SPMGT 365 - One Week of Notes (2-3/2-5)
SPMGT 365 - One Week of Notes (2-3/2-5) SPMGT 365
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Smith on Monday February 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPMGT 365 at Washington State University taught by Scott Jedlicka in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Ethics and Moral Reason in Sport in Physical Education at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/09/15
SPMGT 365 One week of notes 23 Last time 0 Ethical theories frameworks for constructing ethical arguments Consequentialism maximizing best outcomes greatest good for greatest number 0 quotargument templatesquot 0 p1 we should do what s moral 0 p2 moral action is ltwhatever theory saysgt o c we should do x assuming a valid inference we can add additional and usually more complex premises to the argument which add context but can also make reasoning process more dif cult o and if we use conditional premises if then statements we may end up w multiple conclusions next step 0 all theories based on a conception of morality 0 good outcomes 0 quotmoralquot action o virtue de ning these concepts is concern of metaethics 0 need to limit de nition of concepts to sport 0 what are good outcomes in sport 0 how do we act morally in sport 0 which virtues are most important in sport 0 more generally if we re thinking about ethics in sport how should we conceptualize sport sport amp competition 0 what is competition 0 Typically de ned in terms of achieving objectives that are Scarce not enough for everyone Indivisible cannot obe shared Sel sh not intended to be shared 0 A quotzerosum game o Is sport necessarily competitive o If yes is competition the most important aspect of sport How should we think about competition 0 Competition is highly valued particularly in marketcapitalist economies o Incentivizes innovation o Protects idea of selfdetermination o Promotes market ef ciency 0 But alsocreates inequality wealth social etc Encourages exploitation of others quotwhatever it takes to get aheadquot In sport 0 Competition and competitiveness are highly valued in sport 0 lncentivizes sporting excellence 0 Can promote teamwork o Teaches or ampli es positive character traits But also 0 Creates inequality winners amp losers o Teachesampli es deviant behavior cheating unhealthy habits Simon s quotmutual quest for excellencequot A cooperative view of sport which aims to mitigate negative effects of competition Requires engaging in competitive activity as a means not an end in itself Ends are generally de ned as quotproviding a good challengequot to other participants Emphasis is on personal developmentimprovement and having a quality contest 0 While competitors try to quotWinquot in a de nitional sense outcome is relatively unimportant Simon argues this is quotmost moralquot conception of sport 0 Important if we re trying to gure out what morality mean sin sport What we consider moral should be based on this model Helps us get past relativistic logic loop 0 Morality can be understood and derived by thinking in terms of this ideal form of sport 0 Not stuck w our current version of sport as a source of morality What about winning 0 Mutual quest for excellence aka mutualism deemphasizes winning too much Sport s popularity and appeal is tied to drama associated w zerosum competition 0 If winning doesn t matter or matters very little relative to other objectives we move away from true sport into other forms of physical activity 0 lntramurals 0 Recreation Which is it o Is our culture hypercompetitive 0 Everyone is under pressure to be competitive It s why as a society we are so collectively unhappy Constant state of dissatisfaction Or not competitive enough 0 Kids are soft today No one learns to deal w defeat or works hard anymore Everyone expect everything to be handed to them 0 a compromise perhaps mutualism must come rst 0 we have to agree that having a good contest in which we both strive for personal improvement is most important 0 then if we want to incorporate winning into mutualist framework we can 25 Sources of Moral Guidance in Sport Simon s mutual quest for excellence Way to balance an emphasis on competitive achievement w need for ethical behavior Requires athletes to fundamentally view sport as cooperate pursuit To what extent winning matters can be a product of this cooperation among competitors In defense of the grasshopper Bernard suits 1978 wrote a book The grasshopper that discussed merits of games and play Suggests that the grasshopper in the story while not necessarily wise is also not obviously incorrect 0 Work is not superior to play Play is an essential part of quotthe good lifequot This is an important argument for sport philosophers as well as any involved in sport bc shows that games play and sport are just as important as more quotseriousquot pursuits What is a game Suits claimed there were 4 components which could be identi ed in all games o Prelusory goal A speci c achievable state of affairs Simplest goal in any game Ex crossing nish line rst 0 Lusory means Means which are permitted in attempt to achieve prelusory goals Ex can only score runs in baseball thru certain speci c acts Can only knock an opponent down in boxing using your hands 0 Rules Constitutive rules all of the conditions which must be met in playing the game Restrictions and parameters which make game possible Ex establishing boundaries for play what s out of bounds prohibiting certain means for achieving prelusory goal I Can t touch ball w your hands in soccer etc Rules of skill could also be called quotrules of strategyquot I Made possible by the constitutive rules 0 Once it s known what is or isn t allowed it s possible to develop rules or guidelines that will make use of lusory means more ef cient and achievement of prelusory goal easier or ore likely Ex don t faek punt when you re close to your own end zone don t pitch to other team s best hitter w runners on o Lusory attitude Most important component The knowing acceptance of constituti e rules just so the activity made possible by such acceptance an occur The attitude necessary to make games meaningful or least not totally absurd Games are attempts to achieve a prelusory goal using only lusory means permitted by constitutive rules while adopting a lusory attitude Diff bt games and sports Though not as wellknown as his de nition of games suits also developed some additional criteria for identifying sports which he viewed as a subset of games Sports are games of skill not games of pure chance Sports involve physical skill excludes most games A wide following many people can identify or are involved in the activity Stability longevity as well as institutional features Did he leave anything out We have a de nition of games have identi ed sports as a type of game and have added some additional features which make sport unique Question becomes whether these features of sport can help us make determinations about what constitutes morality in sport The external view Sport only mirrors values already present in broader society Though it might be necessary to adjust ethical theories or moral values to the speci c circumstances of sport contexts sport is not really unique or diff in terms of its values What about 0 Intentionally violent sports boxing MMA 0 Some aspects of sportsmanship Suggests that some of the fundamental features of sport give it an internal logic or morality that is distinct from broader social values Formalism Rules are source of moral behavior in sport 0 Whatever rules permit or prohibit is what athletes are obligated to do or to refrain from doing Working from the rules we can derive moral values 0 Ex rules prohibiting unfair advantages offside too manytoo few players on the eld can be interpreted as promoting value of fairness This view has limited scope o What happens when rules can tdon t address speci c situation 0 What happens when a rule needs to be changed 0 Conventionalism o In addition to rules conventions traditional and widely accepted standards can help to ll in the blanks o quotunwritten rulesquot 0 problems w relativism o if the conventions are accepted just bc quotthat s the way it isquot we might run into problems 0 like formalism problems w applicability and scope 0 what happens if there is no accepted convention to address a particular situation broad internalism deeper interpretation of sport s rules as well as appeal to sport s quotbest interestsquot or quotbest possibly versionquot of sport 0 way to do ethics that doesn t rely solely on existing ruels or conven ons 0 uses underlying logic which informs those guidelines to develop broader sense of morality ex instant replay esp in baseball 0 no rule that explicitly said yes or no o convention that quothuman elementquot was an integral part of the game but 0 if we have rules and conventions that are based on creating a fair contest wouldn t instant reply be in line w that value 0 Another example 0 Professional basketball in 19805905 Very physical and rough esp in playoffs 0 Pistons Permitted by rules Widely accepted convention But was adopting such a strategy or attitude really in quotbest interestquot of bball Best possible form of the sport deep conventionalism synthesis of broad internalism and conventionalism agrees w much of broad internalist perspective differs on idea of general applicability o bc sport is a socially constructed activity it s difficult to make absolute moral claims about it that will hold across varying contexts 0 ex bball in 1914 is diff from bball in 2014 Bes possible form of sport in each era will be diff as well avoids relativist challenge associated w normal conentionalism bc of its reliance on deeper moral logic of spot doesn t take conventions as fact
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