit I1 IT IIIr ha 1 l Penguins vs Hummingbirds Birds that don39t have to y can store energy in the form of fat This enables them to survive in harsh situations where food is only available duning part of the year Hummingbirds are on the move constantly and need to eat constantly Top conserve energy at night a hiimmingsbirclquots body can decrease to 65F which is barely warm enough to sustain life I There is no perllect mobile energy storage system and all the existing systems have tradaofls There may he fundementall limits imposed by the tyranny DI the pencdic table that rnay never be ovarcorrta science ttcltcrir not withstanding Evotutton hes providecli animals wirlm one all the best energy storage systems avariatzilu how ever you don39t want to store too much energy or else you l tarssome fat l l i mt 39l 1 i iiilrii39li it i i ii 1quotquotliCll39l l3939k piiti t quotI quotilEl39Tl39 l5ttTlquot3t tquotE ItrlIii39iimi3E ttlwkj quot3 lt lilFigiJ Z 39I lM1 FE lrtn2it39t39tliquot1 QgEttl 39lll t39lj E N irii iii 99 wt Tainan Ba enes 9 I I Co erZinc Cell Batteries store electTricTal erier in gmm 9 9 pp the form of chemical energy 9 9 H They consist of a nulmber of T voltaic cells wmcnii1 m Each cell consists ol two halite quotquot39 quotquot 39 cells connected by a oonduictive mania F5 electrolyte T T7quot One half cell is th r L1 o negative electrode where positive T T I tons migrate 3 2 ff The other halfcell is H mm I If or pcsitjiively Charged cell here j k y T r quotii P 0x an 1 L 139ir 5 quot39 39 negative ions migrate p bvtmm ZI ISI39 lnhram if i ii Cu139irai2u Guts nquot I I L ifquot ais 00 sx 3 Iquotl l7llhliil tit3939 I quotLl rS39WlH L r between 393939quotquotai3quot Zns gt Zn3aql 2 e Ol3l4lV Cus gt Cuaq l 2e 076 V The voltagie of a battery is determined by the dlifferenc 39 quot T r eTleTctrornotilve force a the two halfecells Electrical current can ow through the battery to an external load The batte can be charred b a 1 4 forcingia current at a higher voltage CH2 aq Zn J Cum Znz aq 139W in the opposite direction 397 ff tmE tj quottquotI1t l39quottif l liquot39rEEZ in T voltage from a slingle battery cell In practice not all possible battery chemistries are reversible i And not all possible battery ohemistries are practicai due to the physical states of materials and undesirable secondaryl reactions that ultimately kill batteries 1 Wt l ltil39i cit U f t393rtlrlP l W The overall performaince of practical Battery Chemistry The elements are classi ed as E natiing elsctroris or t izing aQT5EP g lQQtTOnSJ l n mg on the configuration of their valence electrons Lithium and sodium are highly redilcirig whereas Chloitrte is highly oxidizing The maximum differences between the standard potentials for Q5 39 battery lhaIf reactions i y This is the maximurn possible n Alas at 1 5 or 6 volts C1mM asar E 4iitun E tarwu HE A i 931 i M 13 Mq an gq I39 1WI lll5 f Auiru hutd IquotllB393II39I39 l liIVi39RVi 51 11 KUquot l39gIlquotI 39uZ E Eaullil F 39I IiSJl 71 I39quotl tilttili t l iLH 39 i r an 3 Q Battery Performance liatterles is limited by a number of factors Structure electrolytes electrodes are typically man tirnes the mass of the eiectirochemically active materials There are signi cant i net cientcies built in to t promssi wlhich iplaces limits on the optimal charge and discharge rates selfdischarge rates The overall efficiency of a battery chargedischarge cycle is 71i l at best 39 Secondary reactions ultimately limit the number of lifetime chairgeldischarge cycles gust is a siignificarit factor for high performarice batteries 0 H0ivLi ifiil E E B it i gt tlt39wi E1 irir L5 lt li U tie W5 x rambratfl ii ii tlclwt P8 39r3939 t we mi 4 ii s Nicltel i y 3 Hydrogen 39 Batteries Ancient Batteries The Baghdad Battery from Iraq is ohe of the oldest confiirmed batteries believed to be about 2000 years old T t consists of a clay lair with a stopper made of asphalt Sticking through the asphalt is an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder When lled with vinegar or at t g 1 e lectrolytic solution the jar produces abo 1l1 volts The battery was probably used for electroplating gold and silver Egyptian deities presenting llather with an electric lump bai ery and cable High Tech Batteries i The Tesla Roadster electric vehicle uses commodity 1865tJ iormtfactor Baton cells in series to generatnd up to 20i0lltW of power Using lots of little cells improves the thermal pertormance of the battery system to provide awesome acceleration Orbiting spacecraft use nicltelahydrogen batteries that can handle more than 2l0iOiDO chargedischarge cycles without signi cant degradation Tesla Boadister l xi V 1Iquot1i3KD3C39 I397i quotS hP ttTiCtlt cO is 39 t i tCii39l XS i i EH Ti 51 quot3 Kquot I IiJ1I3939tquott 3 lttlicj 0 5 i3quotquot t tc391 LWquott it 11 ft ii l iL I C wt D it r 1 I i i t39 ll 391 lquotl 0 M t i My Favorite Electric Vehicle The Yuneec lntl e430 is the world s first commercially produce electric lig ht aircm ft v lDesigned and rnalnufactured in China this nearly silent viilbratienafree 80K twoseat plane has a ying time of 3 hrs and a charging time of 3 hours 5 energy cost per ight and has only 2 moving parts in its motor It has a top speed of 80 mph and has been demonstrated in the US and is currently undergoing FAA certi cation Video ht tpwww n39tefeediacomtwatch 201 888017 Yuneec lntl e430 I lll39t hr trgttl quot in L v39llquot quot quot V p t f ttltlW Qt mMquot1k quot t tTllll139l tiquotn pY ll K Lique ed Gas Products Cryogenic lique ed gas products require l I000 the volume T Lique ed natural gas LNG is a viable medium for airgesslcile gas storage and transgortation hlatulral gas mostly mietnalne llique es at l 62C 39 g at l atm Hydrogen gas lique es at 252C at tl am LNG Tank Disadvantages incllude Signi cant energy lrequired to liquet y Evaporatlve loss of gas Evaperative loss of gas contributes to greenhouse effect Enormous energy density is a safety concern LNG Tanker 5 39 Compressed Gas Energy Storage Compressed gas natural gas CNG er hydrogen fuels are viable for motor vehicles Advantages Very low pollution Reduced maintenance Similar performance Similar cost l Disadvantages Gas must be highly compressed 3600 psi for CNG and 5000 psi for hydrogen to achieve adequate energy density Compressing the as t L quotese 7 pressures requires20 of the e erg it contains Tank weight and tank bulk are signi cant Minor concerns about safety Vehicle range can be limited Refueling infrastructure is limited s best utilizedi in v el1icteTf ts T CNG UClA BUS Fleet Hydrogen An Alternative for Mobile Energy Storage 3 Elattenes are currently the dominant norlfossilif Z Em pgm Emg fuel mobile ener stora e te ology Elaine 3933939iquot39I39l39t i31 t3939Til39 c apaci ors and ywheels are of potential value T 0us for some applications FT Hydrogen appears to be the only available quot technology that can effectively compete with fossil fuels y 911 llydrogen Reaction ti n F O D FI t39 39f Ir 5quot E f I39llquotI ll Eil I2E Yip 39 IIsaipi an P1u39gwil I arequot if L3H J non r l a 2tI2 02 2tl20 9 Forward reactinn is combustion reverse ire c oln rs hydrg yg g Fteal world speci c energy and power storage colmparisdns including packaging and storage mass Advantages Speci c energy 142 l lJfkg Minimum hydrolysis voltage 124V No carbon Yay No other emissions except for water and some leaked hydrogen Disald valntagles Volumetnic Energy 1218 MJlmr3 for gas tallo free hydrogen on Earth Hydrogen is 0 Wot 3 net energy Wtlhere 0 go IEO nd f Of tf SOUTCG 1 trl71 I r P Jr c 9a yin tat if ursslri cm Hydrogen Contibtistion 5000 psi autornotiye hydrogen fueli tanlk iLle Cells F 1 N lt Til E 139i 39 Jquot 0Ob Hydrogen combustion in heat engines is so biect to the same tlherrnodynannic efficiency Iirnitations as other es of combustion typically ilt20 emciencyi Fuel cells w to work like batteries but irnport fresh Hi2 and O2 and expel H20 on a continuous basis can rovide The cost ot current technology is currently very high due to the englineering required the cost of the catalysts and the proton exchain ge membrane Hydrogen Fuel Cells I937 Hindenburgs Disaster 35 out of 97 on board died H Li it iiquot ifsquot1 5 tn l 3 lg to irlri in ft ilgit C 2 i 39 r in hid t 391 39 PE E 39 i 1 39oL OL aj dL quotE39i 0 V I L i L W G I T mtijL LiC 7 Making Hydrogen 39Eutrr Hydrogen can be produced from 39quotquot quot quotquot quot39 k um i tiossil fuels through steam tionnation I 39 A W s rt 1139 1 with methane 5 PAJ quot quot r T I 3 i l cH l H3O CO as It However the CO quickly H2 0 39 reacts to torin atnnos lteric CO I 39 Electrolysis uses electric I G I 1 I current to dissociate H20 to form v 39 cm H2 end 02 gas i i I Best accomplished in strong quot39 C eiectroiyte solution to yield 39 i Z 390 i stoichiometric proportions of H2 if i i sk 5iyA 3 is397 and D2 J The end to endi energy i i efficiency of most hydrogen electrolysis processes is 50 i it E 1 r139139tT quoti39Iquot xii 3 39igi M1 M1 quothi 39 quot39 8 K Fuel Cell Vehicles are limited by the need to sloighydrog en which either must he quot corrlpressed or adsorbed onto high surface area rnaterials Both processes r Ulillie si ni cant energy and do not have the convenience of gasoline Our Former Governor Nuclear Power Utilization Electricity generation not including military space O Z P p P 39 398 of the world39s energy use and 15 of the world eectricity with US France Japan pre tsunami total l v r r electrici a T Nucllear Puwer V44quot 19 of US eliectricityiil eneration quot300o in EU 80 in France me A30 quot E quot P at l I was E E 5 Egg UClA E35 i lj EcJrtt39393 Er39u rgy39 gm 3 4quot Ea lirrlinishir39ig fossil resrourca rZtI tt39i 5 its pro5 petrs for G sustainable future E ur t a tea 1 E quot I F quot quot r I 10 Proressor zovid Paige Z i H1A J 1 r 2 yrroar u i 39L E 5tf 39tz9gt 3quot Q 6 cQampgC ta 6 E D is 3 Fl rjt lquot rf E 4G rt 5 it l j l iFu5 ll MU OLE ojr lll ti lrrl c l ltd 39p l39r C39 l39 l391 3 39 39 0 D D C gtrll 39r ft rquottl lluc A Ptlf l rl39 quott H J air Eim l 17ire 39r 39Js r1 fr I 399quot 7 ha r I is t O T W x X ln 2007 the IAEA reported tl lere were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in Nuclear Stabmty and D5133 the world operating in St countries Over 30 countries are considering starting 1 f 5 r r p p p nuclear power prograrns to Thel Sjjo nq nucleag fore attracts nucleons over short distances and thus holds the atomic nucleus together against the repulsive electromagnetlc rorce between protons 0 Typical distance is 1 fernitorneter1Dquotl5 m 4I strong nuctear 39 about the size of a proton or neutron force as quot5 electncaI 12C N tom 2 X f gem 13 f Strong force P quot stabilizes the QC 1Itl 1 r I i rr r U1 E V isotope Rad39oactive Decay Modes and Products I D E1 4 P r Spontaneous change radioactivity 391 MW quotfa E quotr739iIrIlI1grunIir1uij lItnu39trIIt1ctcrs Alpha Decay Helium Nucleus Emitted Proton Emission Neutron Emission B Decay Electron and Electron Antineutrino Emitted V 39 B Decay Positron and Electron Neutrino Emitted P 39 r 1 Spontaneous Fission 39 Alpha decay in a heavy nuciide V Emission High Energy Photon Emitted if p Laranlu u I39ih39Iii1 3 Fil3939li Illa Iias brim 4 No new plants licensed in lJS since 1978 quotquot m quotquot quotquotquotquot i No nmctar1 p39rm1a war E Germany phase out 17 remaining plants by 2020 in L Ilunlt gruul rrsltnJ39ni favor of power 1 quotjgiuIt391r mncIsr1 ci 39i1II1rg phauniu Ciwlvi nuIJHz JI1ImZr it rual 39 E 39 Huiuaclars is I a quott1fl 2 Wk tr l739i fiiIV V 39 39 i 3 quot BILl Energy consideratilrons in Nuclear Sltebiiity chart Qfthe Nuclideg 39i39i39 i ir o The Strong force implies an attractive negative potential an energy well keeping the nucleons closely bound How is this potential I energy manifest E i 1u1llIl SIZI yr it 1 irr EC consists of 6 protons and 6 neutrons xH l iiw I 3 fir Mass of 6 protons and 6 neutrons I 5 i i3 k liiiiw E I 157252 x 10 kg protons 6 x 167493 K 10quot kg neutrons 2 200353 x 1027 kg mass of quotC l992E5 it 10quot kg rdii ierence Di15B83r4 at 1037 kg 3 I11 iii kF ii 03 lk 11 3 lam ti t P D liq Ha HIE I35 HE D is zit lb 0 E l 1 HC The missing massquot is iocked up as a at energy How much if we Er39 rriiiii rmi i39ii Wei so lt iquot quoti iti Wilt p 1 iquotr iv iiiii i D i imifli rnfm quoti i ii39isl W3 ii iii L13 quotbf h fE iquot l rquot quot hquot39 39 N rm iii liTquotillEJ 3 U to vii it quot 0U U4 iquotirji39JJi it Fri t i 0l fiiquoti j if391iI 1l39l D 6 5 Ti Ti 1 Lquot g F i ii 1 in mi E 1 quot Mquot V iNuClear Stability HiT 39hEi39nj b M L W3 Q2 3 o Nuciear stabiiity is tlrie exception rather than the ruie ie only x 4 8 235 of 4200 known riuclilidles are staibie 6 i39quot 3Fi 2quot 56 quot quotr U 1 quot r r 3 J Fe h7 4quot a As mass increases the ratio of iieutrons to protons rises S739 39 39 N H C 1 2 4 25 i slowly from i toward 2 max stability 1e u2 e 0 J at agile ission K 231 0 Stable nuclides form a narrow band 39 T 39 39 gJquotl3 r 39 0 0 the valley of stabilify bounded by E J V g 1 4 unstable nuclides H sir 395 4 Fusion if W 3quot quot 7 quotH W I J 5quotquot quotquot in E as quot a i39i39JC39t 5 Radioactive high mass nuclides slag v quot3 I 3 il39quotiJ 39 quot 39 emit Cl particles as well as undergoing J I 3 K l Iie B decay ml 1 r Sorrie Iieairyr iTiESrS i ilii3idES ii g i trig r i E 2 E35LJ39 33BLJ quotmPui Ti353 i39ii Cari also split ii Fi31 k i 1 or iissioriquot into 2 smelier iraginieriis quot f 3939g quot 39 i ii I i s i H M 39 quot quot 44quot 7 quot 7 39 Z 7 7 V a few eiailrei rieuiriiris FiE SIDlquotl can 1i393939 i 0 50 mo 150 200 250 be spentanedus or induced Kid s p 139 2 quotquota 3 quotquot e o in 20 in 40 5 ea rd 5 gr Eanergy Ernrironrnc u and Glrmaie 2imi iiiiri39 I39r HGUPE 105 Copynghi WW Norlon 8 Company 2008 We are Stardust 9 I I i I I I I I 1 1 t 7 ltT int mic ii I 5 e quotflquot I J I J YE 6 H I I 5 ll I 2 39 E E 1 El E st 3 quot l i 7 i 7 H I I I I l I I I L 53 NH quot LE1 0 Sn Ami I39 39G quotI A I AME Schemeleic diagram of the oesrnie etaundaitces oi the elements highlightiitg the nucleosyrttneltle oreseesee responsible for forming difierent groupie er rioeiitdes Forrnstitzn oi the i39lLlf ll iiEE Ey rtd C CEIl quotlE39iC11 extract energy thus these nuaiidee are rnacie by ei39ciolherttnic premzetesee often in the 1jEi39 Iii39lHi39lFJIE S of stars U p i t tilCI i xiquot 0 Wt in trquoti 3939 I i quoti T39I 39139 Ikjquot39394RI f i 71 Chain reaction mu can spontalneouslly fission although the rate is Wei slow much slower than spontaneous I1deea the minor isotope o Uranium 23511 can be inducted t fission with addition of a neultronl 33 U mil 1M 3133 at the present time ti P R 17 7 n fesslu 4 235 I39 95539 2 tum j Q V 7 W I lI lI Iithe Cm fl 0 Q 1 I gt5 we 3939 13939 wt quot39quot I k quotIr TI239lIr acne 3939 g 0 D j 39 II useIqauuiul ntglkm 39 3 p 39 H 5 L quot 39 39uneI II e39Inpi IIanmu In 39 I I 2 p uailmu run It 9 C page J ingr4 atIIIn F av Iv 11159I 51 VFa39sItais nleultron yield from 335M fissizen 243 9935 p romlp t 065 are dlellayedl total energy released in nuclear fission of one mu 200 Mev L in quotam Iit it mii ext 11 I itquot it rt i ti lit limmi IJI 3 3 A M Periodic Table 0 we we in vIA via P I2 U of the Elements in in o I 3 II W3 VB WE WIH VI IE3 WE um Fgumpl l 19 Ji quot I39 24 It I Ga L Se l d E 7 5 In Sn7 T jl 7 l liel an am Hi if i lfl P E Len iaiiide I Series Lanthanides and Aetiriides have outer shell electron con gurations and tchemioa proiperties similair to Lanthanum and Actinium respectively All the lantlhanides are Rare Eanh squot found in nature Of the Actinides only Uranium and Thorium are found in rrtore than trace quantities in natu N llA3939I I Pct H it If Chain resections 133lUcan spontaneously ssion although the rate is very slow much slower than spontaneotis obdteoay the minor isotope of Uralniurni WU can be irIduced to S1SiOIquoti with ad7giition of a neutron nl 235U a 36U lwxe 955i Zn IIrxIIr4mI I 1 quotII l Lul39Ir name LT megwuiuai IIuinutl U 1F InnLuIlI ml ungI rmulranr II E A quot39k 39l l39uI Ill mrar 0 O 1III4 lquot I gt 391 39i VItl VIIrY39l39i gas Ivy Ml nnIui iiq zqrh 51 rieuitronl yield lirom mu ssion 243 9935 pI39omptquot 0 are delayed total enelrgly relleasecl in nuclear fission of one 35U JI200 ililev i t r 0 4 if Eli CH quot1 H1 1d P quot H 0WC J ti 7quott 39 L W quot1 J quot if Supply of Uranium p Kquot quot U quot 7 7 7 quotVery highgrade are icanadaj Zquot t U 200000 ppm U l 39l M I H in in g l4 W I U Uranium isilfound in rocks and seawater quot 9quot 9quotquotquot 39quot 39 27 U 39 quotW U Economic concentrations of it are not 39 39 3939quot399quot39 39 W 39 1 quot U WOO 9939 U uncommon Mhe wmIdS tom Uranium Very lowgrade maquot NamtIiilat Illl1 l U itli i ppm U p p i Granite 45 ppm U Uranium is 40 more common than Silver and fe3 l3 39 539 f kW W blit e3el 93 393 quote semmemw mu 2 ppm U SOOX more COITEIITIOTVI than 6 r Crease 6 m recen years we 0 E m ti r all I 3 U increased eixploration 39 quot quot quot quot 5quotquot PW Highest grade deposits Uranium Oxides U02 and Seawater coco PPITIIU U303 are found in the Athabasca Basin of Canada 39 39 Uranium 1 SOILIUIE andis precipitated Reasonably Assured Resources of Uranium in 2007 within ground waters e found in a variety of W geologic settings Z Uranium Ore Wquot 3939393939393939393939 E39mquot mm3939 3939393939393939393939393939393939393939 Jquot E H r 53 SEWLI so 39 tZ391JCI iI4U gm a 5 3 E E E H K E gl A age r I L 99 1no W quot395 Open 0 ulriglisiilllwll Mine a n l 3 E g g 3 7E E E 2 f39 quot 39 p 5 39 E 0z 5 3 i 5 Worlidl Proidiuctlon i we we 9 r I I ll 39iV s if g lg 91 t liIl Z i ii iii mi till it Li I if i i ix t i E U 395 O ill i 39tquot Far from a Hubberrs peak Or lack of demand for other reasons U n P U H p PJ K 1ljH39 ii uto X Uranium oxide is leached from ores andlconcentratedto create 5 J T T yeIlowcake3939 a yellow powder that is 80 Uranium Oxide Nmmmm Knwn Um39quotm Rquot quot39 quot and Ewmm Equotw quot39quotquotquot I 39 Because of the small mass difference hetweeri U the quot T3 quot 39 0 iYquotr39Ua39quotJ395 enrichment process is dir cult and energy intensive fl tLl lcli quot isotope separation via molecular diffusion gas or liquid or by i oentrifu e methods 3 39 The gas centrifuge approach requires 1I15 the energy of the other 39u r r V E 0 diffusion e H r u I Lon cIiIIfl39taiIinuut1i FWm A r r lg Exceisfsf U is termed Depleted Uranium and is used primanly for ilg gflmpxgiigu N 7fiiFquotg3 conventional weapons density19 glcm3 j I M quotquot quot39 I M H h i is r 3g 0 2000 tons of depleted uranium were used in the space of three t39 39txquot E E to quot39 E3 31 weeks during the 2003 Second Gulfwar in Iraq i quot NW D S i I I i E H 5 2 lt 3l1 givtialri iaianim tr hw ldtl qmxmi j if 39 V rm ii 2 39 Frquot world Krrown Uranium Resources 0d I I quot ll rs i 6 ti R f W r I E iMm ll h id Yellowoeize Array of Gas Centrifuges F L14 3 F L Wig s i F ii i l i H Ir T U H J 7 rii illilliiwlji M trgiji i l ij ijiti mi gig Ur i 1llquoti quot I ii tf ii Li t lritwi ii39 trip Neuliori capture quotcross sectionquot reaction probability mu will ssion at gquot V fx all energies of the gr 0 l absor l n r n g 1 la 5 itiselFissiiE 3 l W 9f T quot39 2 r material 3 1 W811 1390 iquotci mi 1 0z WU has a I WHI threshold for ssion at a 1 neutron energy of 1MeV Eiraauizaelmn burn it i C Lift cl if if i ft 3 l l39r ilE ljl DU Hgl 7 tlilUlI iquot i F ii H13 Vi V l 3 a 139quot ill 1 L E ii J V 5 Hi i j 39 V 1 txfbgih quotxiquot i W U 2 rquot l quot39 Nuclear Reactors Fuel Usually pellets of uranium oxide U02 arranged in tubes to fonn fuel rods The rods are arranged into fuel 1 I i assemblies in the reactor core Tubes comm are covered with cladding usually Zirconium alloys Moderator This is matenal in the core which slows dawn the neutrons released from ssion so that they cause more ssion It is usually water but may be heavy water or graphite Pressure E N39 l I VESSBI Control rods made with neutron alJsorbling material such as cadrnium Uranium hallniurn or boron and are lnserltecl or 39 e quot d39 3 wilhdrawln from the oore to control the or to halt it 39 t 9la ECl riemrorzs are ll quoti lQC f iE39Ji39l7 to in n rd l reeo ii iiilliplifetdiquoti tame iCl393 i V waF H20 is an effective Coolant A llC lJld OI Q33 circulating rngderagar and through the core so as to transfer the Coolant heat from it thquott5r iii quotE U V 1 lt it i t n V ms T 1 i it o Pi lquotL U il l Jliii g 1 P rl39quotK3 quot N p illiWa5 quotl Steam or hot water out FIGUFIE 7T2 Neutron ca rum quotcross sectionquot reaction roeatrr lir i P P i The i ssion neutron energy speetru rn peaks at around ll Mlev Hrnimbtutr new i i E 5 4 E a a Haulrun energy He Implications Lll i39l i ii oi it we quoth 139I ltL ii39i ii39iiquot u viW ii i lrquotimi 5 iii W3 ii i riir li u t39r iquot iriliii ieitir in oil f 7 i Steam U 0 i 39 quotW Generator Elecwcw 1 out l H 39 ll 1quot39 quot quotquot Reactor l 0 H quot39 Clare l gt I a p l Condenser 5 Wler writor and WiJSl 2 l lQ zl GUI a waierin Pressure 39 39 vessel 5 f 0 Ky Cooling I f tower i39 39s E 39 l 39 I S a boilingwater reactor B j Energy Emironmenli and Climate Copyright r gtWw Norton amp Company 2003 CANDU Heavy Water Reactor Canadian DeuteriumUranium Other Reactor Designs An Advanced Gascooled Reactor AGR is second generation of Uses natural Uranium 07 mu Oxide as fuel hence needs 3 British gas oooed reactors using graphite moderator and carbon dioxide more efficient moderator in this case heavy water D20 as Cgmam 39 m Vi the moderator is enriched rather than the fuel a cost tradeoff Cmenn mi 5 utu39e V 39 Z3939 mu ii A Li shtrira ter ra hitemoderated reactor RBHE1 is a Soviet design a developed from plutonium production reactors Uses long vertical pressure tubes running through graphite moderator and is cooled by water which is allowed to boil in the core at 290 C much as in a BWR Moderation is largely due to the fixed graphite so excess boiling simply reduces the cooling and neutron absorption without inhibiting the ssion reaction and a positive lleedbaclt problem can arise Also graphite is arnrriaole T A blreedler reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates new fissile material at at greater rate than it consumes such material Produce and tree Pllutolniom as a ssile material W l eligmn lWI A Fast Reactor has no rnoderrator and conseizruently has a much srnaller core x I 1 elm tr 139I gmcnuthg plml internaetinrrni 11 tel 1ziwnsior Diablo Canyon 12 mi WSW of San Louis Obispo
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