Geography 20, Week 11 Notes
Geography 20, Week 11 Notes GEG 20CD
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Sunday April 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEG 20CD at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Robert Ziegenfus in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Elements of Culture Geography in Geography at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/10/16
Geography 20—Week 10 Notes (4/4-8/4) Monday, April 4 Political Geography I. Definitions A. State: Organized into a political unit, ruled by an established government, and independent of other states (sovereignty). Therefore, the states within the US are not technically states. B. Country: synonymous with state C. Nation: Related to nationalityIdentity of a group of people. Ex: Japan is a country nation because Japanese are the main nationality living there D. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe split into many smaller countries based on nationality II. Geography of Boundaries A. There are about 150 individual tribes living in Iraq 1. There is a lot of conflict amongst the tribes, causing political unrest B. Shape 1. Compact—roundish with the capital located in the middle of the country (Hungary) 2. Elongated—long (Chile) 3. Fragmented—contains lots of islands (Philippines) 4. Perforated—a country within a country (South Africa is perforated by Lesotho) 5. Prorupt—a long proruption extending from a country (Thailand) C. Types of Boundaries 1. Physical Boundaries—mountains, water, and desert i. Andes Mountains in Chile and Argentina ii. Lake Victoria in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda 2. Possibility of new boundaries in the Arctic Circle as more and more ice melts 3. Frontiers are zones, not lines i. Frontiers in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman were turned into boundaries with concrete pillars 4. Boundaries extend up into the air (air rights) and down into the ground (mineral rights) Wednesday, April 6 III. Cultural Boundaries A. Geometric—lines of latitude and longitude (border between the US and Canada) B. Ethnic 1. European borders i. 1800s—Europe was made up mostly of empires ii. 1924—Countries were formed after WWI iii. 1980—Germany was still divided (East and West) and the USSR existed iv. 2013—USSR broke apart and became Russia, East and West Germany joined together, Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Yugoslavia became seven separate countries C. Boundary Problems 1. ISIS—remnants of terrorist groups that want to take over Syria and create a caliphate (religion-based kingdom) 2. Kurds want to have their own country called Kurdistan 3. Cyprus—Greeks make up most of the population. Turks occupy the northern part. The UN make a boundary between the Turks and Greeks 4. Ex-Soviet Union countries 5. Berlin Wall—built by East Germany to prevent a “brain drain” into West Germany D. Cooperation Among States 1. Political Cooperation—UN i. Peacekeeping ii. Law of the Sea—who gets what part of the sea beyond a country’s shoreline a. 0-12 miles—Territorial Sea b. 12-200 miles—Exclusive economic zone (EZ) State has rights to fish and resources, but other ships are allowed to be there c. Median Line—Line drawn halfway between countries that are closer together than 400 miles 2. Political Cooperation i. Regional military alliances 3. Economic Cooperation i. European Union (27 countries)—they all use Euros as currency Friday, March 8 IV. Proportional Representation A. Electoral College—538 electoral votes 1. 100 senators (2 per state), 435 representatives, 3 from DC 2. All votes are not equal—minimum representation and winner takes all (except in Maine and Nebraska) B. Reapportionment 1. Population changes with migration and growth leads to the need to reapportion seats 2. Based on the census of population that is taken every 10 years 3. Every state keeps one representative 4. The presidential candidate needs at least 270 electoral votes to win C. Redistricting 1. Redrawing the district boundaries based on reapportionment 2. Generally done by legislature 3. Meant to maintain equality of votes, but it can be manipulated through gerrymandering D. Gerrymandering 1. Discriminatory redistricting 2. Consolidating power 3. Diluting the opponent’s power 4. Racist gerrymandering after the Civil War i. All minorities were put in one district and only got one representative ii. Minorities were also spread out among districts to dilute their votes 5. 1982 Voting Rights Act i. Majority-minority districts, but only if there was no manipulation ii. Constitutional issues