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Psychopathology Weekly Notes

by: Kenedy Ramos

Psychopathology Weekly Notes 20732

Marketplace > Gonzaga University > Psychlogy > 20732 > Psychopathology Weekly Notes
Kenedy Ramos
Gonzaga University
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover substance abuse, which is what we went over this week!
Dr. Fernandez
Class Notes
alcohol, cannabis, opioids
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20732 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Fernandez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.


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Date Created: 04/10/16
Psychopathology Weekly Notes: Substance Abuse Key Terms  Substance: chemical compounds that are ingested to alter mood or behavior  Psychoactive substances  Intoxication: physiological reaction to ingested substances—drunkenness or getting high  Use: the ingestion of a psychoactive substance in moderate amounts that does not significantly interfere with social, educational, or occupational functioning  Abuse: (DSM-5) defined in terms of how significantly it interferes with the user’s life. If substances disrupt your education, job, or relationships with others, and put you in physically dangerous situations (for example, while driving), you would be considered a drug abuser.  Dependence (AKA addiction):  Two approaches to defining substance dependence:  Physiologically dependent on the drug or drugs, requires increasingly greater amounts of the drug to experience the same effect (tolerance), and will respond physically in a negative way when the substance is no longer ingested (withdrawal).  Uses “drug seeking” behaviors themselves as a measure of dependence (repeated use of a drug, desperate need to ingest more, and the likelihood that use will resume after a period of abstinence are examples of behaviors that define the extent of drug dependence)  Polysubstance use: using multiple substances  Substance use disorder:  Symptoms:  Cognitive  Behavioral  Physiological *A note on the word "addiction" Stimulants  Stimulants increase alertness, attention, and energy, as well as elevate blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration.  Of all the psychoactive substances used in the U.S., stimulants are the most commonly consumed  Examples of stimulant drugs  Cocaine  Amphetamines  Caffeine  Nicotine DSM Criteria: Alcohol Use Disorder 1. Impaired control- alcohol often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended. 2. Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control alcohol use. 3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain alcohol, use alcohol, or recover from its effects. 4. Craving, or a strong desire or urg to use alcohol. 5. Recurrent alcohol use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home. 6. Continued alcohol use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of alcohol. 7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of alcohol use. 8. Recurrent alcohol use in situations in which it is physically hazardous. 9. Alcohol use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by alcohol. 10.Tolerance: as defined by either of the following 1. a need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect. 2. a markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol. 11.Withdrawal: as manifested by either of the following 1. the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol 2. alcohol (or closely related substance) is taken to relieve or avoid symptoms of withdrawal DSM Criteria: Alcohol Dependence 1. Need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect, or markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol 2. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol; or drinking to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms 3. Drinking in large amounts or over a longer period than intended 4. Persistent desire or one or more unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking 5. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of drinking 6. A great deal of time spent in activities necessary to obtain, use or recover from the effects of drinking 7. Continued drinking despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to be caused or exacerbated by drinking. Etiology  Steady drinking over time. Drinking too much on a regular basis for an extended period of time or binge drinking on a regular basis.  Age. People who begin drinking at an early age are at a higher risk.  Biology. People who have a parent or sibling with an addiction are two to four times more likely to become substance-dependent. May be influenced by genetic factors.  Depression and other mental health problems. Commonly seen in people with mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.  Social and cultural factors. The glamorous way that drinking is portrayed in social media can send the message that it is OK to drink excessive amounts of alcohol. Cannabis Use Disorder  A problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following in a 12- month period:  Craving or strong desire to use cannabis  Taken in large doses for long periods of time  Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control cannabis use  Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations  Continued cannabis use leads to social and interpersonal problems  Tolerance  Withdrawal Comorbidity  Higher rates of other substance use disorders  Other mental disorders such as:  Major depressive disorder  Anxiety disorders  Bipolar I  Antisocial personality disorder  Obsessive-compulsive disorder Etiology  Share some root causes with other addictive substances  Initial desire to obtain a "high" combined with the perception that cannabis is not dangerous  Social and cultural factors Risk Factors  Temperamental  History of conduct disorder in childhood or adolescence  Externalizing and/or internalizing disorders during childhood or adolescence  Environmental  Academic failing  Smoking tobacco  Unstable or abusive family environment  Ease of availability of cannabis Treatment  Primary goal is abstinence  Approaches range from in-patient hospitalization, drug and alcohol rehabilitation facilities, and outpatient programs  Anti-anxiety and/or antidepressant medication Opioid Abuse Disorder Opioids  Opioids are medications that relieve pain. They are derived from opium which comes from the poppy plant.  They reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain and affect those brain areas controlling emotion, which diminishes the effects of a painful stimulus.  Medications that fall within this class include hydrocodone (e.g., Vicodin), oxycodone (e.g., OxyContin, Percocet), morphine, codeine, and related drugs. Clinical Description  A problematic pattern of opioid use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:  Opioids are taken longer or more excessively than ever intended  Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to limit/control use  A great deal of time is spent trying to obtain the opioid, use the opioid, or try and recover from its use.  Craving, strong desire to use  Use results in failure to fulfill roles at home, school, or work  Withdrawal  Continued use despite negative social effects due to opioid use  Tolerance:  Increasingly higher amounts of opioids are necessary to achieve desired effect Comorbidity  Viral medical conditions  HIV, Hepatitis C  Substance use disorders  Alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants, benzo's  Depression  Anti-social Personality Disorder Etiology  Genetic and Physiological:  Impulsivity and novelty seeking are temperaments that can be genetically determined  Body becomes addicted to the absence of pain/ mind says patient needs opioid  Cultural:  Peer pressure  The minority population has been highly overrepresented in the media, but studies have shown the highest population for opioid use disorder is among white, middle-class females due to the availability of drugs Treatment  20-30% of people who have been treated achieve long-term abstinence.  Relapse is common for those who have been abstinent.  Group or Individual Therapy (CBT)  Stop negative thinking patterns, identify abstinence goals, motivational training  Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT)  Combo of CBT and medication  Methadone or buprenorphine reduce the effects of opioid withdrawal and reduce cravings.


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