USH Ch 31 notes
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Date Created: 02/09/15
Daniele Me ez United States History Chapter 31 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt 1901 1912 Chapter Thesis The emergence of the progressives gave rise to the dominant progressive movement that swept through America affecting all aspects of society this spirit of reform exceptionally in uenced American government Progressive Roots How did progressiVism gain voice in 20th century America 1900 I of the 76 million Americans 1 in 7 was foreignbom 13 million more immigrants would arrive before 1914 early 20th century I a reform movement similar to the ones of the 1840s swept through America I progressives led this movement waged war on monopoly corruption inefficiency social injustice etc Their cry was strengthen the State their roots went back to the 1870s Greenback Labor Party and 1890s Populists I progressive theorists insisted that society could no longer afford the luxury of a limitless laissezfaire policy I literature that promoted the movement Henry Demarest Lloyd s Wealth Against Commonwealth Thorstein Veblen s The Theory of the Leisure Class Jacob A Riis s How the Other Half Lives this in uenced Teddy Roosevelt deeply I in uences of the movement socialists people who promoted a brand of progressiVism based in Christian teachings feminists much of progressiVism re ected the new public commitment of women to improve the lots of families living and working in urban cities Raking Muck with the Muckrakers Why were the muckrakers so reliant on publicity 0 1902 I the exposing of eVil became a ourishing industry among American publishers I emergence of popular magazines such as McClure s Cosmopolitan Collier s and Everybody s waged fierce circulation wars I muckrakers dug deep for the dirt that the public loved to hate enterprising editors financed extensive research and encouraged pugnacious writing by these bright young reporters boomed circulation their most scandalous exposures became bestselling books counted on publicity not drastic political change to right social wrongs they sought to cleanse not overthrow capitalism the cure for the ills of democracy was more democracy I Lincoln Steffens Ida M Tarbell David G Phillips Ray Stannard Baker John Spargo etc were all prominent muckrakers who exposed the different iniquities in American society exposed big business ltgt politics Standard Oil Company senators subjugation of blacks child labor potent patent medicines etc Political progressives I mainly middleclass people pressured by new giant Progressivism corporationsimmigrant hordesaggressive labor unions sought two Why did the goals progressives to use state power to curb the trusts to stem the Socialist threat by supportpromot generally improving the common person s conditions of life and labor 3 women s emerged in all partiesregionsgov t levels suffrage I objectives regain the power that had slipped from the hands of the people to the hands of the bosses etc direct primary elections referendum rooting out graft direct election of US senators became a reality with the 1913 19th Amendment woman suffrage Progressivism progressives I scored some of their most impressive achievements in in the Cities the cities frustrated by the inefficiency and corruption of city gov t and States many localities followed the example of Galveston Texas in 1901 HOW did they appointed expertstaffed commissions to manage urban affairs public utilities I other communities adopted the citymanager sys also designed to commissions take politics out of municipal admin some of these reforms Change the obviously valued efficiency more than democracy corrupt I Wisconsin Robert M La Follette Rep progressive became governmentsa governor in 1901 took control from crooked corporations and returned dministiations it to the people perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities while laboring in close association w experts of the state university faculty I Oregon also undertook to regulate railroadstrusts chie y through public utilities commissions I California under Hiram W Johnson I New York under Charles Evans Hughes progressives I also attacked slumlords juvenile delinquency wide open prostitution Battling progressives battled social evils I secured the enactment of Social Ills safetysanitation codes for industry closed harmful trades to juveniles How was secured worker s compensation laws secured maximum Demon Rum viewed in the eyes of fiery hoursminimum wages laws against liquor it was connected with prostitution boozy corrupt officials etc WCTU numerous counties passed dry laws but most big cities stayed wet for their large progressives immigrant vote was accustomed in the Old Country to the free ow of wine and beer fire at Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NYC Muller v Oregon 1908 Lochner v New York 1905 TR s Square Teddy Roosevelt I touched by progressive wave feared that the Deal for public interest was being submerged in drifting seas of indifference Labor so he decided to make it his priority HOW was I his Square Deal for capital labor and the public at large embraced Roosevelt s three Cs control of corporations consumer protection conservation of natural Square Deal re ecting of the resources I Square Deal was tested in 1902 when a strike broke out in the coal mines of Pennsylvania workers sought pay increasereduction of progressives hours but mine owners were unsympatheticsuperior I cry factoriesschools shut down etc I Teddy summoned both parties to the White House was extremely annoyed by the bigwig owners I resorted to his big stick by threatening to seize mines and operate them w fed Troops I owners consented to arbitrationcompromise decision I Teddy s urging of Congress led them to create a Dep of Commerce and Labor in 1903 because he was aware of the mounting battle between capital amp labor TR Corrals Interstate Commerce Commission 1887 I was woefully inadequate the because railroad barons could simply appeal the commission s Corporations decisions on rates to the fed courts a process that could take 10 years HOW was I spurred by TR Congress passed effective railroad legislation Elkins Teddy R s big stick policy as a trustbuster symbolic Act of 1903 heavy fines could be imposed both on the railroads that gave rebates on the shippers that accepted them Hepburn Act of 1906 free passes with their hint of bribery were severely restricted I C Commission was expanded to include express companies pipelines etc I trustbuster Teddy assaulted trusts attackeddissolved Northern Securities Company crashed down on other giant monopolies I TR wasn t necessarily a fullon trustbuster he didn t consider monopolysmashing sound economic policy combination integration were hallmarks of the age his real purpose on assaulting the industry Goliaths to prove that the gov t not private business ruled the country he believed in regulating not fragmenting the bigwigs Caring for the Consumer How did Upton Sinclair s The Jungle affect the nation s Teddy I backed a noteworthy measure in 1906 that benefited both corporations and consumers because big meat packers were being shut out of certain foreign markets US meat was found to be tainted Sinclair s The Jungle exposed the insanitation and moved the public a moved Teddy induced Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act of 1906 the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to fed inspection Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 prevented meatpacking adulterationmislabeling of foodspharmaceuticals businesses Earth Control Wasteful Americans I had assumed that their natural resources were Why did inexhaustible polluting the land with speed and greed Teddy s Before the end of the 19th century I farvisioned leaders saw that a administration squandering of the nation must be stopped otherwise America would care more sink from resource richness about working I Desert Land Act of 1877 with the big l The Carey Act of 1894 I39GSOUI39CC USCI39S Teddy s admin I a new day dawned as Teddy s most enduring instead of the single man tangible achievement was conservation set aside millions of acres in fed reserves earmarked acres for coal deposits water resources useful for irrigation upwelling nat l mood of concern supported him Call of the Wild Boy Scouts Sierra Club in uenced this I Newland Act of 1902 I Roosevelt Dam Preservationists I angered when the fed gov t allowed San Fran to build a dam in 1913 Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite Nat l Park laid bare a deep division among conservatives present to this day two sides one believed in its conservation other side that included Teddy believed that this nature should be used intelligently I professional forestersengineers under Teddy developed a policy of multipleuse resource management I rational use of resources meant largescalelongterm planning efficient admin techniques meant working hand in hand with the biggest resource users not the singleperson enterprises The 1904 I Teddy was elected president in his own right he was Roosevelt welcomed into another term with his enormous popularity teddy bear Panic of whistle conservative Rep bosses considered him 1907 dangerousunpredictable Teddy announced that he wouldn t run for a Did the panic 3rd term a blunder because the power of the king wanes when ppl of 1907 help know he ll be dead in 4 yrs America 1907 I setback as a short panic started on Wall Street financial world nancially blamed Teddy and his meddling tactics Teddy lashed back and somehow accused his critics of engineering the monetary crisis to force the gov t to relax its assaults on trusts panic of 1907 I paved way for longoverdue fiscal reforms I AldrichVreeland Act 1908 The Rough 1908 I Teddy could ve easily won a second pres nomination but he Rider felt bound by his 1904 promise not to run sought a successor who Thunders out would carry out his policies William H Taft sec of war Overall did I Dems nom William Jennings Bryan but Taft won Socialists Roosevelt however amassed a of votes for Debs hero of the Pullman strike actuauy help TR I often under attack from business lords but wiser of them knew the big that they had a friend in him TR tamed the adolescent capitalism to it businessescor a ensure long adult life he didn t kill the big businesses protected porations capitalists against popular indignation socialism sought middle road between unbridled indivpaternalistic collectivism mediated between romantic preservationistsrapacious resourceeaters I his other legacies greatly enlarged powerprestige of pres office developed big stick technique helped shape progressive movementlater liberal reform campaigns of cen Square Deal which grandfathered the later New Deal in a sense opened eyes of Americans to the fact that they shared the world w other nations Taft A William H Taft I at first inspired widespread confidence due to his Round Peg in joviality but he suffered from lethal political handicaps generally a Square Hole adopted a passive attitude towards Congress was a poor judge of HOW did Taft public opinion footinmouth disease a mild progressive but at differ from heart he was really more wedded to the status quo than to change TR The Dollar Taft I though ordinarily lethargic he used the lever of American Goes Abroad investments to boost American political interests abroad dollar as a Diplomat diplomacy Washington encouraged Wall St bankers to sluice their HOW did Taft surplus S into foreign areas of strategic concern to the US esp in the differ from Far Eastregions critical to the security of the Panama Canal I NY Roosevelt bankers would thus strengthen US defenses and foreign policies while bringing further prosperity to their homelandthemselves dollar supplanted big stick Manchuria I object of Taft s effort to inject dollar into Far East JapanRussia controlled railroads of this province I Taft saw in Manchuria a possible strangulation of Chinese economic interests consequent slamming of the Open Door policy 1909 I Sec of State Philander C Knox proposed that a group of American and foreign bankers buy the Manchurian railroads and turn them over to China under a selfliquidating arrangement but J apanRussia rejected that Caribbean I revolutionunrest filled the place US had to intervene so that no foreign countries would violate Monroe Doctrine they urged Wall St bankers to invest there to keep out foreign funds Nicaragua uprising I US marine interventionstay for 13 years Taft the Taft I gained some fame as a smasher of monopolies had 90 suits Trustbuster against the trusts gt Teddy s 44 How did the 1911 I Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil rule of Company which was judged to be a combination in restraint of trade in reason affect violation of the Sherman AntiTrust Act of 1890 Court handed down the trusts its rule of reason only combinations that unreasonably restrained trade were illegal 1911 I Taft pressed an antitrust suit against the US Steel Corporation infuriating his former mentor Roosevelt because Teddy was personally involved in one of the mergers that prompted the suit Taft Splits the progressive wing of the Reps I wanted to lower the protective tariff Republican thought that they had a friend in Taft who said in his campaign that he Party would reduce tariffs congress met w him in a special session in HOW did Taft 1909 and the House proceeded to pass a moderately reductive bill I contribute to the split of the Republicans but Taft signed the PayneAldrich Bill led by Senator Nelson W Aldrich of R Island these senatorial reactionaries tacked on hundreds of upward tariff revisions betraying his campaign promiseprogressive wing of party 0 Taft I was an even greater conservationist than Roosevelt estab The Bureau of Mines rescued millions of coal lands from exploitation protected waterpower sites from private development 0 BallingerPinchot quarrel 1910 I Sec of Interior Ballinger opened public lands to corporate development but he was criticized by TR s conservationist Pinchot chief of Agri Dep s Division of Forestry I Taft dismissed Pinchot protest arose from conservationistsT R s friends I Taft was being pushed into the arms of the Old Guard 0 Spring 1910 I split of GOP largely due to Taft TR returned to NY in June and stirred up a tempest due to his new doctrine that he outspokenly proclaimed shocked Old Guard in a speech New Nationalism urged nat l gov t to increase its power to remedy economic and social abuses I split in GOP caused them to lose badly in the 1910 cong elections The Taft 0 1911 I National Progressive Republican League was formed from the Roosevelt uprising in the GOP w La Follette as its leading candidate for the Rep Rupture presidential nomination 0 TR I began to change his views on a third term decided to run due to Taft s discarding of his policies wrote to 7 state governors formally and said that he willed to accept the Rep nomination thus La Follette was protestingly elbowed aside 0 June 1912 I Rep convention met in Chicago in June TaftRoosevelt explosion I Rooseveltites challenged some 250 Taft delegates I most of these contests were arbitrarily settled in favor of Taft whose supporters held the throttle of the convention steamroller I Rooseveltites cried fraud and in the end refused to vote I Taft won I Roosevelt refused to quit was now on fire to lead a 3rd party crusade Re ection Overall this chapter focused on the significant effects that progressivism had on American society it also presented the in uence that this spirit of reform had on President Teddy Roosevelt Roosevelt s shockingly new policies targeted the corrupt corporations that controlled railroads and trusts He also set aside conservation projects for the preservation of America s different natural landscapes The American people as a majority began to gain tremendous voice in society one that was heard antagonistically against the minority bigwigs who previously silenced the public Their cries for women s suffrage social reform and more fueled the changes during this period as this chapter focused more on internal issues than on America s foreign policies The transition from Roosevelt to Taft was also expounded in this chapter
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